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A  CENTURY  IN  THE  PACIFIC 


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A  CENTURY 
IN    THE   PACIFIC 


EDITED    BY 


JAMES   COLWELL,   F.R.Hist.s. 

Sydney 


INTRODUCTION     BY 


W.    H.   FITCHETT,  B.A.,  LL.D. 

Melbourne 


ONE   VOLUME— FIVE   PARTS 

SCIENTIFIC,  SOCIOLOGICAL,   HISTORICAL, 
MISSIONARY,  GENERAL 


CHARLES    H.    KELLY 

2S-3S    CITY    ROAD,  and  26  PATERNOSTER    ROW,   E.G. 


First  Edition,  igi4 


S^-2697 


PREFACE 

The  purpose  of  this  book  is  to  review  the  developments  in 
the  South  Pacific  during  the  past  hundred  years.  The  pro- 
gress made  in  these  regions  may  appear  to  some  readers 
insignificant  when  the  possibiUties  of  this  immense  area  are 
contemplated  ;  but  a  keen  realization  of  the  humble  beginnings 
of  the  early  settler  and  the  vastness  of  the  area  on  which 
he  settled  will  enable  the  reader  to  see  the  work  in  its  true  per- 
spective, and  lead  him  to  a  just  appreciation  of  the  marvellous 
work  accomplished  during  the  century.  To  all  who  have  eyes 
to  see,  it  is  clear  that  in  the  Pacific  lie  the  problems  of 
the  future.  What  does  the  average  person  know  of  these 
problems,  and  how  does  he  propose  to  deal  with  them  ?  It 
is  hoped  that  this  book  may  assist  the  reader  to  appreciate 
the  significance  of  this  Greater  Britain  in  the  Southern  World. 

The  editor,  who  is  responsible  for  the  plan  of  the  book,  has 
striven  throughout  to  prevent  needless  repetition  and  to  pre- 
serve proportion.  Otherwise  each  writer  has  been  free  to  treat 
his  allotted  subject  in  his  own  way.  No  effort  has  been  spared 
to  secure  accuracy ;  but  as  it  has  not  been  possible  for  the 
writers  to  see  their  proofs,  some  errors  may  have  crept  in. 

My  thanks  are  due  to  the  contributors  who  so  readily  came 
to  my  assistance  in  the  compilation  of  this  work;  also  to  the 
Rev.  E.  H.  Sujrden,  Master  of  Queen's  CoUecre,  Melbourne; 
the  Rev.  C.J.  Prescott,  Master  of  Newington  College,  Sydney  ; 
Mr.  C.  Brunsdon  Fletcher,  of  the  Sydney  Morning  Herald; 
and  the  Rev.  J.  Alfred  Sharp,  of  London,  for  valuable  sug- 
gestions. To  the  Rev.  R.  H.  Colwell,  of  Durham,  who,  at 
my  request,  prepared  the  synopses  and  index,  I  owe  a  great 

debt. 

James  Colwell. 

September  /,  /p/^. 


DEDICATED    BY    PERMISSION 
TO   THE 

RIGHT   HON.  SIR   SAMUEL    WAY,  P.C,   LL.D. 

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR    AND    CHIEF    JUSTICE    OF 

SOUTH    AUSTRALIA,    CHANCELLOR    OF   THE 

ADELAIDE   UNIVERSITY 


CONTENTS 

CHAP.  KACIB 

INTRODUCTION i 

By  W.  H.   FiTCiiETT,   B.A.,  LL.D.,   Principal   Methodist   Ladies' 
College,   Hawthorn,  Melbourne. 


SCIENTIFIC 
I     DISCOVERY  AND   SETTLEMENT     .  .         .15 

ByJosEi'H  Bryant,  F.G.S.,  Sydney  ;  Corresponding  Member  Royal 
Scottish  Geographical  Society. 

II     GEOLOGY 53 

By  Professor  Wooi.nough,  D.Sc,  Lecturer  in  Geology,  Perth 
University,  West  Australin. 

III  BIOLOGY 65 

By  G.  T.  Baker,  l-.L.S.,  Curator  and  Economic  Botanist,  Tech- 
nological Museum,  Sydney;  Cor.  M.Ph.  Soc,  Great  Britain. 

IV  LANGUAGES 91 

By  George  Brown,  D.D.,  F.G.S.,  Corresponding  Member 
Zoological  Society ;  President  Methodist  Church  of  Australasia ; 
Pioneer  Missionary  and  Explorer. 


SOCIOLOGICAL 

1     THE    MAORI    OF   NEW   ZEALAND  .         .         .         .119 
By  William  Slade,  Secretary  of  Foreign  Missions,  New  Zealand. 

II     THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE       .         .         .         .151 
By  JosEi'H  Bowes,    Ipswich  ;   Ex- President   Methodist   Church   of 
Queensland. 

III  THE   INDIAN   IN   FIJI 175 

By  Cyril  Bavin,  Indian  Mission,  Fiji ;  sometime  resident  in  India. 

IV  THE   ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA         ....     199 

By  Edward  Vounoman,  Melbourne;  Missionary  to  the  Chinese, 
Port  Darwin  ;  formerly  Missionary  in  China. 


X  CONTENTS 

HISTORICAL 

CHAP.  PAGE 

I     NEW   SOUTH    WALES 221 

By  James  Colwei.l,  F.R.Hist.S.,  Sydney. 

II     VICTORIA   AND   TASMANIA 267 

By  Edward  II.  Sugden,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  Master,  Queen's  College, 
Melbourne  University. 

III  SOUTH    AUSTRALIA 299 

By  IIenrv  T.  Burgess,  LL.D.,  Adelaide;  Ex-President  Methodist 
Church  of  Australasia. 

IV  WEST   AUSTRALIA 335 

By  Brian  Wikberley,  Bac.  Mus. ,  Principal  Theological  Institution, 
Perth,  West  Australia. 

V     QUEENSLAND 361 

By  Henry  Youngman,  D.D.,  Brisbane;    Ex-President  Methodist 
Church  of  Australasia. 

VI     NLW   ZEALAND 375 

By  WiM.iAM  Morley,  D.D.,  Melbourne  ;   Ex-President  Methodist 
Church  of  Australasia. 


MISSIONARY 
I     TONGA 409 

By  J.  Kgan  Moulton,  B.A.,  formerly  Principal  of  Tubou  College, 
Tonga. 

II     FIJI 439 

By  William  E.   Bennett,   M.A.,   Principal  Theological  College 
and  High  School,  Fiji. 

III  SAMOA   .         .         .         .         , 477 

By  Benjamin  Dank.s,  Sydney  ;  General  Secretary  Foreign  Missions, 
Australasia. 

IV  NEW    BRITAIN      .  507 

By  Benjamin  Danks,  Pioneer  Missionary  to  New  Britain. 

V     NEW   GUINEA 535 

By  Wii.i.iAM  E.  Bromilow,  D.D.,  Sydney;  Pioneer  Missionary  to 
New  Guinea. 

VI     THE   SOLOMON    ISLANDS 559 

By  John  F.  Goldie,  Pioneer  Missionary,  New  Georgia  Group. 


CONTENTS  xi 

GENERAL 

CHAP.  '***• 

I     COMMERCE 587 

By   ihc   Rt.  Hon.  Joseph    Cook,    P.C,    M.l'.,   Sydney;   rriir.e 
Minister  of  Australia. 

II     EDUCATION 607 

By   Charles  J.   Pkescott,    M.A.   (Oxon),    President   and   Head 
Master,  Newington  College,  Sydney. 

III  LITERATURE 639 

By  C.  Brunsdon  Fletcher,  Associate  Editor  Sydney  Morning 
Herald. 

IV  THE    FORWARD    MOVEMENT 687 

By   William   G.  Taylor,   Founder   Central    Methodist   Mission, 
Sydney. 

V    THE   AUSTRALIA  OF  TO-MORROW        .         .         .707 
P.y  James  E.  Carruthers,  D.D,,  President  Methodist  Church  of 
New  South  Wales. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 725 

By  Harold  Kblynack,  B.A.,  Principal  Methodist  Ladies'  College, 
Sydney. 

STATISTICAL   RETURNS    FOR    19 13         •         •        -763 
INDEX 765 


*  Histories  are  as  perfect  as  the  historian  is  wise,  and  is 
gifted  with  an  eye  and  a  soul.' — Carlyle. 

'Great  men  have  been  among  us;   hands  that  penned 
And  tongues  that  uttered  wisdom.' 

Wordsworth. 

'If  you  would  work  any  man,  you  must  either  know  his 
nature  and  fashions,  and  so  lead  him  ;  or  his  ends,  and  so 
win  him  ;  or  his  weaknesses  or  disadvantages,  and  so  awe 
him  ;  or  those  that  have  interest  in  him,  and  so  govern 
him.'  Bacon. 


INTRODUCTION 
By  W.  H.  FITCHETT,  B.A.,  LL.D. 

Principal  Methodist  Ladies'  College,  Hawthorn,  Melbourne 


SYNOPSIS 

Area  of  Pacific — Artistic  view — Dawn  and  sunset — Colour  and  form — 
Sailing  Directions— Shx^s  of  past — Origin  of  name — Discovery — 
Spaniards — Dutch — French — Cook — Islands  —Great  Britain — Past 
and  future — Object  of  book — Christian  missions — Fiji. 


INTRODUCTION 

THE    GREATEST   SEA    ON    THE    PLANET 

The  Pacific,  as  measured  by  the  prosaic  test  of  the  foot-rule, 
is  the  greatest  sea  on  the  planet.  The  area  of  the  Atlantic, 
north  and  south,  and  including  the  Arctic  Ocean,  is  less  than 
24,000,000  square  miles;  the  Mediterranean,  if  we  include  the 
Black  Sea  in  that  term,  stretches  over  only  1,000,000  square 
miles.  But  the  Pacific  has  an  area  of  70,000,000  square  miles  ! 
Three  Atlantics,  that  is,  or  seventy  Mediterraneans,  might  be 
placed,  without  squeezing,  within  the  majestic  curve  of  its 
far-stretching  shores  !  It  exceeds  in  space  all  the  dry  land 
on  the  globe ;  it  covers  more  than  one-third  of  the  earth's 
surface.  And  it  will  be,  if  it  is  not  already,  as  great  in 
political  and  commercial  importance  as  it  is  in  geographical 
scale.     For  it  is  the  sea  of  the  future. 

This  vast  expanse  of  '  unplumbed,  sidt  estranging  sea  ' 
breaks  against  the  Arctic  ice  in  the  cold  north,  and  against 
the  white  cliffs  of  the  frozen  Antarctic  to  the  south ;  while  a 
belt  of  steamy  equatorial  waters,  10,000  miles  long,  runs  from 
east  to  west,  betwixt  these  two  bitter  extremes.  Such  an  ocean 
has  inevitably  an  amazing  variety  of  aspects  and  weathers. 
But  if  we  take  its  best-known  stretch,  the  natural  highway 
of  its  commerce — the  belt  of  sun-warmed  waters  swinging 
under  tropical  skies — say  within  ten  degrees  north  and  south 
of  the  Equator,  we  have  the  most  beautiful  sea  zone  on  the 
planet.  The  only  way,  indeed,  to  realize  what,  from  the 
artistic  point  of  view,  the  Pacific  is,  is  to  lie  in  a  deck-chair, 
under  a  cool  awning,  on  the  white  deck  of  a  great  modern 
steamboat,  as  she  traverses  this  'broad  belt  of  the  world,' 
and  watch  the  lazily  heaving  sea,  the  white  clouds  drifting 
in  the  wind,  the  island  peaks  against  the  horizon,  the  splen- 

3 


4  A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

dours  of  tropical  dawn  and  sunsets.  It  is  like  nothing  else 
in  the  world  !  The  senses  are  steeped  in  beauty,  and  in  a 
beauty  which  takes  many  shapes ;  from  the  slow  dawn  of  the 
tropical  day  to  the  quick  coming  of  the  tropical  night ;  from 
the  deep,  rich  colour  of  the  sea  as  it  lies  under  the  flame  of  the 
noonday  sun,  a  pavement  of  living  sapphire,  and  the  strange 
stars  which  burn  in  the  sky  when  the  sun  has  set. 

At  night,  indeed,  the  sea  itself  becomes  a  sort  of  dim  yet 
starry  firmament.  All  the  planets  and  constellations  hanging 
in  the  depths  of  space  above  are  reflected  in  the  cool  depths 
beneath ;  so  that  the  ship  seems  to  swing  betwixt  two 
firmaments,  both  of  them  aflame  with  stars.  Then  there  are 
the  islets  which  crowd  such  wide  spaces  of  the  Pacific.  On 
the  skyline  will  hang  a  low  cloud  of  purple;  as  the  ship 
creeps  near,  it  turns  into  a  cone,  or  a  cluster  of  cones,  of  vivid 
green,  the  green  of  tropical  foliage;  the  base  is  fringed  with 
coco-nut  palms  and  edged  with  the  white  foam,  and  the  far- 
heard  thunder  of  the  great  Pacific  breakers.  The  glories  of 
tropical  clouds,  again,  are  of  a  quality  which  might  mock  the 
colours  of  Turner  to  depict,  and  leave  the  prose  of  Ruskin 
pale  to  describe.  On  the  frontiers  of  dawn  and  of  sunset  burn 
the  strangest  colour-eft'ects.  A  sort  of  precipice  of  clouds  will 
build  itself  along  the  horizon,  and  the  setting  sun  pierces  the 
masses  of  dark  vapour  with  flame-like  crimsons  and  scarlets. 
Turner  saw  Venice,  and  has  left  his  vision  of  it,  expressed  in 
immortal  colours,  on  his  canvas.  Had  he  seen  a  tropical 
sunset,  or  watched  the  mountain  peaks  of  Kandava,  he  would 
have  stained  his  canvas  with  richer  colours  than  even  those 
which  burn  in  the  famous  Turner  room  in  the  Art  Gallery  in 
London. 

The  tropical  sea  itself,  again,  the  sea  of  the  Equator,  baffles 
description.  Under  colder  skies  the  sea  surface  is  of  a 
greyness  which  has  in  it  a  note  of  desolation.  The  sea  of 
the  trade  winds  is  a  rich  but  dark  blue,  pricked  and  splashed 
with  patches  of  white  spray ;  and  the  whole  stretch  of  waters, 
to  the  very  rim  of  the  horizon,  wears  an  expression  of  restless 


INTRODUCTION  5 

life.  But  the  sea  of  the  J{quatur,  the  stretch  of  water  betwixt 
the  south-east  and  the  north-east  trades,  is  hke  no  other  tract 
of  sea  on  the  planet.  The  eye  dwells  with  unexhausted 
wonder  on  its  wealth  of  colour.  The  deep  amethvstine  blue 
has  the  effect  of  a  rich  and  far-stretch inn^  pavement,  fit  for 
the  feet  of  kings,  to  which,  in  some  moods,  the  cloud-hung 
skyline,  marked  at  intervals  with  faint  perpendicular  lines, 
where  some  tropical  shower  is  falling,  has  the  softening 
effects  of  some  vast,  rich,  pendant  tapestrv. 

For  many  hours  of  the  day  the  curve  of  the  horizon  is  clear 
and  sharp-cut  as  an  airline;  and  within  its  curve  the  sea  lies 
a  vast,  blue,  perfect  oval,  for,  somehow,  the  effect  on  the  eye 
is  that  of  an  oval  rather  than  that  of  a  circle.  Homer's 
phrase  of  '  the  wrinkled  sea  *  exactly  describes  its  surface. 
It  is  one  vast  monotone  of  blue,  with  no  speckle  of  white, 
the  white  of  wind-blown  spray,  to  break  the  deep,  far-running 
flame  of  colour.  But  the  surface  is  fretted  and  broken  with 
innumerable  lines,  giving  it  a  frosted  effect,  as  of  some  rich 
metal,  rough-cast.  By  some  curious  law  of  association  the 
sweep  of  solid  blue,  running  to  the  clear,  curving  horizon, 
suggests  the  story  of  the  forging  of  the  armour  of  Achilles 
in  the  Iliad.  For  the  tropical  sea  itself  is  like  nothing  so 
much  as  a  vast  shield  laid  flat.  Its  surface  has  the  crinkled 
lines  of  cooling  metal.  The  ship  itself  seems  but  a  metal  boss 
on  its  surface.  And  on  the  eastern  and  western  edges  of  that 
vast  pavement  of  blue  burn  alternately,  every  twelve  hours 
or  so,  the  splendours  of  such  dawns  and  sunsets  as  neither 
sea  nor  land  elsewhere  ever  witness. 

The  story  of  the  Pacific  is  a  sort  of  sea-Iliad,  as  rich  in 
adventure  as  that  tale  of  courage  and  endurance  around  the 
windy  towers  of  Troy,  which  Homer  has  set  to  immortal 
verse.  But  the  Pacific  has  not  yet  found  its  poet,  or  even 
its  adequate  artist  in  prose,  and  the  best  bit  of  literature  for 
the  deck  of  a  steamboat  running  across  the  equatorial  belt 
is  the  Sailijig  Directions  to  the  South  Pacific,  issued  by  the 
Admiralty  Office.     The  book,  in  a  sense,  is  not  literature.     It 


6  A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

is  as  empty  of  adjectives  as  the  multiplication  table  itself. 
Of  style,  in  the  literary  sense,  it  knows  nothing.  For  most 
readers  its  pages  would  seem  a  dry  as  '  the  remainder  biscuit 
after  a  voyage.'  But  when  read  on  the  deck  of  a  steamboat, 
somewhere  near  the  Equator,  the  book,  for  any  reader  of 
imagination,  is  something  better  than  literature.  It  is  life, 
adventure,  discovery,  endurance,  romance,  all  translated  into 
the  most  matter-of-fact  symbols.  Behind  the  cold  sentences, 
the  figures  of  soundings,  the  degrees  of  latitude  and  longitude, 
the  notes  as  to  currents  and  reefs,  is  the  experience  of  strange 
voyages,  of  long-dead  seamen,  of  ships  that  perhaps  now 
are  sunken  wrecks,  or  have  been  broken  up  a  century  since 
for  firewood.  It  stirs  the  imagination  to  reflect  on  the  strange 
craft  and  wild  voyages  which  are  here  condensed  into  Sailing 
Directions. 

Across  the  pages  of  the  book  drift  picturesque  shapes  : 
Spanish  warships  of  the  sixteenth  century,  high  in  the  stern, 
low  in  the  bows,  and  as  weatherly  as  so  many  washing-tubs ; 
Dutch  traders,  broad-beamed,  flat-bottomed,  bluff-bowed; 
British  frigates ;  whalers,  rank  with  the  smell  of  oil ;  rusty 
merchant  ships,  with  scurvy  in  the  forecastle,  and  strong 
language  on  the  poop ;  island  traders,  with  mixed  crews,  and 
morals  yet  more  strangely  mixed.  Three  hundred  years  of 
sea-adventure,  in  a  word,  are  crystallized  in  these  Sailing 
Directions.  Every  bump  of  a  whaler  on  some  hitherto 
unknown  reef,  every  sea  current  which  perplexed  some  honest 
seaman's  calculations,  every  islet  and  strait  off  which,  or 
through  which,  with  slanting  decks  and  strange  sea-going 
oaths,  those  ancient  sea-dogs  marked  their  way,  may  be  said 
to  have  left  its  signature  on  these  quaint  pages.  Cook's 
name,  naturally  enough,  recurs  constantly.  His  ships,  the 
Adventure,  the  Discovery,  the  Resolution,  have,  in  fact,  a 
better  title  to  fame  than  the  Golden  Fleece  of  classic  fable. 
They  sail  across  every  page. 

Much  of  the  paradox,  as  well  as  of  the  romance,  of  history 
is  reflected  in  these  Sailing  Directions.     How  did  the  Pacific 


INTRODUCTION  7 

come  to  bear  that  name,  or  that  other  title  by  which   it  is 

known,   the   'Great   South   Sea'?     It   is  certainly   not   of  a 

specially  pacific  character.     It  was  called  Pacific  by  Fernando 

de  Magalhaens,  who  crossed  it  in   1520;  i)ut  he  pave  it  that 

name  when  he  knew  only  its  tropical  belt.    He  himself  records 

that,  later,  he  sailed  '  with  great  storms,'  con  f^ron  lormcnla. 

Or  how  did  this  sea  get  its  name  of  '  Mar  del  /.iir,'  the  South 

Sea?     Keats,   in  one  of  the  most   frequently  quoted  bits  of 

English    verse   in    English    literature,    describes    how    '  stout 

Cortes  ' 

.  .  .  stared  at  the  Pacific — and  all  his  men 

Looked  at  each  other  with  a  wild  surmise — 

Silent,  upon  a  peak  in  Darien. 

But  poets  are  not  always  accurate  in  their  facts.  It  was  not 
*  stout  Cortes,'  but  a  much  smaller  man,  Vasco  Nunez  de 
Balboa,  who,  on  September  25,  15 13,  from  the  summit  of  a 
hill  in  Panama,  caught  the  first  glimpse  with  European  eyes 
of  these  great  unknown  waters;  and,  falling  on  his  knees, 
thanked  Heaven  for  having  granted  him  the  honour  of  being 
the  first  European  to  behold  the  sea  beyond  America.  And 
it  was  the  accident  that  the  water  on  which  he  looked  lay  to 
the  south  of  him,  which  gave  that  unknown  ocean  the  title 
of  *  the  South  Sea.'  Seven  years  later,  in  1520,  Magellan, 
after  sounding  his  dim  and  perilous  way  through  the  strait 
which  bears  his  name,  broke  into  this  unknown  sea  at  a 
point  where  its  warm  waters  lay  under  quiet  skies,  and  so 
he  gave  it  the  name  of  Mar  Pacifico.  The  Sailing  Directions^ 
however,  has  an  obstinate  fidelity  to  facts,  and  it  reports 
courageously,  though  with  defective  grammar,  that  *  the  term 
South  Sea  or  Pacific  Ocean  are  neither  of  them  justly  appro- 
priate, seeing  that  this  ocean  is  neither  more  south  nor  more 
pacific  than  any  other.' 

The  story  of  the  Pacific  is  rich  in  examples  of  what  may 
be  called  the  satire  of  history.  The  Spaniards  came  first  into 
these  waters.  They  discovered  everything;  they  claimed 
everything;  they  have  kept  nothing  !    Balboa  took  possession 


8  A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  the  entire  ocean,  known  and  unknown,  in  the  name  of  the 
King  of  Castile  and  Leon.  Spain  held  the  seas,  too,  by  the 
title  of  a  papal  grant;  and  had  an  even  better  title  in 
the  number  of  discoveries  its  seamen  made.  Alvaro  de 
Saavedra  discovered  the  Marshall  Islands,  for  example,  in 
1535;  Quiros  was  the  first  to  visit  the  New  Hebrides.  He 
believed  it  to  be  part  of  a  great  southern  continent,  and  gave 
it  the  sonorous  title  of  Tierra  del  Espiritu  Santo.  On  the 
northernmost  island  he  established,  on  the  banks  of  a  river 
which  he  called  the  Jordan,  the  settlement  of  Le  Nuova 
Jerusalem.  The  same  fine  seaman  discovered  the  Banks 
Islands  and  Tucopi  Island.  Mendana,  in  1595,  discovered 
the  Santa  Cruz  group.  But  the  only  title  that  holds  in  these 
waters  is  that  of  actual  use  and  occupation ;  and  the  Spanish 
flag,  to-day,  flies  on  no  patch  of  soil  in  the  vast  Pacific. 

The  Dutch  came  next,  and  have  a  fine  record.  Abel 
Tasman,  for  example,  discovered  Tonga  in  1643,  and  Fiji 
in  the  same  year.  The  Dutch  flag,  early  in  the  seventeenth 
century,  was  a  familiar  sight  in  the  Pacific.  This  was  the 
period  of  sea-power  for  Holland;  a  time  when,  incredible  as 
it  must  now  seem,  the  Low  Countries,  according  to  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh's  estimate  in  1603,  '  possessed  as  many  ships  as  any 
eleven  kingdoms  in  Christendom,  including  England.'  They 
built,  according  to  Raleigh,  1,000  ships  annually,  notwith- 
standing that  they  had  not  a  tree  in  their  whole  country.  But 
though  the  Dutch  discovered  much,  they  kept  little. 

The  French  record  in  the  Pacific  is  dark  with  tragedy. 
They  have  some  discoveries  to  their  credit,  notably  that  of 
Samoa,  by  Bougainville,  in  1768;  but  French  performances 
in  the  Pacific  are  best  remembered  by  the  unhappy  story  of 
La  Perouse.  He  had  two  ships  under  his  command, 
L'Astrolle  and  La  Boussole.  They  sailed  in  1786;  the  last 
port  at  which  they  touched  was  Sydney;  then  they  vanished 
from  human  knowledge.  In  1826  traces  of  (he  unfortunate 
ships  were  discovered  at  X'anikoro.  Both  ships  had  been 
wrecked;  the  survivors  of  the  crews  spent  ten  months  on  the 


INTRODUCTION  9 

island,  built  a  small  vessel  with  j^reat  toil,  and  sailed  frtMii 
it,  and  were  never  more  heard  of !  An  expedition  under 
D'Kntrecastcaux  was  dispatched  from  Brest  in  1791.  in  search 
of  La  Perouse,  and  had  a  fate  almost  as  traj^ical  as  that  of 
La  Perouse's  ships  themselves.  The  two  commanders  of  the 
expedition  died,  and  ninety-nine  out  of  the  219  men  who 
formed  the  crews. 

Cook  is  the  chief  fig^ure,  cool,  daring-,  persistent,  scientific, 
and  successful,  in  the  history  of  the  Pacific.  His  three  great 
voyages — the  Endeavour  in  1768,  the  Resolution  and  the 
Adventure  in  1771,  the  Resolution  and  Discovery  in  1776 — 
are  unsurpassed  in  sea-history  for  skill,  endurance,  and 
success.  Cook  may  almost  be  said  to  have  discovered  the 
art  of  long  sea  travel.  He  was  the  first  seaman  who  was 
able  to  keep  his  crews  in  health  during  a  voyage  which 
stretched  through  nearly  three  years;  and  the  patience,  the 
hardihood,  the  cool  and  skilful  seamanship  shown  in  finding 
his  way  through  strange  and  uncharted  waters,  and  across 
the  whole  reef-sown  area  of  the  Pacific,  are  without  parallel 
in  history.  To-day,  when  a  swift  steamer,  with  the  luxurious 
appointments  of  a  great  modern  hotel,  crosses  these  waters 
with  the  certainty  and  speed  of  a  railway  train,  the  experience 
is  a  tax  on  human  patience.  But  these  seamen  of  the 
eighteenth  century  had  no  charts;  their  fare  was  hard,  their 
ships  were  slow.  They  had  to  creep  along  strange  shores, 
and  discover  reefs  not  seldom  by  the  process  of  bumping  up 
against  them.  They  added  new  lands  and  seas  to  geographv  : 
but  they  did  something  better  than  even  this.  They  created 
new  traditions  of  hardihood,  of  a  patience  which  no  toil  could 
weary,  of  an  adventurous  daring  which  no  sea  chances,  no 
peril  of  unknown  waters,  of  strange  lands,  and  of  fierce  tribes 
could  daunt.  Cook  perished  at  Karakakoa  Bay,  in  Hawaii, 
under  the  spears  of  savages;  and  it  may  be  said  that  such  a 
death  was  the  fitting  and  dramatic  crown  of  such  a  career. 

The  Pacific  is,  in  a  sense,  one  of  the  treasure-chambers  of 
the   planet.     Its  vast  stretch   of  waters   is  sown   thick   with 


lo         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

countless  islets,  on  which  may  be  found  the  richest  products 
of  tropical  and  semi-tropical  nature.  And  yet,  for  centuries, 
commerce  neglected  this  g-reat  mine  of  wealth.  Some  ship 
— Spanish,  or  Dutch,  or  British — touched  at  some  island, 
explored  its  reefs,  held  brief  intercourse  with  its  inhabitants, 
perhaps  hoisted  a  flag  on  some  hill-summit,  and  then  sailed 
off  into  space.  The  islanders  lived  their  easy,  savage  life;  no 
other  ship  came  near  them  for  a  century.  The  very  story 
of  *  the  big  canoe,'  with  its  white-faced  crew  and  strange 
weapons,  became  a  dim  tradition.  And  still  the  world  very 
imperfectly  understands  the  wealth  and  possibilities  of  the 
Pacific,  or  the  area  of  its  island  worlds.  The  Tongan  group 
consists  of  lOO  islands  and  islets;  Fiji  has  156  islands.  At 
first  the  wealth  of  the  Pacific  seemed  to  consist  only  of  the 
whales  in  its  sun-warmed  waters  and  the  guano  on  its  atolls. 
The  whales  have  gone ;  so  has  the  guano ;  but  other  great 
sources  of  wealth  are  opening  on  every  side.  Fiji  is  already 
one  of  the  sugar-producing  fields  of  the  world,  and  the 
Solomons  will  almost  certainly  prove  a  richer  field  than  even 
Fiji. 

Great  Britain  is  the  controlling  Power  in  the  Pacific;  but 
it  owes  this  to  the  enterprise  of  its  traders,  and  the  self-sacrifice 
and  daring  of  its  missionaries,  rather  than  to  any  deliberate 
policy  on  the  part  of  its  statesmen.  No  other  Power  holds 
so  much  territory  as  Great  Britain,  yet  no  other  has  allowed 
such  wide  geographical  space  to  slip  through  its  careless 
fingers.  It  was  Cook,  for  example,  who  discovered  New 
Caledonia,  the  largest  island  in  the  Pacific  next  to  New- 
Zealand;  British  seamen  explored  all  its  reefs,  and  charted 
all  its  bays  and  shores.  It  was  British  by  discovery,  but  it 
is  French  by  occupation. 

The  Pacific,  we  have  said,  is  the  sea  of  the  future.  Over 
a  wide  stretch  of  historical  time  the  Mediterranean  was  the 
centre  of  the  world's  commerce  and  life.  The  trade  that  crept 
across  its  waters,  it  is  true,  when  translated  into  modern 
terms,  was  not  great.     Phoenician  traders  brought  tin  from 


INTRODUCTION  ii 

Britain,  and  ivory  and  skins  from  Africa;  grain-ships  from 
Egypt  carried  wheat  for  food  to  the  hungry  Plebs  of  Rome; 
Roman  and  Carthaginian  triremes  grappled  with  each  other 
in  its  blue  waters;  pirates  swarmed  around  its  curving  shnrrs. 
It  was,  as  its  name  still  tells,  the  centre  of  thr  world's  life, 
and  the  only  civilized  lands  were  those  washed  by  its  waters. 
But  in  1402  Columbus,  sailing  in  search  of  Asia,  bumped  up 
against  America,  and,  as  a  result,  the  centre  of  the  world's 
trade  and  politics  shifted  from  the  tideless  Mediterranean  to 
the  stormy  Atlantic.  Across  it  the  great  volume  of  the  world's 
commerce  flowed,  now  east,  now  west,  betwixt  the  Old  World 
and  the  New.  The  fleets  of  the  great  Powers  fought  with 
each  other  for  the  mastery  of  its  waters.  But  the  Atlantic, 
in  turn,  is  plainly  doomed  to  give  place  to  a  greater  sea, 
and  to-morrow  the  centre  of  the  world's  trade  and  politics 
will  be  the  Pacific.  And  that  is  a  fact  that  must  profoundly 
influence  Australia  and  New  Zealand,  for  they  are  set  in 
the  Pacific,  and  their  fortunes  are  wrapped  up  in  its 
fortunes. 

One  need  only  look  at  the  map,  and  trace  with  instructed 
eyes  the  vast  shore-line  of  the  Pacific,  to  know  that  here  is 
the  stage  on  wh'ich  great  events  in  the  history  of  the  world 
of  to-morrow  will  be  transacted.  The  two  Americas  form  its 
eastern  shores;  north  is  the  frozen  Arctic;  on  the  west  is  the 
eastern  edge  of  Russia;  then  come  Japan,  China,  and,  still 
running  southward,  the  great  ribbon  of  islands  betwixt  China 
and  Australia,  the  Philippines,  Borneo,  Sumatra,  New  Guinea. 
South,  still,  of  these  are  set  the  two  garrisons  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  race  south  of  the  Equator,  Australia  and  New  Zealand. 
Over  the  wide  sea  space  lying  between  (his  vast  curve  of 
nations  are  sprinkled  the  myriad  islets  and  the  rich  island- 
groups  of  the  Pacific.  What  a  kaleidoscope  of  races,  of 
civilizations,  new  and  old,  of  creeds  and  colours,  can  be 
discovered  along  the  curving  shores  running  through  so 
many  degrees  of  latitude  !  And  what  tremendous  possibili- 
ties, racial,  political,  commercial,  slumber  amongst  its  many- 


12         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

tinted  races.  Across  this  great  sea,  it  is  easy  to  imagine,  will 
be  carried  a  commerce  richer  than  the  world  has  ever  yet 
known.  Battles  may  be  fought  on  its  waters,  fraught  with 
mightier  issues  than  the  great  sea-fight  which  decided  the  fate 
of  Rome ;  or  that  in  the  narrow  seas  which  destroyed  the  great 
fleet  of  Philip  of  Spain ;  or  that  immortal  battle  outside  Cadiz 
Bay  when  Nelson  shattered  the  sea-strength  of  France  and 
Spain,  and  wrecked  the  dreams  of  Napoleon.  A  greater 
Actium  in  the  Pacific!  A  more  decisive  Trafalgar;  a  sea- 
battle  leaving  a  deeper  mark  on  history  than  the  defeat  of 
the  Armada!  Are  such  events  possible?  It  is  certain  that 
the  great  prize  of  the  trade  of  the  Pacific,  the  command  of  its 
waters,  ownership  of  the  soil,  and  the  wealth  of  its  countless 
islets,  may  well  tempt  the  greed,  and  challenge  the  ambitions, 
of  the  nations  along  its  shores.  And  if  the  scale  of  their 
populations  is  taken  into  account,  their  clashing  policies,  their 
wide  diversities  of  race  and  faith  and  civilization,  or  want  of 
civilization,  it  is  quite  credible  that  the  Pacific  may  be  the 
scene  of  struggles  and  revolutions  greater  than  any  which 
the  other  seas  of  the  Avorld  have  witnessed. 

This  book,  however,  is  concerned,  not  so  much  with  the 
geography  of  the  Pacific,  with  the  ethnology  of  its  native 
races,  the  undeveloped  wealth  of  its  island  groups,  and  the 
struggle  for  the  control  of  this  vast  sea  which  the  next  half- 
century  may  witness.  Its  business  is  to  describe  the  con- 
tributions which,  during  a  single  century,  missionary  work 
in  general,  and  the  missionary  enterprise  of  the  Methodist 
Church  in  particular,  has  made  in  its  waters  to  civilization, 
and  to  that  Christianity  on  which  the  only  civilization  which 
can  endure  is  built.  It  may  be  claimed  with  perfect  justice 
that  the  missionary  has  done  more  to  lift  up  the  island  races 
of  the  Pacific  to  high  levels  of  civilization  and  morality  than 
the  statesman,  or  the  explorer,  or  the  trader.  The  book,  in 
other  words,  describes  the  action,  and  the  results,  in  this  field 
of  those  spiritual  forces  which  are  shaping,  on  a  new  pattern, 
the  life  of  the  world.     They  stand  in  the  category  of  things 


INTRODUCTION  13 

eternal.     Wordsworth's   noble   lines,    with    the  change  of   a 
single  word,  may  be  quoted  of  them — 

.  .  .  powers  depart, 
Possessions  vanish,  and  opinions  change. 
And  passions  hold  a  fluctuating  seat  ; 
But,  by  the  storms  of  circumstance  unshaken, 
And  subject  neither  to  eclipse  nor  wane, 
These  exist — immutably  survive. 

Whose  kingdom  is  where  time  and  space  are  not. 

The  story  of  Christian  missions  in  the  Pacillc  is  a  mag- 
nificent record,  and  the  present  volume  undertakes  to  describe 
the  place  in  that  record  filled  by  the  unbroken  succession  of 
saints  and  evangelists  which  Methodism  has  maintained  in 
these  waters.  The  story  reads  like  a  new  page  in  the  Acts 
of  the  Apostles.  Let  the  single  case  of  Fiji  be  taken.  On 
October  14,  1913,  a  fine  memorial  college  was  opened  in  Fiji, 
sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Baker  and  his 
seven  native  colleagues,  who  forty-six  years  before  laid  down 
their  lives  for  the  cause  of  Christianity,  and  for  the  natives 
of  Fiji.  In  Fiji  to-day  the  Methodist  Church  has  100  native 
ministers,  800  teachers,  3,670  lay  preachers,  and  5,000  class 
leaders,  while  30,000  brown-skinned  communicants  kneel  at 
its  sacramental  table.  His  Excellency  the  Governor  made  a 
remarkable  speech  at  this  function.  He  quite  naturally 
emphasized  the  educational  and  social  results  of  missionarv 
work.  '  You  have  a  right,'  he  said,  '  to  be  proud  of  your 
educational  work.  Your  primary  schools  are  to  be  found 
in  every  village.  Your  secondary  schools,  especially  those 
in  which  technical  and  industrial  training  form  important 
features,  must  result  in  incalculable  good  to  the  whole  native 
race.  The  adherents  of  your  mission  in  Fiji  number  So,ooo 
out  of  a  native  population  of  87,000.'  Then  his  Excellency 
added  :  '  I'here  are  more  Methodists  in  Fiji  by  3,000  than  the 
total  number  of  the  followers  of  John  Wesley  at  the  time  of 
his  death.' 

That  a  hundred  and  twenty  years  after  Wesley  died,  in  a 


14         A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

single  island  unknown  to  him,  there  should  be  more  of  his 
followers  than  he  had  gathered  as  the  result  of  his  life's  work, 
is  a  picturesque  proof  of  the  sustained  vitality  of  the 
Methodist  Church.  But  what  an  illustration,  as  described 
by  a  secular  but  very  competent  witness,  the  British 
administrator  of  the  island,  of  the  power  of  the  working 
missionary  does  the  state  of  Fiji  offer  !  And  it  is  an  example 
of  the  work  which  the  missionary  is  doing  throughout  the 
whole  area  of  the  greatest  sea  in  the  world.  This  is  assuredly 
a  tale  worth  both  telling  and  reading. 


PART    I 
SCIENTIFIC 


CHAPTER    I 

DISCOVERY  AND   SETTLEMENT 

By  JOSEPH   BRYANT,    F.G.S.,  Sydney 

Corresponding  Member  Royal  Scottish   Geographical  Society 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

An  unowned  continent— Early  conjectures — Discoveries  concealed — 
Claims  of  France  and  Spain — Maps — De  Quiros— Dutch— A  tin 
plate — Mutineers — Tasman — N  ew  Holland — Wrecks — English — 
Dampier  —  Cook  —  Endeavour  —  Natives  —  Slow  but  sure  —  New 
South  Wales — Murder  of  Cook — His  achievements — Schemes  of 
settlement — French  names— Matra— Botany  Bay — Phillip's  diffi- 
culties— Methodist  chaplain — Government  by  corps — Macarthur 
and  Bligh — Governor  Macquarie — Interior  exploration — Evans  and 
Oxley—Sturt— Mitchell— Tasmania— Clearing  the  island— New 
Zealand— Waitangi— West  Australia— Victoria — South  Australia 
— Queensland — To-day. 


CHAPTER    I 

DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT 

Australia  emerged  from  an  age-long^  obscurity,  only  to 
lie  for  many  a  day  rejected  and  ownerless.  The  discovery 
of  the  continent  brought  no  glory  or  reward  in  its  train.  At 
a  period  when  European  nations  were  seizing  upon  new  over- 
sea possessions,  Australia  went  unappropriated  by  simple 
default.  To  adventurers  filled  with  dreams  of  lands  where  a 
rich  and  feeble  civilization,  or  a  splendid  barbarism,  would 
yield  fabulous  spoils,  the  unpromising-  coast  of  Australia,  with 
its  handfuls  of  necessitous  nomads,  came  as  a  mockery  to  be 
resented  and  ignored.  This  disappointment  and  embittered 
judgement,  on  what  seemed  a  futile  discoverv,  accounts  for 
the  difficulty  in  assigning  the  belated  honour  of  the  exploit. 
Exploration  for  its  own  sake  did  not  appeal  to  the  sea-rovers 
of  those  times,  who  did  not  consider  knowledge  its  own 
reward.  They  were  not  in  search  of  strange  lands  only,  but 
of  fields  of  plenty  and  mountains  of  gold.  Those  who 
returned  empty-handed,  or  with  no  clue  to  certain  wealth, 
were  reckoned  failures,  and  their  abortive  story  had  little 
interest. 

The  existence  of  a  great  southern  continent  was  boldly 
conjectured  bv  ancient  philosophers,  to  whom  it  was  a 
necessity  of  thought,  in  order  to  secure  the  essential  balance 
between  land  and  water  which  their  cosmic  theory  demanded. 
In  classical  literature,  from  Aristotle  downwards,  frequent 
references  are  made  to  this  remote  and  mysterious  land,  which 
it  was  agreed,  however,  was  inaccessible  from  this  side  owing 
to  *  the  fury  of  the  sun,  which  burns  the  intermediate  zone.' 
Cicero  lieki  that  this  portion  of  the  earth  was  peopled  by  a 


i8         A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

different  race  of  beings ;  and,  much  later,  St.  Augustine  in  his 
great  work  discussed  this  whole  question,  and  declared  that 
it  was  quite  impossible  that  any  human  beings  could  be  found 
in  a  land  so  disjoined  from  the  cradle  of  the  race.  The 
Chinese  were  credited,  on  the  authority  of  Marco  Polo,  with 
having  a  prior  knowledge  of  the  great  south  land.  He  told 
of  a  country  known  to  them,  which  was  to  be  reached  from 
China  by  sailing  south,  lying  about  750  miles  south-south- 
west of  Java.  His  description  of  this  distant  spot  and  its 
people  is  picturesque  and  pleasing;  too  much  so  to  have  any 
application  to  Australia. 

In  leaving  the  realm  of  hypothesis  and  myth  for  that  of 
history  in  relation  to  the  discovery  of  Australia,  certain 
reserves  must  be  maintained.  There  is  always  the  possibility 
of  some  venerable  chart  or  musty  log  leaping  to  light  and 
demanding  an  amended  award;  and  the  too  confident  his- 
torian may  be  met  by  an  ancient  mariner  who  holds  him  with 
his  glittering  eye,  and  insists  on  telling  his  tardy  story.  This 
point  receives  emphasis  from  the  bitter  jealousy  known  to  have 
existed  between  the  maritime  powers  of  Europe,  resulting 
in  the  careful  guarding  of  any  discovery  as  a  State  secret 
until  it  could  be  turned  to  direct  national  advantage.  The 
generous  emulation  of  modern  exploration  was  unknown. 
Humboldt  aflirmed,  on  the  authority  of  the  Venetian 
Ambassador  to  Spain,  that  the  kings  of  Portugal  had  for- 
bidden on  pain  of  death  the  giving  of  any  information  as  to 
the  course  to  Calicut;  and  Ramusio  wrote  that  accounts  of 
discoveries  '  were  for  many  years  concealed  for  convenient 
reasons.*  Sir  William  Temple,  Ambassador  to  the  Hague 
in  the  reign  of  Charles  II,  declared  from  information  received 
that  '  a  southern  continent  had  long  since  been  found  out  ' 
by  the  Dutch,  and  that  there  was  an  injunction  against  '  any 
further  attempts  at  discovering  that  continent,  having  already 
more  trade  than  could  be  turned  to  account,  and  fearing  that 
some  more  populous  nation  might  make  great  establishment 
of  trade  in  some  of  these  unknown  regions.'     It  is  certain 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT        19 

that   maps   were   often    falsified   by    rival    nations   for   selfish 
purposes. 

Truth  is  the  daughter  of  Time,  and  it  has  now  become 
possible  to  adjudicate  upon  the  many  claims  advanced  to  the 
discovery  of  Australia.  Some  of  these  may  be  lightly  dis- 
missed. First  among  such  is  the  claim  set  up  for  the  Frencli 
sailor,  De  Gonneville.  He  sailed  from  Honfleur  for  the  East 
Indies  in  1503;  doubled  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope;  was  driven 
by  adverse  winds  into  strange  seas;  reached  an  unknown 
land;  spent  six  months  there  in  kindly  relations  with  its 
half-civilized  people;  and  when  he  left,  took  with  him  a  son 
of  the  king  to  be  instructed  in  the  Christian  religion,  and  to 
return  in  due  time.  Such  was  De  Gonneville's  story,  attested 
in  proper  form,  but  it  was  published  only  after  a  century  and 
a  half,  and  under  curious  auspices.  M.  de  Mesl^e  has  given 
a  serious  setting  to  the  suggestion  that  Australia  was  the 
land  the  F"rench  navigator  happened  upon,  but  it  is  not 
possible  to  make  it  convincing.  Authorities  agree  that  it 
was  probably  Madagascar,  and  certainly  not  Australia,  where 
De  Gonneville  found  refuge  and  welcome. 

Another  claim  has  been  made  in  the  great  name  of  Magellan 
when  in  the  service  of  Charles  V  of  Spain,  based  upon  an 
ancient  map.  That  illustrious  seaman  can  well  afford  to 
forgo  this  more  than  doubtful  demand.  The  claim  of  the 
Portuguese  Godhino  de  Eredia  is  also  based  upon  an  old 
map,  found  in  the  British  Museum,  but  a  comparative 
examination  of  the  evidence  rejects  it.  Other  shadowy  claims 
to  be  '  the  first  that  ever  burst  into  that  silent  sea  '  may  be 
put  aside.  It  is  known,  however,  that  in  the  sixteenth  century 
Portuguese,  Spanish,  and  French  navigators  were  searching 
the  southern  seas  for  unknown  lands,  and  it  is  likely  that 
some  daring  captain  of  that  adventurous  age  has  not,  and 
probably  never  will,  come  to  his  rightful  name  and  fame.  It 
is  maps,  and  not  personal  narratives,  that  give  the  earliest 
place  to  Australia.  Leaving  out  certain  weird  constructions 
which    represent    pure    guesswork,    the    age    of   authenticity 


20         A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

gradually  dawns,  and  maps  begin  to  take  on  some  veri- 
similitude. Among  the  first  of  these  is  the  great  Dauphin 
chart  of  date  about  1536,  so  named  because  it  was  apparently 
executed  by  order  of  Francis  I  of  France  for  his  son  the 
Dauphin,  afterwards  Henry  II. 

The  section  which  represents  Australia  is  unrecognizably 
misshapen,  but  it  falls  into  position,  and  is  plainly  founded 
on  fact.  Jave  la  Grande  it  is  called,  and  names  of  capes  and 
bays,  which  may  be  taken  as  embellishments  only,  are  printed 
along  its  coastline.  A  number  of  such  maps  are  in  existence, 
and  indicate  at  least  that  Australia  had  emerged  from  the 
sphere  of  scientific  dreams  and  nautical  traditions.  The 
completion  of  its  discovery  was  to  be  long  delayed,  but  it 
had  in  all  good  faith  loomed  above  the  horizon.  The  words 
of  Major  may  still  be  quoted  as  an  authoritative  finding  upon 
this  obscure  period  :  '  It  is  highly  probable  that  Australia 
was  discovered  by  the  Portuguese  between  151 1  and  1529, 
and  almost  to  a  demonstrable  certainty  before  1542.' 

The  Columbus  of  Australia,  though  not  rewarded  with  the 
success  of  the  Atlantic  navigator  (for  Cardinal  Moran's  theory 
to  the  contrary  must  be  dismissed  as  only  special  pleading), 
is  to  be  found  in  Pedro  Fernandez  de  Ouiros.  Dalrymple 
says  of  him  :  '  Reasoning  from  principles  of  science  and 
deep  reflection,  he  asserted  the  existence  of  a  southern  con- 
tinent, and  devoted  with  unwearied  though  contemned  dili- 
gence, the  remainder  of  his  life  to  this  sublime  conception.' 
He  said  himself  that  this  idea  '  had  grown  up  with  him  from 
his  cradle.'  He  must,  indeed,  have  been  possessed  by  the 
idea,  for  he  presented  over  fifty  petitions  of  great  length  to 
the  King  of  Spain,  praying  for  the  '  necessary  measures  for 
the  conquest  and  peopling  of  the  southern  land.' 

De  Ouiros  had  been  with  Mendana  in  1595  on  his  ill-fated 
expedition  to  colonize  the  island  of  San  Christoval,  one  of 
the  Solomon  group  previously  discovered  by  that  navigator, 
and  nothing  daunted,  desired  to  renew  the  attempt  and  yet 
more  beside.     In    1605   De  Quiros  set  sail  from  Callao,   in 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT        21 

Peru.  He  reached  finally  what  seems  to  have  been  the  New 
Hebrides,  beiieviiifr  (hat  he  had  come  to  a  portion  of  the 
land  he  sought.  He  named  the  island  where  lie  landed, 
according-  to  the  pious  usage  of  Spanish  explorers,  Australia 
(or,  as  Collingridge  points  out  decisively,  Austrialiu)  del 
Espiritu  Santo,  and  proceeded  to  take  official  possession  in 
the  name  of  the  King  of  Spain,  of  '  all  the  lands  seen,  and 
to  be  seen,  of  all  that  part  of  the  world  south  as  far  as  the 
south  pole.'  He  was  the  last  of  the  great  Spanish  seamen 
in  the  south. 

Luis  Vaez  de  Torres  commanded  the  second  ship  of  De 
Ouiros'  expedition,  and  has  given  an  account  in  his  journal 
of  how  his  commander's  ship  left  her  anchorage  and  '  departed 
at  one   hour  past  midnight   without  any   notice  given,   and 
without  any  signal,'  a  mysterious  movement  due  probably 
to  mutiny  on  board.     Torres,  being  unsuccessful  in  finding 
the  flagship,  determined  to  carry  out  the  royal  orders  inde- 
pendently, and  sailed  as  far  as  the  twenty-first  parallel.     On 
his  return  voyage  he  passed  through  the  strait  that  bears  his 
name,  and   reported   having  sighted  hills  to  the  south,  but 
made  no  further  investigation.     It  is  suggested  that  w-hat  he 
saw  was  Cape  York,  though  more  probably  it  was  the  heights 
of  Prince  of  Wales  Island.    With  the  waning  of  Spanish  sea 
power  and  the  rise  of  the  Dutch   navy  a  new  element  was 
introduced   into  southern   waters.     As  the   English   seamen, 
moved  by   religion  and  gain,  found  a  pious  and  profitable 
delight  in  'singeing  the  King  of  Spain's  beard'  Westward 
ho  !,  so  the  Dutch,  stung  to  a  merited  hatred  of  the  Spanish 
by  long  years  of  oppression  and  persecution,  saw  their  oppor- 
tunity in  the  East  Indies,  both  for  revenge  and  fat  damages. 
The  Dutch  East  India  Company  was  established  in  1602,  and 
soon  afterwards  its  ships  were  trading  to  Batavia,   Bantam, 
Amboyna,  and  adjacent  lands. 

In  1605  the  Dutch  yaciit  Duyfken  (Litllc  J^nvc)  of  thirty 
tons,  was  dispatched  from  Bantam  to  explore  the  islands  of 
New  Guinea.     The  captain  of  the  tinv  exploring  craft  coasted 


22         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

along  the  shores  of  New  Guinea,  and  then  unwittingly  crossed 
the  entrance  of  Torres  Strait,  and  entered  the  Gulf  of  Carpen- 
taria, supposing  its  shores  to  be  a  continuation  of  the  New 
Guinea  coastline.  Some  of  the  crew  w-ent  ashore  and  were 
murdered  by  '  wild,  cruel,  black  savages.'  For  want  of  pro- 
visions the  captain  returned  upon  his  course,  naming  his 
furthest  point  south   Cape  Keer  Weer  (Turn   Again). 

At  last  Australia  had  been  discovered,  albeit  unconsciously 
and  ingloriously,  the  captain's  comment  upon  it  being,  '  for 
the  most  part  desert.'  Thus,  with  forbidding  face  at  its 
threshold,  did  Australia  lower  upon  its  first  European  visitors. 
Twelve  years  later  Dirk  Hartog,  in  command  of  the 
Endracht  of  Amsterdam,  discovered  the  west  coast,  and  left 
on  an  island  a  record  of  his  landing,  inscribed  on  a  tin  plate 
which  he  nailed  to  a  post.  Eighty  years  afterwards  (1697) 
Captain  Vlaming,  of  the  ship  Geelvink,  found  this  plate,  and 
copying  the  original  and  adding  particulars  of  his  own  visit, 
replaced  it  by  a  new-  one.  More  than  a  hundred  years  later 
still,  the  French  ship  Naturaliste  touched  at  the  island,  when 
the  second  plate  was  found,  half  buried  in  the  sand  at  the 
foot  of  the  post.  A  new  post  was  set  up  and  the  plate 
reaffixed.  It  was  only  in  1902  that  the  first  immortal  plate. 
Dirk  Hartog's  own,  was  found  in  the  State  Museum  at 
Amsterdam.  The  Dutch  continued  to  keep  an  eye  on  the 
great  south  land  in  an  irresolute  way.  In  1618  the  Mauritius 
touched  on  the  west  coast  at  North-West  Cape;  in  1622  the 
Leeuwin  was  on  the  same  coast,  and  the  south-westerly  head- 
land was  named  after  the  vessel.  The  year  following,  Captain 
Jan  Carstens  of  the  Arnhem  landed  in  New  Guinea  and  was 
murdered  by  the  natives.  The  Arnhem's  consort,  the  Pera, 
followed  the  course  of  the  Duyfken  to  seventeen  degrees 
south.  Her  captain  could  only  confirm  the  gloomy  report 
of  his  countryman  who  had  preceded  him.  He  wrote:  '  In 
this  discovery  were  found  everywhere  shallow  waters  and 
barren   coasts,    islands   peopled   by   divers   poor   and   brutal 


DISCOVERY    AND    SRTTI.RMKNT        23 

nations,  and  of  very  little  use  to  the  Dutch  East  India  Com- 
pany.' In  1627  the  Guide  Zeepard,  'with  sloping  mast  and 
dripping  prow,'  was  pitching  and  rolling  in  the  Great  Aus- 
tralian Bight,  and  followed  the  south  coast  for  800  miles, 
naming  it  Pieter  Nuyls'  Land.  The  next  year  the  Vianen 
followed  the  west  coast  for  200  miles,  and  reported  '  a  foul 
and  barren  shore.' 

The  wreck  of  the  Balavia  on  Hout nam's  Abrolhos  off  the 
west  coast  in  1629  makes  a  lurid  story.  The  Batavia  had 
become  separated  from  the  other  ships  of  the  expedition,  and 
at  midnight  struck  this  reef  in  an  unknown  sea.  The  sur- 
vivors landed  on  a  small  island,  and  the  captain  with  some 
seamen  presently  sailed  off  in  one  of  the  small  boats  to  the 
mainland  in  search  of  water.  So  hopeless  was  the  prospect 
that  they  decided  to  make  for  Batavia  for  help.  On  their  way 
they  met  three  Dutch  vessels,  and  in  one  of  them  proceeded 
to  Batavia,  where  the  Governor  ordered  the  yacht  Saardaam 
to  sail  to  the  relief  of  the  shipwrecked  party.  Meanwhile, 
mutiny  had  broken  out  among  those  left  on  the  little  island, 
and  massacre  followed.  A  company  of  forty-five  succeeded 
in  defending  themselves  against  the  mutineers,  and  were  able 
to  warn  their  captain  on  the  relief  ship  of  the  intention  of  the 
mutinous  gang  to  seize  it.  On  attempting  to  board  the 
Saardaam  the  ruffians  were  unexpectedly  arrested.  Some  of 
them  were  hanged,  and  two  were  put  ashore  and  left  to  meet 
what  fate  might  be  in  store  for  them. 

The  sturdy  Dutch  were  slow  to  abandon  hope  of  the 
uninviting  south  land,  and  under  the  direction  of  Anthony 
\'an  Dieman,  Governor-General  of  Batavia,  an  expedition  was 
fitted  out  for  more  thorough  exploration,  with  Abel  Jans 
Tasman  in  command.  The  little  squadron,  consisting  of 
two  ships,  the  Heenskirk  and  the  Zeehaen,  sailed  from  Batavia 
on  August  14,  1642,  and  with  favouring  breeze  at  once  stood 
on  a  south-easterly  course;  '  for  which  the  Lord  be  praised,' 
ejaculates  the  devout  commander  in  his  journal.  On  Novem- 
ber 24  land  was  sighted;  it  was  the  country  which  is  now 


24         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

called  Tasmania,  after  its  discoverer,  but  which  he  loyally 
named  after  his  chief.  Van  Dieman's  Land.  Tasman  went 
ashore,  but  saw  no  natives,  though  he  noticed  smoke  rising 
at  several  points.  He  observed  the  tracks  of  an  animal  '  with 
claws  like  a  tiger  ' ;  and  heard  strange  sounds  like  a  gong ; 
and  particularly  examined  some  trees  with  steps  five  feet 
apart  cut  in  them,  which  suggested  to  him  that  there  were 
giants  in  the  land.  On  December  5  Tasman  sailed  away, 
and  on  the  13th  fell  in  with  mountainous  country,  which  he 
named  Staaten  Land,  and  cast  anchor  in  the  strait  between 
what  came  to  be  known  later  as  the  North  and  Middle  Islands 
of  New  Zealand.  There  was  immediate  trouble  with  the 
natives,  and  a  boat's  crew  from  the  Zeehaen  was  charged  and 
capsized  by  a  canoe,  three  of  the  Dutch  seamen  being  killed. 
Tasman  wrote  of  the  '  detestable  deed,'  and  solemnly 
proclaimed  the  natives  as  enemies,  naming  the  spot  Mur- 
derer's Bay. 

At  another  point  twenty-two  canoes  were  counted  inshore ; 
eleven  came  off  crowded  with  men,  and  were  only  stopped 
by  the  fire  of  both  ships.  A  landing  was  effected  on  Three 
Kings'  Islands,  but  finding  again  that  the  natives  were  hostile, 
and  the  weather  coming  up  stormy,  the  expedition  sailed 
away.  Whether  New  Zealand  was  an  island,  or  part  of  an 
archipelago,  or  a  continent,  Tasman  did  not  stay  to  ascertain. 
He  made  a  second  voyage  in  1644,  which  resulted  in  a  map 
giving  the  first  reliable  outline  of  the  coast  of  Australia  as 
so  far  discovered ;  the  whole  of  the  east  coast,  and  parts  of 
the  north  and  south  coasts,  of  course,  being  still  blank.  The 
great  South  Land  (Terra  Australia)  now  became  known  as 
New  Holland ;  and  with  much  propriety,  for  the  Dutch  had 
expended  men  and  money  upon  its  exploration  as  no  other 
nation  had.  But  no  exact  assertion  of  right  to  its  ownership 
was  made,  though  Tasman  had  been  directed  to  take  official 
possession  of  every  place  available,  by  erecting  cairns  or 
posts,  and  placing  upon  them  the  arms  of  the  Netherlands 
with  the  date  of  discovery  and  landing,  in  order  '  to  prevent 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT        25 

any  other  nation  in  Europe  reaping  tlie  fruits  of  our  labour 
and  expense  in  these  discoveries.' 

Many  other  Dutch  ships  visited  the  coast  of  Austraha, 
some  storm-driven  out  of  their  track  to  the  Kast  Indies,  or 
missing-  their  way  in  the  vast  waste  of  water;  and  heavy  toll 
was  taken  of  them  in  wreck  and  treasure  and  life.  In  1655 
the  Ver guide  Draeck  was  wrecked  on  the  west  coast.  If  any 
of  her  crew  escaped  it  was  only  to  perish  on  land,  and  7S,(XX) 
silver  guilders  went  down  with  the  ship.  Two  years  later 
search  ships  examined  the  coast,  but  found  no  vestige  of 
crew  or  treasure.  About  the  year  1684  another  vessel,  the 
Ridderscap  van  Hollattd,  was  lost  on  the  same  coast,  and, 
after  ten  years  this  time,  again  a  fruitless  search  was  made. 
In  1727  the  Zee^vyk  was  cast  away,  and  most  of  the  crew- 
drowned;  but  the  survivors  succeeded  in  building  a  raft  out 
of  the  wreck,  and  with  eighty-two  persons  on  board  and  ten 
treasure  chests  safety  was  reached.  In  addition  to  other 
recorded  voyages,  it  is  probable  that  a  number  of  Dutch  ships, 
of  which  no  account  remains,  visited  the  west  coast  from  the 
time  of  Tasman  to  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century.  The 
wrecks  of  some  of  these  also  lie  along  the  Australian  coast, 
a  dire  tribute  of  stolid  Dutch  pertinacity  through  a  century 
and  a  quarter. 

At  last  the  Dutch  became  weary  of  a  bootless  discovery, 
and  reluctantly  abandoned  further  hope  of  being  finally 
recouped  in  Australia.  Thev  made  the  earliest  assured  con- 
tributions to  a  knowledge  of  this  continent,  and  then  passed, 
leaving  Dutch  names  on  the  map,  the  wrecks  of  not  a  few 
broad-built  and  clumsy  but  gallant  ships,  and  piles  of  records 
to  be  codified  at  The  Hague.  Australia  remained  ownerless 
still,  awaiting  her  true  destiny. 

English  navigators  were  late  comers  into  Australian  seas. 
The  lure  of  the  unknown  south  land  had  been  lost  upon 
them,  or  they  were  occupied  elsewhere.  English  geographers 
had  knowledge  of  the  existence  of  this  unexploited  continent, 
of  the  loose  contemporary  kind.     In  a  map  of   1578,  which 


26  A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

accompanies  the  account  of  Frobisher's  voyages,  it  is  siiown 
as  an  unbroken  mass  of  land  quite  obliterating  the  Antarctic 
Ocean.  It  is  described  thus  :  '  Terra  Australis  seemeth  to  be 
a  great  firm  land,  lying  under  and  about  the  South  Pole, 
being  in  many  places  a  fruitefull  soyle,  and  is  not  yet  throwly 
discovered,  but  onlye  seene  and  touched  at  the  north  edge 
thereof,  by  the  travail  of  the  Portingales  and  Spaniards.* 

The  first  Englishman  known  to  have  visited  Australia  was 
William  Dampier.  He  was  a  strange  combination  of  pirate, 
explorer,  scientist,  and  writer.  He  came  with  a  wild  bucca- 
neering crew  to  Australia  '  to  see  what  the  country  could 
afford.'  He  had  a  quarrel  with  his  shipmates,  who  threatened 
to  maroon  him  on  the  west  coast.  But  a  little  later  (1699) 
Dampier  was  on  the  same  coast  again  in  the  reputable  role 
of  commander  of  H.M.S.  Roebuck,  for  the  express  purpose 
of  reporting  upon  Australia  to  the  British  Government.  He 
was  an  erratic  genius,  and  evidently  had  no  enthusiasm  for 
patient  and  monotonous  exploration.  He  cruised  along  the 
coast  for  900  miles,  according  to  his  own  statement,  and  made 
some  rambling  trips  on  shore,  but  did  not  carry  out  his 
instructions  to  solve  the  problem  of  the  south  and  east  of 
the  continent. 

Dampier's  first  impressions  of  Australia  were  doleful 
enough.  Its  people  were  '  the  miserablest  in  the  world,' 
and  the  barrenness  of  the  country  was  unrelieved.  '  It  affords 
them  no  food  at  all.  There  is  neither  herb,  root,  pulse,  nor 
any  kind  of  grain  that  we  saw.'  On  his  second  visit  he  gave 
a  more  cheerful  report,  but  evidently  the  country  in  his  eyes 
was  unredeemed  and  hopeless.  It  was  left  for  a  nobler 
Englishman  than  Dampier  to  give  Australia  to  his  country- 
men. James  Cook,  the  final  discoverer  of  Australia,  began 
his  life  as  a  farm-boy  in  Yorkshire;  but  at  eight  years  of 
age  was  sent,  by  the  kindness  of  a  Mr.  Skottowe,  to  the  village 
school.  Later  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  shopkeeper  in  the  little 
fishing  port  of  Staithes.  The  old  story  of  a  stolen  shilling, 
and  the  consequent  running  away  to  sea,  has  been  disposed 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT        27 

of  by  Kittson  in  his  lull  and  painstaking,'  bio<^rapliy  of  Co(jk. 
But  the  call  of  the  sea  was  irresistible,  and  apparently  with 
the  consent  of  his  father  and  the  i^^ood-will  of  his  master,  the 
vouthful  retailer  left  the  villa<^e  shop,  and  went  as  an  appren- 
tice on  a  ship  sailin*^  from  Whitby  in  the  coastal  coal  trade. 

Cook  rose  rapidly  to  the  position  of  mate,  and  had  that 
of  master  offered  to  him  ;  but,  with  visions  of  larger  possi- 
bilities, he  left  the  collier  marine,  and  volunteered  with  the 
rank  of  ordinary  seaman  aboard  1 1. M.S.  Eagle.  He  saw 
active  service,  and  won  recognition  and  promotion.  After 
six  years  in  the  navy  he  received  ;^50  from  the  Government, 
'  in  consideration  of  his  indefatigable  industry  in  making 
himself  master  of  the  pilotage  of  the  St.  Lawrence,'  in  con- 
nexion with  the  British  operations  under  Wolfe  upon  Quebec, 
held  by  the  French  under  Montcalm.  At  the  age  of  thirty 
Cook  was  in  command  of  the  schooner  Antelope,  charting 
the  coast  of  Labrador,  and  while  off  the  shores  of  Newfound- 
land took  such  careful  observations  of  an  eclipse  of  the  sun 
that  the  Royal  Society  was  amazed  at  the  intelligence  and 
accuracy  of  the  report  furnished  by  a  mere  warrant  officer. 

Cook's  first  voyage  (1768)  to  the  South  Seas  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  ship  Endeavour,  a  vessel  of  370  tons  of  the 
collier  class,  sent  out  by  the  British  Government,  conveying 
a  scientific  party  for  the  observation  of  a  transit  of  Venus; 
Tahiti  having  been  chosen  as  the  spot  from  which  to  view 
the  transit.  His  further  directions  were,  when  this  object 
had  been  achieved,  *  to  make  discoveries  in  the  Southern 
Pacific,'  to  voyage  southward  till  he  touched  New  Zealand, 
and  then  '  to  return  to  England  by  such  route  as  he  thought 
proper.'  There  was  no  mention  of  Australia  in  his  orders. 
The  scientific  mission  having  been  completed,  the  Endeavour 
left  Tahiti  on  .April  10,  1769,  and  on  October  17  New  Zealand 
was  sighted.  On  the  following  day  a  landing  was  effected, 
first  of  a  long  succession  of  those  who  would  eventually 
make  that  remote  land  as  British  as  Britain  herself.  In  a 
letter  to  his  friend.  Captain  John  Walker  of  Whitby,  quoted 


28         A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

by  Kittson,  Cook  tells  in  his  quiet,  reserved  fashion  of  his 
doings.  '  In  the  beginning  of  August,  1769,  we  quitted  the 
tropical  regions,  and  steered  southward  in  the  midst  of  the 
South  Sea  to  the  height  of  40°,  and  without  meeting  with 
any  land,  or  the  least  visible  signs  of  any ;  we  then  steered 
to  the  westward  between  the  latitude  of  30°  and  40°,  until 
we  fell  in  with  New  Zealand,  a  very  small  part  of  the  west 
coast  of  which  was  discovered  by  Tasman,  but  he  never  set 
foot  on  it.  This  country  was  thought  to  be  part  of  a  southern 
continent,  but  I  have  found  it  to  be  two  large  islands,  both 
of  which  I  circumnavigated  in  the  space  of  six  months.' 

Cook  had  trouble  with  the  natives,  and  there  was  some 
unavoidable  bloodshed,  which  greatly  distressed  him.  He 
was  tactful  and  patient,  and  looked  at  affairs  from  the  natives' 
point  of  view.  With  his  own  men  who  offended  against 
native  rights  he  dealt  severely.  In  a  letter  to  Captain  Walker 
he  spoke  of  the  natives  of  New  Zealand  as  '  a  brave,  warlike 
people,  with  sentiments  void  of  treachery,  and  when  once 
peace  was  settled  they  ever  after  were  our  very  good  friends.' 
It  would  seem  that  the  idea  of  founding  a  colony  in  New 
Zealand  at  once  presented  itself.  The  scientific  members  of 
the  expedition  were  favourably  impressed  with  the  country, 
and  Cook  was  prepared  to  recommend  as  the  site  of  a  first 
settlement  the  estuary  of  the  new  Thames  he  had  named,  and 
the  Bay  of  Islands. 

On  leaving  New  Zealand,  the  Endeavour  was  headed  for 
the  east  coast  of  New  Holland.  Cook  knew  what  was  to  be 
known  about  that  land,  and  never  claimed  to  be  the  discoverer 
of  it;  but  the  east  coast  lay  unvisited  and  unplaced;  with 
reference  to  this,  he  has  unabated  right  and  title  as  discoverer. 
This  east  coast  was  sighted  on  April  19,  1770,  and  as  the 
coastline  was  followed  Cook  was  pleased  with  its  look.  It 
bore  a  kindlier  face  than  the  w-est  and  south  had  done  for 
their  Dutch  discoverers.  On  April  29,  the  opening  of  a  bay 
having  been  noticed,  and  the  country  presenting  '  a  very 
agreeable  and  promising  aspect,'  a  landing  was  decided  upon. 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT        29 

The  pinnace  was  sent  olT  to  take  sounding-,  the  ship  following 
in  closely,  finally  droppin<;  anchor.  Cook  first  named  the 
spot  Sting-ray  Harbour,  but  later  re-named  it  Botany  iiay,  on 
account  of  '  the  great  quantity  of  plants  Mr.  Banks  and 
Dr.  Solander  found  there.'  On  landing,  the  party  met  with 
an  unfriendly  reception  from  the  natives,  and  it  was  found 
necessary  to  frighten  them  by  a  discharge  of  firearms  and 
small  shot  at  a  comparatively  harmless  distance.  The  landing 
was  an  epoch-making  event;  for,  unlike  all  other  European 
visitors  to  Australia,  the  British  had  come  eventually  to  stav. 

Cook  proceeded  northward,  carefully  noting  the  coastline. 
The  Endeavour  was  not  a  rapid  sailer,  and  26  miles  a  day 
was  a  frequent  run,  while  10  miles  was  often  recorded. 
But  what  was  lacking  in  speed  the  old  ship  made  up  in 
fidelity,  and  though  a  veritable  tub,  she  was,  save  for  rock 
and  reef,  almost  unsinkable;  and  Cook  had  good  reason  to 
praise  his  ship  as  '  the  most  proper  for  the  service  he  ever 
saw.'  All  went  wel!  until  June  10,  when,  without  any  sign 
of  danger,  the  Endeavour  struck  a  reef,  and,  in  spite  of  the 
jettisoning  of  guns  and  ballast,  remained  fast  for  twenty- 
three  hours.  Finally  she  floated  off,  but  apparently  only  to 
founder  in  deep  water.  With  great  difficulty  a  sail  was 
passed  under  the  ship  and  the  inrush  of  water  stayed.  She 
was  barely  floated  into  the  mouth  of  a  river  and  beached. 
It  was  two  months  before  she  could  be  got  ready  for  sea 
again.  Examination  of  the  vessel  showed  that  a  large  piece 
of  rock  had  broken  off  the  reef  and  remained  lodged  in  the 
leak ;  and  had  it  not  been  for  this  opportune  plug,  not  even 
the  buoyant  qualities  of  the  Endeavour,  and  the  quick 
resourcefulness  of  her  commander,  could  have  saved  the 
ship. 

A  second  hair's-breadth  escape  was  experienced  when  the 
Endeavour  was  between  Australia  and  New  Guinea;  a  sudden 
breeze  springing  up  at  the  last  moment  enabled  the  ship  to 
steer  off  a  second  deadly  reef.  Providence  Channel  is  the 
name  Cook  gave   to  this  spot   where  tiic  tinu-iy   wirui  came 


30         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

to  his  aid  and  snatched  his  vessel  from  the  jaws  of  destruction. 
It  was  an  anxious  time,  threading  the  ship  in  and  out  of  the 
reefs,  '  without  ever  having  a  man  out  of  the  chains  heaving 
the  lead  when  the  ship  was  under  sail  ' ;  and  with  a  sigh  of 
relief  Cook  left  this  treacherous  track  behind.  He  had  now 
connected  his  discoveries  with  those  of  earlier  navigators, 
completing  the  whole  of  the  continent;  but  havin;^-  no  doubt 
as  to  his  claim  to  the  discovery  of  the  east  coast,  he  proceeded 
before  sailing  aw-ay  to  take  possession  of  this  portion  for  the 
King  of  England.  He  named  it  New  Wales,  or,  as  it  is 
given  in  both  the  king's  copy  of  Cook's  Journal  and  the 
Admiralty  copy,  New  South  Wales.  The  formal  act  of 
possession  took  place  on  Possession  Island,  August  21,  1770; 
the  English  flag  was  hoisted,  and  '  three  volleys  of  small  arms 
were  fired,  which  were  answered  in  like  number  from  the 
ship.'  It  was  a  far  greater  occasion  than  that  '  tall,  thin, 
austere  '  English  sea  captain  knew;  for  he  had  little  prevision 
of  the  possibilities  of  the  great,  empty  land  he  had  claimed 
with  what  poor  pomp  and  circumstance  were  at  his  command. 

Cook  reached  England  again  on  June  12,  1771,  after  an 
absence  of  two  years,  four  months,  and  nineteen  days.  The 
question  of  the  southern  continent  was  not  regarded,  however, 
as  settled.  Australia  did  not  meet  the  theory,  and  a  second 
expedition  was  decided  upon,  with  Cook  in  command.  It 
proved  to  be  a  three  years'  voyage,  during  which  the  Antarctic 
Circle  was  crossed,  and  through  fog  and  storm  and  ice-floes 
the  two  ships  of  the  expedition,  the  Resolution  and  the  Adven- 
ture, fought  their  devious  way,  until  a  field  of  ice,  of  which 
Cook  could  see  '  no  end,  either  to  the  west,  or  east,  or  south,' 
turned  them  back.  New  Zealand  was  again  visited,  but  not 
Australia. 

Yet  a  third  time  did  this  tireless  navigator  find  himself 
in  the  South  Seas,  and  this  time  to  meet  his  tragic  end. 
During  the  call  of  the  expedition  at  Hawaii  there  was  serious 
trouble  with  the  natives,  culminating  in  a  deadly  affray.  As 
Cook  and  his  party  fell  back  upon   their  boats  the  natives 


DISCOVERY    AND    SKTTLI«:MENT        31 

attacked  them  fiercely  with  stones  and  spears.  The  marines 
replied  with  a  volley,  but  before  they  had  time  to  reload  the 
natives  charged  them  in  a  body,  and  four  of  Cook's  men 
were  killed.  The  boats'  crews  had  now  opened  fire,  and 
Cook  turned  to  order  them  to  cease  and  pull  in  to  shore. 
At  that  moment  a  native,  relieved  of  the  spell  of  the  great 
navigator's  eye,  rushed  up  and  stabbed  him  in  the  back,  and 
he  fell  into  the  water.  As  soon  as  he  fell  the  crowd  dashed 
forward,  dragged  him  ashore,  and  snatching  the  dagger  from 
one  another's  hands,  displayed  a  savage  delight  in  sharing 
the  murderous  deed.  Several  attempts  from  the  ships  were 
made  during  the  following  days  to  recover  the  body,  and 
some  parts  of  it  were  eventually  brought  in  by  the  natives. 
Captain  Clerke  four  days  later  made  this  entry:  'The  21st 
l-'ebruary.  At  sunset  the  Resolution  fired  ten  minute  guns, 
with  the  colours  half-staff  up,  when  the  remains  of  our  late 
commander  were  committed  to  the  deep.'  Clerke  was  not  a 
man  of  words;  but  Gilbert,  the  master's  mate,  has  left  on 
record  the  silent  sorrow,  the  tears  of  the  ships'  crews,  and 
how  they  moved  as  in  a  dream. 

It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  Cook  gave  Australia  and 
New  Zealand  to  the  British  Empire.  These  are  his  deathless 
trophies.  As  a  navigator  much  besides  lies  to  his  credit. 
He  discovered  the  Society  and  the  Sandwich  Islands,  and 
the  large  island  of  New  Caledonia,  beside  others  of  less  note. 
He  decided,  by  months  of  perilous  exploration,  the  theory  of 
a  yet  greater  southern  continent.  He  made  a  careful  examina- 
tion of  the  coast  of  North  America  for  nearly  4,000  miles, 
and  made  a  bold  attempt  at  the  dreamed-of  North-West 
passage.  He  was  a  great  sailor — none  greater — and  a  great 
Englishman.  In  the  Morning  Chronicle  of  January  22,  1780, 
there  appeared  a  letter  which  Kittson  thinks  bears  evidence 
of  being  from  the  pen  of  Sir  Joseph  Banks.  It  gives  a  simple, 
unexaggerated,  and  noble  picture  of  Cook.  Among  its  clear- 
cut  lines  are  these:  'His  fiaternal  courage  was  undaunted. 
His  patience  and  perseverance  not  to  be  fatigued.     His  know- 


32         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

ledge  in  the  art  of  practical  surveying  inferior  to  no  man's. 
His  skill  in  mathematics  and  astronomy  was  complete  as  far 
as  those  sciences  are  necessary  to  a  seaman.  His  great  atten- 
tion to  the  cleanliness  of  his  people,  and  other  minutiae  of 
discipline  (nothing  of  which  he  trusted  to  any  but  himself), 
were  the  great  causes  of  the  wonderful  health  his  ship's 
company  always  enjoyed. 

'  The  humanity  with  which  he  treated  the  natives  of  all 
places  where  he  had  occasion  to  touch  had  carried  him  safe 
through  a  variety  of  nations,  among  whom  were  many 
different  tribes  of  warlike  and  barbarous  people ;  but  his 
attentions  to  the  safety  of  those  under  his  command,  and  his 
fixed  resolution  that  no  one  should  incur  more  danger  than 
himself,  made  it  his  constant  measure  never  to  trust  any  man 
ashore  without  him  in  an  unknown  country,  till  a  good 
understanding  with  the  natives  had  taken  place.  But,  alas  ! 
it  is  to  this  humane  and  laudable  disposition  that  the  loss  of 
his  life  is  to  be  most  probably  attributed,  and  to  his  having 
placed  too  much  confidence  in  the  return  of  benevolence 
which  uncivilized  people  so  generally  make  to  those  who 
treat  them  like  fellow  creatures,  and  which  he  so  frequently 
experienced.' 

Both  Spanish  and  Dutch  in  turn  entertained  ideas  of  settle- 
ment in  Australia.  The  latter,  as  late  as  1721,  actually 
dispatched  an  expedition  for  the  founding  of  a  colony  in 
Nuyts'  Land  on  the  south  coast.  Misadventure  attended 
the  voyage,  and  the  little  fleet  never  reached  Australia,  but 
found  its  way  into  the  harbour  of  Batavia.  The  first  British 
project  for  the  occupation  of  Australia,  it  is  true,  came  very 
early,  but  only  as  a  speculative  bid  for  the  unknown.  Sir 
William  Courteen,  a  London  merchant,  and  part-owner  of 
more  than  twenty  ships,  employing  between  four  and  five 
thousand  seamen,  petitioned  King  James  I  in  spacious  fashion 
for  a  personal  grant  in  fee  simple  of  '  all  the  lands  in  ye 
south  parts  of  the  world,  called  Terra  Australis,  together  with 
all  ye  adjacente  Islands.'     He  also  desired  '  power  to  erecte 


DISCOVRRY    AND    SETTLEMENT        33 

colonies  and  plantations  thereon,  and  Courts  of  Justice, 
ofticers  and  ministers,  for  ye  settlinge  and  governinj^^c  of 
ye  said  colonies  and  plantations.'  It  was  an  ambitious 
scheme.  Hut  Australia  would  have  sadly  disappointed  such 
mercantile  dreams. 

The  French  had  ample  territorial  opportunities  in  Australia, 
but  remained  indifferent  until  the  awakeninj:^  was  too  late. 
De  Bougainville  immediately  preceded  Cook  in  the  South 
Pacific,  followed  by  his  ill-fated  countryman,  Du  Fresne. 
Within  a  week  of  the  arrival  of  Phillip  in  Botany  Bay,  the 
expedition  under  La  Perouse  hove  in  sight,  and  presently 
sailed  away  to  meet  its  doom,  unknown  for  forty  years.  They 
came,  they  saw,  they  went  empty  away.  Though  anticipated 
by  Phillip  on  the  east  coast,  there  was  nothing  to  prevent 
La  Perouse  hoisting  the  French  flag  over  some  other  portion 
of  Australia.  The  later  expedition  under  Baudin  with  two 
ships,  the  Geographe  and  the  iS'aturaliste,  resulted  in  the 
evanescent  scattering  of  French  names  along  the  south  coast; 
the  territory  itself  being  named  Terre  Napoleon,  and 
Spencer's  Gulf  becoming  Golfe  Bonaparte,  and  the  Gulf  of 
St.  Vincent,  Golfe  Josephine.  The  expedition  had,  no  doubt, 
a  strategic  significance.  Had  the  fortunes  of  Bonaparte  been 
different  in  Europe,  the  History  of  Australia  would  be  different 
also.  The  last  shadow  of  France  falls  upon  Australia,  and 
vanishes,  in  some  curious  evidence  of  a  secret  wild  design  on 
the  part  of  Napoleon  for  invasion  and  occupation. 

Meanwhile,  Australia  had  long  gone  a-begging.  At  last 
she  was  to  be  taken  up,  if  only  reluctantly  and  of  necessity. 
The  first  suggestion  of  making  practical  use  of  Cook's  dis- 
covery was  put  before  the  British  Government  by  James 
Maria  Matra,  who  had  been  a  midshipman  on  the  great 
captain's  ship,  the  Endeavour.  Thirteen  years  had  passed 
since  Cook's  visit.  Meanwhile,  the  American  colonies  had 
revolted,  and  been  lost  to  the  British  Crown.  It  was  necessiiry 
for  the  American  loyalists  to  find  another  home,  in  view  of 
the    newly    constituted    (jovernment    of    the    L'nited    States. 


34         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Matra  suggested  Australia  as  meeting  the  need.  There,  he 
pointed  out,  was  a  spot  for  new  plantations,  with  coloured 
labour  available  in  the  South  Seas,  in  place  of  the  accustomed 
negroes;  while  convict  labour  from  England  could  be  supplied 
as  to  America  formerly.  Sir  Joseph  Banks  heartily  supported 
the  scheme,  but  the  British  Government  was  lukewarm.  The 
loyalists  grew  tired  of  waiting,  and  themselves  solved  the 
problem  by  settling  in  Canada.  But  less  elevated  induce- 
ments eventually  prevailed  with  the  Government  to  make 
use  of  Australia.  The  hulks  and  jails  of  England  were 
crowded ;  the  American  ports  to  which  convicts  had  been 
shipped  were  no  longer  open.  Some  outlet  had  to  be  found, 
and  Australia  was  chosen. 

The  genesis  of  British  settlement  in  Australia  was  not  so 
sordid,  however,  as  the  bare  facts  suggest  to-day.  The  found- 
ing of  a  colony  by  the  deportation  of  prisoners  was  an  ancient 
European  practice.  The  emigration  of  free,  able-bodied  men 
was  regarded  as  too  great  a  drain  upon  the  population  and 
military  resources  of  a  nation,  and  when  a  new  colony  was 
projected  the  dispatch  of  convicts  to  its  shores  was  regarded 
usually  as  an  indispensable  factor.  Phillip's  commission  did 
not  indicate  a  penal  settlement  merely,  but  a  Crown  colony. 
His  own  conception  of  the  settlement  was  prophetic  and 
imperial.  Intensely  sober-minded  and  matter-of-fact  as  he 
was,  he  saw  visions  and  dreamed  dreams.  '  I  would  not  wish 
for  convicts  to  lay  the  Foundations  of  an  Empire,'  he  wrote, 
with  a  self-revealing  touch.  He  begged  the  home  Govern- 
ment from  the  first  to  offer  every  encouragement  and  assist- 
ance to  free  emigrants  for  the  new  colony. 

It  was  on  May  13,  1797,  that  a  British  fleet  with  the  first 
equivocal  levy  for  New  South  Wales  sailed  from  Portsmouth, 
carrying  600  male  and  250  female  prisoners.  The  guard 
consisted  of  208  officers  and  privates.  In  spite  of  Phillip's 
watchful  oversight  the  fleet  was  ill  found;  and  but  for  his 
care,  amounting  to  genius  during  the  prolonged  eight  months' 
passage,    the   experiment   of   conveying   over    1,000   persons 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLRMKNT        35 

cooped  together  through  tropical  seas  would  have  been  dis- 
astrous. Only  one  marine  and  twenty-four  passengers  died 
on  the  voyage;  while  the  second  fleet,  under  ordinary  official 
management,  carrying  900  convicts,  had  the  gruesome  record 
of  370  deaths  on  the  voyage,  and  a  still  greater  number  carried 
ashore  at  the  point  of  death  on  arrival  in  port.  Again,  of 
122  male  convicts  who  reached  vSydney  by  the  transport 
Queen  in  the  following  year,  only  55  were  alive  a  few  months 
later,  so  terrible  was  the  toll  on  the  voyage  and  afterwards. 

Phillip's  ship  anchored  in  Botany  Bay  on  January  18,  17S8, 
but  the  site  of  the  settlement  was  immediately  moved  to  Port 
Jackson,  close  by,  which  he  regarded  with  intense  satisfaction 
as  '  the  finest  harbour  in  the  world.'  The  task  that  confronted 
Phillip  was  a  tremendous  one.  He  stood  in  a  wilderness  of 
which  he  knew  nothing,  but  which  he  was  charged  to  subdue, 
with  the  most  unpromising  agents  that  could  have  been  placed 
at  his  command.  Ground  had  to  be  cleared;  barracks,  huts, 
store-rooms,  hospital,  and  magazine  to  be  built ;  and  the 
unhappy  mob  of  prisoners  to  be  controlled  and  organized  in 
a  setting  of  open  forest.  Not  only  had  a  minister  of  religion 
been  overlooked  in  the  arrangements  until  the  last  moments, 
but  artisans  and  agriculturists  were  lacking  also.  The  best 
thing  in  agriculture  Phillip  could  devise  was  to  put  100 
men  on  the  land,  under  the  charge  of  his  butler,  who  had 
some  little  knowledge  of  farming.  The  immediate  productive- 
ness of  the  country  had  been  much  over-estimated  by  the 
home  authorities.  Now,  on  the  spot,  Major  Ross  declared 
that  the  colony  would  not  be  self-supporting  in  a  hundred 
years.  '  It  will  be  cheaper,'  he  wrote,  '  to  feed  convicts  at 
the  London  Tavern  on  turtle  and  venison,  than  to  send  them 
out  here.' 

It  was  not  long  before  the  problem  of  feeding  the  colony 
became  acute.  The  supply  ship.  Guardian,  had  been  wrecked 
on  her  way  out;  and  the  Lady  Juliana  arrived  with  short 
stores  and  200  additional  convicts.  The  nearest  point  from 
which  supplies  could  be  obtained  was  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope, 


36         A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

and  thither  sailed  the  Sirms.  It  proved  to  be  an  eight 
months'  voyage  out  and  back.  When  she  returned  it  was 
with  four  months'  suppHes  only,  and  soon  the  isolated,  help- 
less colony  was  threatened  with  absolute  starvation.  For  a 
long  time  half  rations  were  issued,  and  these  had  to  be  again 
and  again  reduced.  Phillip  cast  his  private  stores  into  the 
common  stock,  and  himself  received  daily  the  same  allowance 
as  a  convict.  On  and  after  April  20,  1790,  the  weekly  issue 
per  man  was  2J  lb.  of  flour,  2  lb.  of  rice,  2  lb.  of  pork; 
but  even  this  pitiful  dole  could  not  be  maintained.  All  public 
works  were  suspended,  for  the  sufficient  reason  that  no  one 
had  strength  to  labour.  Through  all  this  Phillip  bore  himself 
as  a  brave  and  self-possessed  administrator  and  as  the  father 
of  his  people.  Under  less  capable  control  the  narrow  margin 
between  the  colony  and  annihilation  by  hunger  could  scarcely 
have  been  maintained. 

In  addition  to  this  prolonged  trouble  which  so  seriously 
retarded  the  growth  of  the  colony,  there  were  attempts  at 
mutiny  among  the  prisoners,  and  wildly  ignorant  attempts 
at  escape.  An  overland  route  to  China  was  a  favourite  theory. 
At  one  time  as  many  as  forty  convicts  were  absent  from  roll- 
call,  on  their  way  to  China  !  There  were  quarrels  among  the 
officers ;  the  sheep  brought  from  the  Cape  died ;  the  cattle 
strayed  and  were  lost  in  the  bush ;  lack  of  interest,  incapacity, 
and  insubordination,  in  high  and  low,  made  the  Governor's 
position  a  difficult  and  almost  hopeless  one.  But  at  the  end 
of  four  years  Phillip's  indefatigable  zeal  and  good  sense  had 
brought  the  colony  safely  through  the  crisis,  and  real  advance- 
ment had  been  made.  The  Hawkesbury  River,  with  its  rich 
alluvial  flats,  had  been  discovered,  and  was  in  a  fair  way  of 
becoming  a  granary  for  the  colony;  and  the  sembfance  of  an 
ordered,  self-supporting  community  had  been  created.  At  the 
close  of  five  years  the  population  of  the  colony  was  approxi- 
mately 3,500,  exclusive  of  889  domiciled  on  Norfolk  Island; 
the  figures  representing  both  bond  and  free.  The  returns  of 
stock  and  agriculture  for  the  same  year  were  :  horned  cattle  23, 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMPINT        ^7 

horses  11,  sheep  105,  hoj^^s  43.  Acres  under  cuhivation  : 
wheat  208,  barley  24,  maize  1,1  <S6,  <4^arden  produce  61.  But 
the  increase  of  population  did  not  yet  include  the  free, 
unofficial  settler  who   was   Phillip's  desideratum. 

It  is  disappointing  to  find  in  the  administration  of  the 
colony  no  sufficient  provision  for  the  ordinances  of  reliji^ion. 
A  chaplain  was  an  after-thought  in  the  equipment  of  the 
settlement,  in  the  person  of  the  Rev,  Richard  Johnson, 
dubbed  by  Major  Grose  'a  Methodist.'  Collins,  in  his 
personal  account  of  the  colony,  says  :  '  Divine  service  was 
performed  every  Sunday,  on  which  the  weather  permitted, 
at  which  time  the  detachment  of  marines  under  arms  and  the 
whole  body  of  convicts  attended.'  But  no  church  was  built 
until  Johnson  erected  a  thatched  structure  at  his  own  cost. 
He  was  zealous  in  his  work — too  zealous,  according  to  official 
ideas  of  religion  then  prevailing — and  ministered  faithfully  to 
his  unwilling  flock.  In  1794  he  was  joined  by  an  assistant, 
the  Rev.  Samuel  Marsden.  Six  years  later  Johnson  returned 
to  England,  when  once  again  the  increased  population 
of  military  and  convicts  and  officials  and  the  few  free 
settlers  was  left  to  the  care  of  a  solitary  clergyman.  Not  till 
the  year  1800  was  the  first  permanent  church  built  in  the 
colony. 

The  departure  of  Phillip,  owing  to  failing  health,  was 
an  incalculable  loss  to  the  settlement.  For  the  next  three 
years  Major  Grose  was  Acting-Governor;  but  practically  the 
administration  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  New  South  Wales 
Corps.  This  inferior  regiment  had  been  raised  specifically 
for  service  in  the  colony.  Its  officers  were  men  who  had 
little  ambition  to  win  a  reputation  at  the  cannon's  mouth, 
preferring  to  essay  more  material  fortune  in  a  new  country. 
VV^ith  Phillip's  strong  control  withdrawn  thov  proceeded  to 
secure  large  grants  of  land  and  monopolies  of  trade,  and  the 
rum  trade  in  particular.  This  military  ring  succeeded  in 
dominating  the  affairs  of  the  colonv,  to  the  complete  demoral- 
ization of  society  and  government.     Hut  to  one  ex-oflicer  of 


38         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  corps,  Lieutenant  Macarthur,  the  colony  was  indebted  as 
being  the  first  to  realize  that  the  country  was  particularly 
adapted  for  sheep-farming.  He  imported  valuable  sheep  from 
the  king's  stud  in  England  and  from  the  Cape,  and  with 
immense  enthusiasm  experimented  in  cross-breeding.  He 
exhibited  fine  Australian  wools  before  English  manufacturers ; 
and  so  impressed  the  home  Government  with  the  possibilities 
of  the  industry  in  the  colony  that  he  was  granted  5,000  acres 
of  land  on  which  to  continue  his  experiments.  The  corps  was 
able  to  make  the  position  of  Governor  intolerable  to  any 
honourable  man.  Hunter,  who  eventually  succeeded  Phillip, 
was  recalled  through  its  machinations,  and  King,  who 
followed  him,  resigned.  The  next  Governor  was  Bligh, 
already  famous  in  connexion  with  the  mutiny  of  the  Bounty, 
and  his  almost  incredible  voyage  with  eighteen  men  in  an 
open  boat  through  tropical  seas  for  3,600  miles. 

Bligh  had  special  instructions  to  put  down  the  military 
trade  in  rum.  This  he  did  with  a  strong  hand,  and  the  injured 
traffickers  marked  him  for  slaughter.  At  a  serious  crisis, 
when  floods  in  the  valley  of  the  Hawkesbury  had  swept  away 
the  year's  harvest,  and  the  price  of  bread  rose  to  five  shillings 
for  a  two-pound  loaf,  Bligh  acted  with  energy  and  wisdom. 
He  won  popularity  as  the  poor  man's  friend.  But  toward 
the  ruling  class  in  the  community  he  was  high-handed  and 
arbitrary.  Isolated  as  he  was  by  his  official  quarrels,  he  fell 
back  upon  the  advice  of  the  dissolute  and  incapable  Judge- 
Advocate  and  a  scoundrelly  convict  lawyer.  Macarthur,  the 
sheep-farmer  and  ex-lieutenant,  and  Governor  Bligh  were  both 
masterful  men,  and  a  trial  of  strength  ensued.  Bligh  had  no 
sympathy  with  Macarthur's  colonial  enterprise;  and  Mac- 
arthur, public-spirited  as  he  was,  yet  shared  the  bad  traditions 
of  the  corps,  and  sided  with  his  old  comrades  in  their  sworn 
animosity  towards  the  Governor  who  had  curtailed  their  per- 
quisites. In  an  evil  moment  Bligh  decided  to  bring  Mac- 
arthur to  trial  for  sedition.  Macarthur  refused  to  plead  before 
the  Judge- Advocate,  who  had  been   his  personal  enemy  for 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT        39 

many  years,  and  the  six  officers  who  composed  the  court 
sustained  the  objection.  Blif:^h  completely  lost  his  head,  and 
threatened  to  imprison  the  six  officers. 

Macarthur's  party  decided  upon  a  coup  d'etat.  Major 
Johnstone,  commanding  the  corps,  entered  into  the  plot,  and 
next  morning  marched  a  file  of  soldiers  to  Government  House, 
and  Bligh  was  placed  under  arrest.  A  provisional  Ciovern- 
ment  under  Johnstone  was  proclaimed,  and  for  a  year  the 
deposed  Governor  was  kept  a  prisoner  in  his  own  residency. 
England  was  a  long  way  off.  But  when  the  news  of  this 
short  method  of  dealing  with  an  offending  Governor  by  his 
subordinates  reached  the  home  authorities  their  action  was 
exceedingly  leisurely.  In  the  end  another  Governor  was  sent 
out  with  orders  to  reinstate  Bligh  for  twenty-four  hours,  while 
Johnstone  was  to  be  sent  to  England  under  close  arrest,  and 
Macarthur  was  to  be  tried  before  the  colonial  court.  The 
results  were  that  Johnstone  was  cashiered  by  the  court-martial, 
but  returned  to  New  South  Wales  to  become  a  great  colonist, 
Macarthur,  who  had  gone  home  to  defend  himself,  was 
detained  for  eight  years,  and  then  came  back  to  the  flocks 
his  genius  and  energy  had  founded.  Bligh  was  raised  to 
the  rank  of  rear-admiral.  The  New  South  Wales  Corps 
was  recalled,  and  a  few  years  later  disbanded. 

The  arrival  of  Governor  Macquarie  in  1809  marked  an 
epoch  in  the  history  of  the  colony.  He  did  not  possess  the 
distinctive  greatness  of  Phillip,  but  he  shared  his  ideals,  and 
put  his  hand  to  the  plough  in  practical,  resolute  fashion.  Like 
the  old  Roman  proconsuls,  he  was  a  great  road-builder,  and 
travelled  frequently  through  his  province,  noting  its  resources 
and  its  needs,  and  planning  new  townships.  He  came  to  his 
post  with  a  pronounced  policy  as  to  the  opportunities  for 
redemption  to  be  afforded  to  convicts,  after  imprisonment  had 
purged  their  offence  in  the  eye  of  the  law.  '  My  principle 
is,'  he  wrote,  '  that  when  once  a  man  is  free,  his  former  state 
shall  be  no  longer  remembered,  or  allowed  to  act  against 
him;  let  him  ihen  feel  himself  eligible  for  any  situation  which 


40         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

he  has,  by  a  long  term  of  upright  conduct,  proved  himself 
worthy  of  filling.' 

In  carrying  out  this  principle,  Macquarie  made  a  grant  of 
land  of  thirty  acres  to  those  whose  term  of  imprisonment  had 
expired,  raised  some  former  convicts  to  the  dignity  of  Justices 
of  the  Peace,  and  received  others  at  Government  House.  His 
action  gave  great  offence  in  colonial  military  and  ofificial 
circles,  and  his  benevolent  conduct  was  not  always  well  repaid. 
But  this  daring  attempt  to  create  an  agricultural  class  out  of 
the  prison  population  was  probably  the  best  thing  to  be  done 
in  the  circumstances.  It  has  to  be  remembered  that  while 
there  was  a  preponderating  criminal  element  among  the  con- 
victs, yet  not  a  few  were  sent  out  for  offences  which  to-day 
would  not  entail  a  month  in  jail.  An  increasing  number 
were  Irish  political  offenders;  and  certain  vScotchmen  were 
transported  for  propagating  the  theory  of  a  reformed  parlia- 
ment. Meanwhile,  prison  discipline  was  inhuman.  The 
triangle  and  whip  were  in  constant  use;  a  prisoner  might 
be  flogged  '  for  looking  disrespectfully  at  an  officer,'  or,  if 
out  as  an  assigned  servant,  at  the  word  of  his  master ;  for 
an  extreme  offence  even  a  thousand  lashes  might  be  ordered ; 
solitary  confinement  was  common ;  the  routine  of  the  chain- 
gang  was  heart-breaking  in  its  misery;  and  the  death 
sentence  was  frightfully  frequent.  Macquarie  may  have 
lacked  discrimination  in  his  policy,  but  he  created  a  new 
horizon. 

The  time  had  now  come  when  the  mysterious  interior  of 
the  country  was  to  be  broken  in  upon.  Maritime  exploration 
had  been  undertaken  earlier  and  splendidly  achieved,  notablv 
by  Bass  and  Flinders.  These  two  kindred  spirits  made  their 
first  venture  into  unknown  Australian  seas  in  an  8-foot 
dinghy  along  the  coast  south  of  Sydney,  and  brought  back 
valuable  reports.  Later  Bass  begged  for  a  whale-boat,  and 
in  that  small  and  exposed  craft  accomplished  an  exploring 
voyage  of  600  miles,  passing  through  the  strait  that  bears 
his   name   as    its  discoverer.      The   two    friends    next   sailed 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLKMENT        41 

round  Tasmania  in  a  sloop  of  twenty-five  tons,  mapping  its 
coast.  Flinders  then  returned  to  Iingland,  but  was  presently 
back  again  in  command  of  the  Inveslif^citor,  charged  to  make 
a  complete  survey  of  the  east,  north,  and  south  coasts,  a  task 
intrepidly  accomplished.  Shipwreck,  heroism,  imprisonment 
for  seven  years  in  the  Mauritius  by  the  French  Governor, 
come  into  his  later  story.  The  story  of  Bass  closes  in  utter 
gloom.  1  le  was  entrapped  ashore  from  his  ship  at  Valparaiso 
and  sent  to  the  mines,  never  to  be  heard  of  again. 

Through  all  this  period  the  colony  had  been  confined  to 
a  patch  of  country  around  Sydney,  nowhere  reaching  more 
than  about  forty  miles  from  the  town.  The  Blue  Mountains 
had  proved  an  impenetrable  barrier  westward.  It  would  seem 
in  itself  an  easv  task  to  cross  a  mountain  range  reaching  at 
its  highest  point  only  4,100  feet.  This  range  presented,  how- 
ever, unique  difficulties,  in  that  passes  it  had  none,  but  lay 
a  tangled  network  of  deep  gorges  and  precipitous  cliflfs,  with 
winding  ridges  that  suddenly  gave  out  on  the  sheer  edges  of 
impassable  chasms.  Darwin  has  left  a  description  of  these 
ravines  and  bluffs.  '  It  is  not  easy,'  he  wrote,  '  to  conceive 
a  more  magnificent  spectacle  than  is  presented  to  one  walking 
on  these  summit  plains,  when  without  any  notice  he  arrives 
at  the  brink  of  one  of  these  clifTs,  which  are  so  perpendicular 
that  he  can  strike  with  a  stone  (as  I  have  tried)  the  trees 
growing  at  a  depth  of  1,000  or  1,500  feet  below  him;  on 
both  hands  he  sees  headland  beyond  headland  of  the  receding 
line  of  cliff,  and  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  valley,  often  at 
a  distance  of  several  miles,  he  beholds  another  line  rising  up 
to  the  same  height  on  which  he  stands.' 

Repeated  attempts  had  been  made  to  force  this  labyrinthine 
barrier.  In  1813  Wentworth,  Lawson,  and  Blaxland  suc- 
ceeded by  desperate  courage  and  labour  in  reaching  a  point 
from  which  comparatively  open  country  beyond  was  visible. 
Deputy-Surveyor  Iwans  followed  their  blazed  track,  and 
pushed  westward,  rep.)rting  rich,  grassy  plains,  and  naming 
the  vantage  spot  from  which  he  gazed  on  the  welcome  pane- 


42         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

rama  Mount  Pleasant.  A  road  across  the  mountains,  a  most 
formidable  work,  was  speedily  constructed  by  convict  labour, 
and  the  Governor  and  his  wife  drove  across  and  founded  the 
city  of  Bathurst.  The  puzzle  of  the  interior  at  once  presented 
itself.  Two  rivers,  the  Macquarie  and  the  Lachlan,  were 
discovered  beyond  the  mountains  by  the  doughty  and 
resourceful  Evans;  but  instead  of  flowing  towards  the  coast, 
they  flowed  inland.  Was  it  into  an  inland  sea,  or  did  they 
traverse  the  whole  coniinent  to  disembogue  on  the  far  west 
coast  ?  Oxley  was  sent  out  to  solve  the  problem  and  generally 
to  report. 

He  found  that  the  Lachlan,  which  was  expected  to  lead 
him  to  the  inland  sea,  or  to  the  ocean  at  some  unknown 
point,  gave  out  in  an  apparently  endless  swamp  of  reed-beds. 
He  was  not  easily  daunted,  but  further  progress  was  impos- 
sible, and  he  wrote  :  '  It  is  with  infinite  regret  and  pain  that 
I  am  forced  to  come  to  the  conclusion  that  the  interior  of  this 
vast  country  is  marsh  and  uninhabitable.'  He  struck  another 
course,  and  the  country  now  turned  to  him  its  other  brazen 
cheek,  and  he  wrote  of  it  as  '  uninhabitable,  deprived  as  it  is 
of  wood,  water,  and  grass.'  The  strange  ways  of  Nature  in 
Australia  had  yet  to  be  understood.  In  a  second  difficult  and 
perilous  expedition  better  fortune  awaited  him  northward; 
but  Oxley  was  a  pessimist  on  this  matter,  and  refused  to  be 
comforted.  The  pioneer  squatters,  meanwhile,  followed  close 
upon  the  explorer,  and  found  for  themselves,  in  addition,  new 
areas  for  their  flocks  yet  further  afield.  The  reduction  of 
the  interior  thus  entered  upon  was  to  prove  a  long  and  costly 
campaign.  The  story,  contained  in  many  solid  volumes  of 
carefully  kept  diaries  and  journals,  is  not  exciting  reading. 
The  Australian  aborigine  was  a  sorry-looking  creature,  and 
not  generally  very  dangerous  ;  there  were  no  ferocious  animals 
to  encounter,  and  no  ancient  ruins  or  quaint  civilization  to 
give  historic  interest.  The  explorer  had  only  Nature  to  fight 
against;  but  Nature  did  not  spare  him.  For  dogged  endur- 
ance and  unyielding  battle,  the  story  of  Australian  exploration 


DISCOVERY    AND    ST-:TTLKMRNT        43 

is  not  to  be  surpassed.     With  it  came  new  elements  of  great- 
ness and  renown  into  colonial  history. 

In  1821  Sir  Thomas  Brisbane  succeeded  Macquarie;  but 
with  none  of  his  predecessor's  vision  and  capacity.  He  was 
something-  of  a  recluse,  and  left  '  emancipists  '  and  '  exclu- 
sives,'  as  they  were  called,  to  i\ghi  their  battles  while  he 
studied  science  at  Parramatta.  But  a  stream  of  immij^ration 
had  set  in,  and  the  colony  was  rapidly  developing  the 
religious,  the  social,  and  the  commercial  institutions  of  a 
self-respecting  and  thriving  community;  while  the  first  feeble 
step  toward  popular  government  was  taken  in  1823,  by  the 
appointment  of  a  Legislative  Council  consisting  of  seven 
members  nominated  by  the  Governor.  Meanwhile,  the 
sombre  reports  of  Oxley,  which  had  acted  as  a  deterrent  to 
further  exploration,  were  corrected  by  Hume  and  Hovell,  who 
forced  a  track  of  700  miles  to  the  southern  seaboard,  passing 
through  fine  country,  and  discovering  three  great  rivers.  On 
their  wav  they  were  the  first  white  men  to  look  upon  the 
unexpected  snows  of  the  Australian  Alps.  The  return  was 
a  desperate  march ;  and  the  expedition  reached  settlement 
again  in  the  last  stages  of  exhaustion,  the  final  dole  of 
the  eked-out  provisions  having  been  made  some  days 
before. 

But  it  was  westward  that  the  sternest  conflict  lay ;  and 
Captain  Sturt,  of  the  39th  Regiment,  was  chosen  to  lead  a  new 
expedition.  While  the  growing  colony,  now  under  Governor 
Darling  (1823-31),  was  hotly  divided  on  questions  of  vested 
interest,  reform,  and  freedom,  and  the  Governor  was  making 
the  game  more  fast  and  furious  by  his  indiscretions,  vSturt 
set  his  face  towards  the  mysterious  west.  Sturt  has  been 
named  the  father  of  Australian  exploration,  and  not  unde- 
servedly. He  conducted  three  great  expeditions  against  fear- 
ful odds,  for  the  seasons  were  uniformly  adverse.  The  story 
of  his  return  from  the  mouth  of  the  Murray  River,  the  natives 
hostile,  his  emaciated  and  partly  delirious  oarsmen  only 
begging  to  be  allowed  to  lie  down  on   the  bank  to  die,  yet 


44         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

toiling  mechanically  at  the  oars  for  seventy-seven  days, 
sustained  by  their  haggard  leader's  courage,  is  a  record  of 
endurance  not  to  be  surpassed. 

On  his  third  expedition  Sturt  reached  a  point  within  150 
miles  of  the  centre  of  the  continent.  His  retreat  was  cut  off 
by  the  drying  up  of  the  infrequent  water-holes  along  the  arid 
track  he  had  covered.  For  six  months  his  party  was  held 
up,  without  the  possibility  of  advance  or  retreat,  '  as  com- 
pletely as  though  we  had  wintered  at  the  North  Pole,'  wrote 
Sturt.  But  the  little  oasis  availed  until  rain  fell  again.  It 
was  a  time  of  sickening  dreariness  and  suffering,  owing  to 
the  terrific  heat  and  wind ;  '  the  tube  of  the  thermometer  burst, 
the  bullocks  pawed  the  ground  to  get  a  cooler  footing,  and 
the  men's  shoes  were  scorched  as  if  by  fire;  their  finger-nails 
were  brittle  as  glass,  the  lead  dropped  from  the  pencil,  the 
ink  dried  on  the  pen,  human  hair  ceased  to  grow.'  To  the 
last  the  seasons  in  their  courses  fought  against  Sturt,  and 
made  him  their  hapless  sport  and  victim.  As  a  result,  his 
reports  were  disheartening  and  unrelieved.  Further  know- 
ledge was  to  correct  and  redeem  them. 

Sturt's  ambition  was  to  reach  the  centre  of  the  continent. 
After  a  sudden  downpour  of  rain  he  left  the  prolonged  camp 
with  three  picked  men.  They  pushed  on  400  miles  further, 
finding  country  which  Sturt  has  described  as  a  very  spectre 
of  desolation,  before  which  the  stout  hearts  of  the  explorers 
quailed.  Across  this  stony  desert  they  pushed  a  track  of 
50  miles,  camping  at  night  without  water.  At  last  courage 
could  do  no  more.  One  of  the  party  has  told  how  the  leader 
sat  alone  for  an  hour  with  his  face  in  his  hands,  and  then, 
great  in  adversity,  quietly  gave  the  order  for  retreat.  Sturt 
did  immense  and  invaluable  service;  but  the  man  was  greater 
than  his  work,  and  his  own  words  may  be  quoted  as  uncon- 
sciously revealing  the  brave  and  chivalrous  soul  :  '  My  path 
amongst  savage  tribes  has  been  a  bloodless  one,  not  but  that 
I  have  often  been  placed  in  situations  of  danger,  when  I  might 
have  been  justified  in  shedding  blood;  but   I   trust  I   have 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT       45 

ever  made  allowances  for  human  timidity,  and  respected  the 
customs  of  the  rudest  people.' 

Mitchell,  who  had  served  in  the  Peninsular  War,  and  helped 
to  lay  out  the  lines  at  Torres  V'edras,  had  retired  with  the 
rank  of  major,  and  was  now  (1831)  Surveyor-General  of  New 
South  Wales.  He  conducted  four  lar^e  expeditions,  and 
added  immense  areas  to  the  colony,  notably  a  nKi^^nificent 
and  fertile  territory  which  he  named  exultantly  Australia 
Felix,  '  fit  to  become  eventually  one  of  the  great  nations  of 
the  earth,'  he  wrote.  It  was  to  be  known  later  as  the  colony, 
and  finally  the  state,  of  Victoria.  Mitchell  had  frequent 
trouble  with  the  aborigines,  and  on  each  of  his  expeditions 
affrays  occurred.  He  was  a  kindly  man  with  a  fine,  and  even 
enthusiastic,  perception  of  the  good  qualities  of  the  Australian 
blacks,  and  a  scientific  interest  in  their  customs.  On  one 
occasion  when  his  men  had  acted  hastily  in  self-defence,  and 
an  aboriginal  had  been  shot,  on  hearing  the  wailing  of  the 
women  at  night  by  their  camp-fire,  he  wrote  sadly  :  '  I  am 
indeed  liable  to  pay  dear  for  geographical  discovery.'  But 
on  his  third  expedition  he  was  himself  compelled  to  use  arms 
for  the  preservation  of  his  party.  It  was  a  distasteful  thing 
to  one  of  Wellington's  ofticers  to  prepare  to  fire  upon  these 
poor  aboriginal  braves;  and,  indeed,  the  actual  firing  was 
done  without  his  orders.  But  he  was  100  miles  from 
his  nearest  depot  camp,  and  with  this  hostile  tribe  hanging 
upon  the  rear,  and  other  tribes  raised  along  the  march,  the 
whole  party  would  have  fallen  in  turn.  Seven  aborigines 
were  killed  in  this  affair,  and  Mitchell  named  the  spot,  with 
some  compunction.  Mount  Dispersion. 

The  task  of  the  explorers  called  for  deliberate  courage  and 
plodding  pertinacity  of  the  rarest  kind.  On  his  last  expedi- 
tion Mitchell  was  afield  for  thirteen  months,  and  then  was 
baulked  of  his  final  goal.  At  one  point  a  stretch  of  120 
miles  was  covered  without  finding  water.  The  seast)ns  were 
not  understood,  and  created  bewildering  paradoxes.  Where 
Oxley   struck   navigable  inland   rivers,   Sturt    found,  after  a 


46         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

wasting  drought,  only  a  trickle  in  the  cracked  and  fissured 
beds.  Mitchell  dragged  his  boats  i,6oo  miles  overland, 
only  to  find  no  channels  deep  enough  to  float  them.  But 
point  by  point  the  vagaries  and  contradictions  of  Australia 
have  been  reconciled,  and  its  mighty  possibilities  understood. 
Not  for  many  a  day,  however,  was  the  new  continent  to  be 
mapped.  The  succession  of  those  who  should  have  a  right 
to  the  title  of  Australian  explorer  was  to  be  a  long  one,  and 
costly  in  its  martyrs'  roll.  Not  a  few  have  laid  down  life 
itself  in  their  attempts  on  behalf  of  science  and  commerce 
to  open  up  the  unknown  land.  No  military  campaign  has 
seen  harder  marching  or  more  stubborn  though  noiseless 
fighting  than  the  vast,  lone  interior  of  Australia. 

Phillip's  commission  as  Governor  covered  the  eastern  half 
of  Australia  only.  When  in  a  casual  way  the  British  claim 
was  later  made  to  extend  to  the  whole  of  the  continent,  no 
objection  was  raised  by  the  absent-minded  Powers  that  might 
have  claimed  to  be  interested.  Information  received  that  the 
French  intended  to  occupy  Van  Dieman's  Land  moved 
Governor  King  to  a  hasty  annexation  of  that  island.  French 
ships  were  already  there  when  the  little  schooner  Cumberland 
arrived.  Its  youthful  commander  lost  no  time,  but  landed  a 
guard  of  three  marines,  ran  up  the  British  ensign  in  full  view 
of  the  French,  ordered  the  feeble  volley  to  be  fired,  and  with 
cheers  proclaimed  the  island  a  British  possession.  The  first 
settlement  in  Tasmania,  to  use  the  later  title,  was  particularly 
sinister.  It  was  selected  as  the  spot  for  the  re-transportation 
of  convicts  who  had  been  sentenced  for  crimes  committed 
since  their  arrival  in  New  South  Wales.  This  fair  island 
was  to  form  a  strong  contrast  in  its  natural  beauties  to  the 
horrors  that  were  to  be  perpetrated  upon  its  soil.  The 
aborigines  of  Tasmania  were  of  a  kindly  and  intelligent  type, 
though  deeds  of  cruelty  and  wrong  were  to  awaken  in  them 
a  latent  savagery  of  revenge.  The  convicts  and  first  settlers 
vilely  and  cruelly  outraged  all  aboriginal  rights.  Then 
followed  reprisals,  a  reign  of  terror,  and  a  war  of  extermination. 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT       47 

(Governor   Arthur  arrived  on   tlie   island   in    1824,  and  set 
himself  to  pacify  the  troubled  territory.     He  proclaimed  large 
areas  as  reserves  for  the  aborif^ines,   who   were   required   to 
keep  these  bounds.    Muniing  parties  were  authorized  to  secure 
the  observation   of   the  order,   but   such   parties  added    new 
outrages,    and    the    aboriginals    revenged    themselves    more 
fiercelv    upon    the   settlers.     Then    the   Governor   ordered   a 
cordon    to    be    draw-n    half    across    the    island,    to    drive    all 
aboriginals  before   it   on    to   Forestier's   Peninsula;   but    the 
cordon  was  easily  avoided,  and  proved  useless,  and  killing 
and  murder  still  went  on.     At  last  Arthur  listened  to  George 
Robinson,  a  bricklayer  and  a   Methodist,   who   had  become 
friendly  with  the  aboriginals  in  his  neighbourhood.     He  went 
unarmed  through  the  tribes  with   infinite  courage  and  pity 
and  persuasiveness,  in  constant  peril  of  his  life,  on  a  single- 
handed  mission  of  peace.    At  the  end  of  four  years  he  brought 
to  Hobart  Town  the  placated  remnants  of  the  stricken  race. 
But  the  final  touch  of  tragedy  was  yet  to  be  added  by  the 
callousness  and  stupidity  of  the  authorities.    The  surrendered 
aboriginals  were  deported  to  the  bleak  islands  on  the  north- 
east coast,  and  afterwards,  those  who  were  left  of  them,  to 
Flinders  Island,  cold  and  wind-swept,  to  die  of  fretting  for 
their    old    tribal    hunting-ground.      The    colony    developed 
rapidly  under  Arthur's  control.     The  Van   Dieman's  Land 
Company  was  formed  in    1825,  settlers  arrived  in  numbers, 
sheep  and  cattle  were  found  to  thrive,  and  crops  did  well.     In 
twelve  years  the  population  was  trebled. 

New  Zealand  was  early  brought  into  touch  with  the  colony 
of  New  South  Wales  through  whalers  and  sealers  who  found 
convenient  harbours  along  its  coasts,  and  by  some  establish- 
ment of  trade  with  Sydney  in  native  flax.  Certain  adventurers 
and  refugees  from  justice,  too,  found  their  way  to  New 
Zealand,  and  made  alliances  and  homes  among  the  Maoris. 
Samuel  Marsden,  the  colonial  chaplain  in  succession  to 
Johnson,  was  an  enthusiastic  sheep-breeder,  competing  with 
Macarthur  himself,  but  he  had  also  an  apostolic  soul.     He 


48         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

interested  himself  greatly  in  establishing  a  mission  among 
the  Maoris;  and  in  1814  sailed  from  Sydney  with  two  mission- 
aries, some  mechanics,  and  the  necessary  equipment  for  a 
station.  His  interest  in  this  work  never  ceased;  he  crossed 
over  on  frequent  visits,  and  it  is  said  that  on  his  death-bed 
his  last  word  was  '  New  Zealand.'  But  the  Maoris  were  great 
warriors,  and  their  intercourse  with  the  British  in  trade  pro- 
vided them  with  new  implements  of  war.  The  missionaries 
were  successful,  and  acted  as  peacemakers,  though  their  work 
was  often  undone  by  their  own  countrymen,  who  were  becom- 
ing more  numerous,  and  with  larger  interests  in  the  land. 

In    1833  the  Governor  of  New  South  Wales  appointed  a 
British  Resident,  but  no  attempt  at  annexation  was  made. 
So  rich  a  land  was  bound  to  attract  European  settlement. 
Wakefield,   a   professed    founder   of   colonies,   established   a 
New  Zealand  Company,  and  a   French   Company   was  also 
formed.     It  was  not  possible  for  the  home  Government  any 
longer  to  remain  indifferent,  and  in  1839  Captain  Hobson  was 
sent  over  with  power  to  treat  with  the  chiefs.    The  result  was 
the  Treaty  of  Waitangi,  which  guaranteed  native  rights,  while 
sovereign  power  was  ceded  to  the  British  Crown.     One  of 
Hobson's    instructions    was    specially    to    inquire    into    land 
purchases  from  the  natives.     As  an  example  he  found  that 
Wakefield's  company  had  ostensibly  purchased  a  vast  terri- 
tory at  the  rate  of  about  sixpence  per  thousand  acres,  part  of 
the  payment  being  in  Jews'  harps.     Altogether  the  claims  of 
Europeans  amounted  to  half  of  the  whole  island.    The  treaty 
covered  only  North  Island,  and  the  French  were  now  bent 
upon  securing  South  Island.     Hobson  heard  of  this,  and  at 
once  dispatched  the  man-o'-war  Britomart  with  instructions 
to  hoist  the  British  flag.     The  French  ship  L'Aube  arrived 
in  Akaroa  Harbour  to  find  the  Britomart  had  been  there  four 
days. 

The  land-grabbing  of  the  New  Zealand  Company  and  the 
settlers,  who  had  arrived  in  considerable  numbers,  involved 
them    in    disputes    with    the    Maoris.      The    newcomers    had 


DISrOVRRV    AND    SETTLEMENT        49 

purchased  land  before  leaving;  Hngland  in  some  instances, 
and  arrived  to  lind  their  claims  denied  by  the  native  holders. 
The  complex  land  laws  of  the  Maoris  were  not  understood, 
and  their  temperate  protests  little  regarded.  The  situation 
became  acute.  At  last,  during  a  dispute,  a  shot  was  fired, 
and  the  wife  of  a  chief  was  killed.  Firing  followed  on  both 
sides.  The  Maoris  swept  the  field  at  a  rush,  and  Colonel 
Wakefield,  brother  of  the  colonial  organizer,  and  others  fell. 
The  culmination  was  in  the  fierce  engagements  of  the  New 
Zealand  war. 

The  settlement  of  Western  Australia  had  a  ditlereni 
genesis.  A  military  station  had  been  formed  in  1826  at 
King  George's  Sound,  again  to  anticipate  the  French.  But 
round  the  coast  was  the  Swan  River,  discovered  by  the  Dutch, 
which  to  Captain  Stirling  looked  exceedingly  inviting.  The 
British  Government  encouraged  the  idea  of  a  colony  at  Swan 
River  by  promising  immigrants — who  were  to  go  out  in  parties 
at  their  own  expense — for  every  £2  they  took  with  them  in 
money  or  in  goods,  40  acres  of  land.  In  1829  the  pioneers 
of  the  new  colony  arrived,  to  find  themselves  for  the  most 
part  confounded  and  helpless  in  their  strange  and  unpromis- 
ing surroundings.  The  smaller  holders  were  driven  far  afield 
by  the  larger  claimants,  who  had  right  of  first  choice.  The 
conditions  were  impossible,  and  the  blacks  were  particularly 
wild  and  troublesome.  As  many  as  were  able  left  the  dis- 
astrous spot;  the  remainder  struggled  on,  and  by  dogged 
perseverance  made  some  headway,  and  a  few  httle  townships 
were  created.  A  new  element  was  introduced  in  1850,  when 
a  convict  station  was  established  and  prison  labour  provided; 
but  the  immediate  gain  of  this  was  dearly  bought,  and  popula- 
tion and  prosperity  came  slowly  in  the  early  discovered  West. 

The  fear  of  the  French  hastened  settlement  also  at  Port 
Phillip,  the  nucleus  of  the  State  of  Victoria.  Baudin  had 
been  recently  along  that  part  of  the  south  coast,  and  the 
British  Government  in  alarm  dispatched  Colonel  Collins  with 
a  number  of  prisoners  to  effect  an  occujiaiion.      He  arrived 


50         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

in  1803,  but  being  unfavourably  impressed  with  the  spot,  and 
taking  no  pains  to  explore  the  country  around,  he  obtained 
permission  to  transfer  his  party  to  Tasmania ;  and  for  thirty 
years  nothing  more  was  done.  Final  settlement  began  with 
the  arrival,  in  1834,  of  the  brothers  Frank  and  Edward  Henty 
from  Tasmania,  who  brought  with  them  cattle,  sheep,  and 
horses.  The  next  year  John  Batman  (distinguished  as  having 
captured  single-handed  the  famous  Tasmanian  bushranger, 
Brady)  crossed  over,  and  made  his  famous  bargain  with  the 
blacks  for  600,000  acres  of  land,  the  price  being  a  quantity 
of  blankets,  axes,  knives,  and  other  articles,  and  a  hundred- 
weight of  flour,  also  six  shirts,  with  a  fixed  yearly  rental  in 
the  same  kind.  He  drew  up  his  title-deed,  and  Jagajaga 
headed  the  list  of  aboriginal  signatories.  Unfortunately  for 
Batman  the  British  Government  refused  to  recognize  the 
transaction ;  but  his  bold  venture  in  settlement  succeeded  well 
enough  without  it.  Fawkner  followed  closely,  and  fixed  his 
head  quarters  on  what  was  to  be  afterwards  the  site  of  the 
city  of  Melbourne.  Mitchell's  expedition  connected  these  new 
settlements  with  the  older  ones  northward,  and  the  great 
explorer  was  amazed,  on  coming  to  the  coast  of  Portland  Bay, 
to  find  the  flocks  and  herds  of  the  Hentys.  So  promising  a 
land  quickly  came  to  its  own,  outstripping  the  mother  settle- 
ment in  the  rapidity  of  its  development. 

South  Australia  was  founded  in  1836,  not  incidentally,  but 
as  a  colony  carefully  planned;  and  on  the  theory  of  its  pro- 
jector, Wakefield,  it  was  to  be  a  paradise  for  landed  gentry 
on  the  one  hand,  and  for  contented  labourers  on  the  other. 
Land  was  not  to  be  cheap,  for  this  would  give  every  man  a 
chance  to  become  a  land-holder,  a  condition  which  eliminated 
the  hired  farm-hand.  The  price  of  land  was  to  be  kept  up,  and 
the  squire  of  acres  to  be  created;  at  the  same  time  only  as 
many  labourers  as  were  needed  for  ihe  land  under  occupation 
were  to  be  introduced  into  the  colony.  Upon  this  conservative 
theory  was  settlement  attempted.  It  proved  to  be  impractic- 
able.    The  landed  proprietors  who  were  to  be  at  the  head  of 


DISCOVERY    AND    SETTLEMENT       51 

a  iiappy  peasantry  did  not  take  kindly  to  their  bush  estates, 
but  '  clustered  in  Adelaide,  and  engaged  chiefly  in  speculating 
in  town  lots.'  The  immigrant  labourers  felt  that  they  had 
come  out  to  better  themselves,  and  were  little  disposed  to  settle 
down  as  farm-hands  at  a  mere  living  wage.  Soon  the  colony 
was  in  a  state  of  chaos  and  bankruptcy.  The  Governor  drew 
on  the  British  Treasury  for  large  amounts,  though  it  had 
been  definitely  laid  down  that  the  colony  should  be  no  expense 
to  the  home  Government,  and  finally  his  drafts  were  dis- 
honoured. London  merchants  refused  to  send  out  goods. 
The  colony  was  producing  little,  and  most  of  the  money 
brought  out  had  been  paid  away.  One  result  was  that  land 
had  to  be  sold  for  what  it  would  bring.  The  small  man  found 
his  opportunity,  and  the  colony  proceeded  to  work  out  its 
happy  destiny  along  less  academic  lines  than  its  original 
charter.  The  home  Government  made  a  grant  of  ;^  155,000, 
and  soon  the  colony,  which  had  not  been  producing  one-tenth 
in  value  of  its  own  needs,  was  prosperously  exporting  to  the 
other  colonies. 

On  the  east  coast,  far  north  of  Sydney,  settlement  was 
effected  by  the  establishment  of  a  convict  station  at  Moreton 
Bay  in  1824.  Allan  Cunningham,  one  of  the  earliest  ex- 
plorers, had  discovered  the  Darling  Downs,  a  splendid  tract 
of  country,  and  now  connected  that  district  with  Moreton  Bay 
by  the  discovery  of  the  pass  that  bears  his  name,  Cunning- 
ham's Gap.  The  town  above  the  bay  consisted  for  many 
years  of  little  beside  Government  stores,  barracks,  jails,  and 
official  residences,  and  gave  no  augury  of  the  city  of  Brisbane 
that  was  to  occupy  the  site.  In  1842  the  Moreton  Bay  district 
was  opened  to  free  settlement,  and  had  the  special  interest  of 
Dr.  Lang,  divine,  politician,  polemic  writer,  and  friend  of 
the  little  settler,  who  introduced  a  large  number  of  picked 
immigrants  into  this  new  area.  In  1848  Kennedy  led  an 
exploring  expedition  north  in  Yorke  Peninsula.  Of  the  party 
of  thirteen  only  three  survived,  the  leader  himself  falling 
gallantly.     In    the  same  year    Leichhardt   left    Moreton    Bay 


52         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

with  the  expedition  westward  that  never  returned,  its  fate 
still  a  mystery.  By  1859  settlement  in  the  great  north  country 
had  so  increased  that  it  was  ripe  for  autonomous  dignity  as 
the  colony  of  Queensland. 

From  such  beginnings,  not  remote,  but  historically  only  of 
yesterday,  did  the  new  southern  world,  late  discovered,  take 
its  unheralded  rise.     The  original  handicap  proved  astonish- 
ingly temporary.    The  rich  blood  of  hardy,  honest  Britishers 
had  been  freely  given  to  it,  not  in  the  oblations  of  war,  but 
of    peace.      One    wondrous    century    has    seen    the    growth 
of  these  first  handfuls  of  settlement  into  the  Commonwealth 
and    Dominion    which    count    large    in    the    resources    and 
loyalty  of  the  empire.     Queenly  cities  and  prosperous  towns 
have  sprung  up,  innumerable  cattle  and  sheep  dot  the  illimit- 
able downs  and  plains,  vast  areas  wave  with  harvests,  orchards 
and  vineyards  bless  the  labourer's  happy  toil,  untold  wealth 
in  gold  and  the  more  sombre  metals  has  been  yielded  up,  and 
the  supply  is  unimpoverished.    The  frontier  of  effective  occu- 
pation has  been  thrust  continually  further  and  further  back. 
But  the  adequate  settlement  of  Australia  has  yet  to  be;  and 
the  waiting  spaces  call  for  a  steady  influx  of  the  same  sturdy 
stock  who  in  the  past  have  made  the  ancient  solitudes  to 
smile. 


CHAPTER    II 

GEOLOGY 

Bv    PROFESSOR    WOOLNOUGH,     D.Sc. 

Leciur.r  in  Geology,  Per/h  Uuivernly,   West  Austraha 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Classification  of  rocks — Igneous — Sedimentary — Altered — Fossils- 
Succession  of  types — Scenery — Australia  continental — Chains  of 
islands — A  once-mighty  continent — Three  glacial  periods — Many 
arid  ages — Elevation  and  subsidence — Coral  reefs — Darwin — \'ol- 
canoes —  Re3ources — Coal-  Ore  deposits — Artesian  water — Quiet 
forces. 


CHAPTFR     II 

THE   GEOLOGY    OF    THE    SOUTH-WESTERN    PACIFIC 

At  the  outset  it  is  necessary  to  point  out  what  are  the 
bases  upon  which  ^eoloG:ical  history  is  built  up.  Briefly, 
information  is  obtained  from  the  rocks  exposed  at  the  earth's 
surface,  from  the  traces  of  extinct  plants  and  animals  pre- 
served as  fossils  in  these  rocks,  and  from  the  topoe^raphical 
features  which,  toq-ether,  constitute  the  scenery  of  a  re^jion. 

Rocks  are  formed  in  three  distinct  ways,  each  of  which 
imposes  certain  easily  recognizable  features  on  the  resulting 
product.  Firstly,  there  are  rocks  which  have  been  derived 
from  the  solidification  of  molten  mineral  matter.  These  are 
classed  as  igneous,  or  eruptive,  rocks.  Two  subdivisions  of 
these  stand  in  sharp  contrast  with  one  another.  Most  people 
are  familiar,  by  description  at  all  events,  with  the  production 
of  rocks  bv  volcanic  action.  Molten  lavas  and  volcanic  dust 
solidify  into  hard  rocks,  upon  which  is  stamped  the  history 
of  their  origin.  Such  rocks  mav  come  into  existence  on  land 
or  under  water,  on  the  surface  of  a  continent  (though  never 
far  from  its  shore)  or  on  a  tiny  island  in  mid-ocean.  Other 
igneous  rocks  are  formed  quite  differently.  In  a  plastic 
condition  thev  are  squeezed  into  and  amongst  the  solid  rocks 
of  the  earth's  crust,  and  there  they  solidify  at  a  depth  of 
from  2  to  20  miles  from  the  surface.  Such  rocks  are  termed 
Plutonic  (after  Pluto,  the  Roman  God  of  the  Lower  Regions). 
To  this  class  belongs  granite,  a  rock  with  which  every  one 
is  familiar.  \ow,  two  important  inferences  may  be  drawn 
from  the  presence  of  granitic  rocks  in  any  region. 

Firstly,  the  rocks  which  formerly  covered  the  granite  mass 
must  have  been  entirely  removed,  not  bv  great  convulsions 

55 


56         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  Nature,  as  many  people  imagine,  but  by  the  slow  process 
of  atmospheric  wear  and  tear.  The  exposure  of  a  granite 
mass,  then,  indicates  considerable  antiquity  of  the  land  area 
where  it  occurs.  Secondly,  large  masses  of  land  are  requisite 
to  provide  the  covering  under  which  a  granite  mass  may 
solidify;  it  is  inconceivable  that  a  granite  could  form  within 
the  body  of  an  oceanic  island.  Hence  an  extensive  occurrence 
of  granite  is  indicative  of  continental  land  areas,  a  point  of 
considerable  importance,  as  we  shall  see  later. 

The  second  great  group  of  rocks  includes  those  varieties 
which  have  been  formed  by  the  accumulation  of  fragments  of 
older  rock  masses  laid  down  as  sediments  under  the  sea,  in 
lakes,  estuaries,  or  river  valleys,  on  the  surface  of  the  land 
or  about  its  borders,  by  water,  ice,  or  wind.  Grouped  with 
these  rocks  are  the  mineral  deposits  from  springs,  hot  or  cold, 
cave  deposits,  and  the  like ;  also  accumulations  of  the  remains 
of  plants  or  animals,  in  the  form  of  coal,  limestone,  &c. 
Produced  under  such  diversity  of  conditions,  it  is  not 
surprising  that  the  sedimentary  rocks  afford  the  geological 
historian  very  valuable  indications  as  to  the  changes  in 
distribution  of  land  and  water,  the  changes  in  height  and 
depth  of  the  land  and  ocean,  the  changes  in  climate  and 
conditions  of  life  which  have  occurred  in  the  past.  From 
their  mode  of  origin  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  they 
frequently  contain  fossils. 

The  third  great  group  of  rocks  includes  representatives  of 
both  igneous  and  sedimentary  types,  which  have  been  subject 
to  conditions  of  high  temperature  and  heavy  pressure  so 
intense  that  their  original  features  have  been  completely 
obliterated,  causing  them  to  take  on  an  entirely  new  aspect. 
Such  rocks  are  classed  as  altered.  The  heat  and  pressure, 
both  largely  the  result  of  friction,  are  developed  in  the  slow 
elevation  of  great  mountain  chains  in  continental  areas;  hence 
the  presence  of  altered  rocks  is  a  distinctive  feature  of 
continents,  as  opposed  to  oceanic  islands. 

Fossils  are  the   remains  or  traces  of  plants  and  animals 


THE   GEOLOGY  OF   THE   S.  W.   PACIFIC     57 

which  formerly  lived  on  the  earth.  Only  a  very  small  pro- 
portion of  such  organisms  have  any  chance  of  leaving  per- 
manent traces  behind.  Generally,  animals  and  plants  with 
relatively  hard,  indestructible  parts  have  a  better  chance  than 
others  consisting  of  soft  structures  only.  Aquatic,  and  par- 
ticularlv  marine,  animals  exist  under  the  most  favourable 
conditions  in  this  respect. 

At  the  present  day  plants  and  animals  are  limited  in  their 
range  bv  conditions  f)f  environment;  and  the  same  conditions 
must  have  acted  in  the  same  way  in  the  geological  past. 
Particularly  rigid  are  the  limits  imposed  by  depth  of  water 
(and  consequent  pressure,  temperature,  light,  Sec.)  upon 
marine  organisms.  It  will  readily  be  seen,  then,  that  careful 
study  and  comparison  of  fossil  types  may  afford  valuable 
information  as  to  the  phvsical  and  climatic  conditions  which 
obtained  at  the  time  when  they  flourished.  The  succession 
of  types  in  any  one  area,  their  gradual  evolution  and  sub- 
sequent extinction,  afford  the  materials  for  the  historic 
arrangement  of  geological  formations. 

Scenery  is  the  expression  of  difference  of  hardness  in  the 
component  rocks  of  an  area,  of  original  difference  of  level,  of 
the  wear  and  tear  (denudation)  and  of  upbuilding  (accumula- 
tion) of  rock  materials.  The  mantle  of  soil  which  almost 
everywhere  covers  the  solid  rocks  below,  hides  from  our  view 
much  of  the  geological  structure ;  but  from  a  careful  con- 
sideration of  the  scenerv  in  the  light  of  modern  science,  it  is 
frequently  possible  to  fill  in  the  gaps  in  a  most  astonishing 
way.  As  the  surface  of  the  land  is  constantly  changing, 
topographical  studies  are  most  useful  in  revealing  the  latest 
phases  of  geological  history. 

We  may  now  sketch  verv  briefly  some  of  the  salient  features 
in  the  geology  of  the  South-Western  Pacific. 

Naturally  enough,  Australia  is  built  up  very  largelv  of 
those  rock  types  which  we  have  indicated  above  as  being  of 
continental  origin.  In  Western  Australia,  South  Australia, 
and    the    Northern    Territory    are    huge    areas    of   extremelv 


58         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

ancient  rocks,  proving  that  Australia  has  existed  as  a 
continent  continuously  since  the  dawn  of  time.  In  Eastern 
Australia  these  ancient  rocks  are,  to  a  great  extent,  covered 
by  accumulations  of  later  date,  which  reveal  a  history  of  great 
vicissitudes  of  conditions  and  climate. 

New  Zealand,  though  much  smaller  than  Australia,  is  still 
of  continental  dimensions ;  and  here  again  we  have  a  long  and 
complicated  history  unfolded.  The  same  statement  applies 
to  New  Guinea,  though  this  wonderful  land  remains  almost 
as  a  terra  incognita  to  geologists. 

The  smaller  islands  of  the  South- Western  Pacific  are  worthy 
of  a  much  more  detailed  study  than  can  be  given  here.  The 
most  superficial  glance  at  a  map  suggests  a  certain  regularity 
of  arrangement.  The  islands  are  not  scattered  haphazard, 
but  occur  in  fairly  well-defined  chains;  and  if  these  chains 
be  joined  up,  we  get  festoons.  When  this  is  done  we  find 
that  the  festoons  lie  along  more  or  less  circular  arcs  roughly 
concentric  with  the  markedly  circular  east  coast  of  Australia. 
The  chain-like  arrangement  is  well  defined,  for  instance,  in 
the  Solomons  and  in  the  New  Hebrides. 

Many  of  the  islands  in  the  inner  festoons  are  of  consider- 
able size,  e.g.  New  Caledonia,  New  Britain,  and  some  of  the 
Solomon  Islands.  In  all  of  these  continental  rocks  have  been 
discovered ;  and  it  is  certain  that  the  islands  represent  the 
scattered  summits  of  a  once-mighty  continent.  vSuch  con- 
tinental traces  exist  as  far  to  the  east  as  the  Fiji  Islands ;  but 
beyond  them  all  the  islands  are  purely  oceanic  in  character. 
The  oceanic  islands  are  built  up  either  of  the  lavas  and  ashes 
of  submarine  volcanoes,  or  of  coral  reef  rock,  or  of  these  two 
together.  Many  of  the  larger  islands  of  the  inner  festoons 
on  which  continental  rocks  have  been  met  with  are  almost 
completely  hidden  under  similar  deposits;  while  their  smaller 
brethren,  even  in  the  innermost  zone  (Lord  Howe  and  Norfolk 
Islands),  are  entirely  oceanic,  so  far  as  their  surface  rocks  are 
concerned. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  festoon  upon  which  are  situated 


THE  GEOLOGY  OF   THE   S.  W.   PACIFIC     59 

the  main  axis  of  New  Zealand,  tlie  Kermadec  Islands,  and  the 
Tonpa  ij^roup,  is  fronted,  on  its  south-eastern  face,  by  the 
preat  troug^h  of  the  '  Penguin  Deep,'  one  of  the  deepest 
portions  of  the  ocean  floor. 

Before  leaving  the  subject  of  the  geological  relationships 
of  Australia,  it  should  be  mentioned  that  recent  discoveries 
in  Antarctica  indicate  a  very  intimate  connexion  between 
that  dead  land  and  Tasmania.  It  cannot  be  doubted  that, 
far  awav  in  the  geological  past,  some  land  connexion  existed 
between  the  two.  The  very  fascinating  temptation  to  people 
the  islands  of  the  Pacific  by  way  of  a  now-submerged  con- 
tinent must  be  resisted.  In  all  probability  the  separation  of 
Australia  from  Tasmania  and  from  New  Guinea  took  place 
within  the  human  period;  but  the  breaking  up  of  the  great 
land  to  the  north  and  east  must  have  been  almost  complete 
long  before  the  advent  of  man  upon  the  earth. 

Few  people  realize  the  stupendous  changes  which  have 
occurred  in  the  climate  of  Australia  during  the  geological 
past;  and  yet  we  have  conclusive  proof  that  at  one  time  the 
surface  of  the  continent  was  wrapped  in  sheets  of  ice  as 
voluminous  as  those  which  now  enfold  Greenland  and  Ant- 
arctica. At  another  time,  genial,  and  perhaps  semi-tropical, 
conditions  extended  into  polar  regions.  Again  we  see 
Central  Australia,  now  parched  and  dry,  the  home  of  giant 
extinct  beasts  and  reptiles,  whose  aquatic  or  amphibious  habits 
prove  the  former  existence  of  extensive  lakes  and  rivers  there. 

At  three  distinct  periods  have  glacial  conditions  held  sway 
in  Australia.  In  South  Australia,  during  the  earliest  geo- 
logical era  of  which  fossils  exist,  intensely  cold  conditions 
prevailed ;  and  the  rocks  produced  by  the  ice-sheets  can  be 
recognized  nearly  up  to  Lake  Eyre.  This  great  ice  age  was 
not  an  absolutely  continuous  one,  but  was  divided  into  cold 
phases  separated  bv  interglacial  warmer  periods,  in  just  the 
same  way  as  the  better  known  classical  Great  Ice  Age  of 
Europe  and  .America  in  comparatively  recent  geological  time. 

The  second  great  ice  ac;;e  of  Australia  has  left   its  traces 


6o         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

in  every  state  of  the  Commonwealth.  It  occurred  in  that 
geological  period  during  which  the  bulk  of  our  most  valuable 
coal  measures  were  deposited.  High  continental  land  existed 
to  the  south  of  Kangaroo  Island  and  to  the  south-west  of 
Tasmania,  and  from  this  centre  ice  sheets  moved  northwards 
over  Tasmania,  Victoria,  and  South  Australia.  Near  the 
border-line  between  Victoria  and  New  South  Wales  sea-level 
was  reached,  and  the  ice  was  launched  as  icebergs.  On  their 
surface  these  bore  loads  of  rock  fragments,  collected  from 
the  land  surface.  As  they  melted  these  bergs  '  calved  '  and 
dropped  heaps  of  rock  fragments  on  the  sea  bottom.  Such 
'  erratics  '  are  numerous  in  the  Hunter  and  Macleay  Valleys 
of  New  South  Wales,  and  they  occur  as  far  north  as  the 
Bowen  River  in  Queensland  and  Crown  Point  in  Central 
Australia.  Both  of  these  localities  are  well  within  the  tropics, 
a  fact  affording  some  idea  of  the  severity  of  the  climate. 

In  Western  Australia,  while  the  gathering  ground  of  the 
ice  was  a  local  one,  the  extent  of  its  action  was  almost  as 
great  as  in  the  east ;  traces  of  its  presence  are  met  with  far 
within  the  tropics  at  the  Wooramel  River. 

The  third  period  during  which  cold  conditions  prevailed 
in  Australia  was  in  comparativelv  recent  geological  time. 
On  this  occasion  the  extent  of  the  ice-sheets  was  not  so  great 
as  in  the  earlier  glacial  periods.  Only  the  southern  highlands 
were  ice-capped.  On  the  Australian  Alps  and  in  Tasmania 
there  are  abundant  proofs  of  the  action  of  ice,  and,  indeed, 
the  scenery  there  is  largely  due  to  ice  sculpture.  Even  more 
marked  was  the  action  of  ice  in  New  Zealand  at  this  time. 
The  magnificent  '  sounds  '  of  the  South  Island  were  gouged 
out  by  the  glaciers,  whose  shrunken  remnants  now  occupy 
the  high  valleys  of  the  Cordillera. 

Glacial  periods  are  not  the  only  climatic  changes  we  have 
to  consider.  It  is  usually  held  that  geological  formations  in 
which  brilliantly  red  beds  predominate  indicate  the  existence 
of  arid  conditions  of  climate.  If  this  is  so,  several  periods 
marked  by  great  aridity  have  been  experienced  by  Australia. 


THE  GEOLOGY  OF   THE   S.-W.   PAGIFIC     6i 

In  the  northern  territory  the  formations,  slightly  newer  than 
those  of  the  first  ice  age  in  the  south,  are  a  conspicuous 
example.  Contemporaneously  with  the  development  of  the 
third  ice  age  on  the  highlands,  the  central  portion  of  Australia 
was  occupied  by  lakes  of  much  greater  extent  than  that 
covered  by  their  modern  descendants.  This  points  to  a  much 
more  copious  rainfall.  Gigantic  turtles  and  crocodiles  lived 
in  the  waters,  while  elephantine  marsupials  browsed  on  the 
rich,  succulent  vegetation  about  their  shores. 

The  important  subject  of  submergence  and  elevation  of  the 
land  must  be  passed  over  with  cursory  mention,  as  it  would 
occupy  volumes  to  consider  it  in  detail.  The  occurrence  of 
geological  formations,  accumulated  under  sea-water,  and  con- 
taining fossils  of  marine  animals,  at  heights  of  hundreds  or 
thousands  of  feet  above  sea-level,  is  conclusive  proof  of 
elevation  of  the  land;  and  this  phenomenon  is  met  with 
practically  universally  over  Australia  and  New  Zealand.  In 
Xew  Guinea  we  have  marine  formations  of  very  recent  age 
lifted  to  heights  of  many  thousands  of  feet,  and  twisted  and 
crumpled  in  the  process,  thus  showing  that  very  great  earth 
movements  have  occurred  quite  recently.  It  is  only  fair  to 
assume  that  such  movements  are  still  in  progress.  In  New 
Caledonia,  New  Hebrides,  and  Fiji  many  of  the  highest  points 
show  similar  evidence  of  recent  uplift. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  presence  below  sea-level  of  forma- 
tions produced  on  the  land  surface  proves  that  subsidence 
has  occurred.  The  great  coal  basin  of  eastern  New  South 
Wales  reaches  a  depth  of  at  least  10,000  feet  below  sea-level 
under  Sydney,  and  coal  is  the  product  of  the  growth  of 
marshy  vegetation  on  a  land  surface.  All  round  the  east 
coast  of  Australia  we  have  conclusive  evidence  of  an  extremely 
recent  downward  movement  of  the  land. 

An  extension  of  the  same  principle  may  be  made.  If  we 
have  a  terrestrial  formation,  or  an  old  land  surface  covered 
by  formations  of  marine  origin,  it  is  obvious  that  a  sinking 
of  the  land  must  have  taken  place  before  the  deposition  of 


62         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  marine  beds.  Examination  shows  that  the  surfaces  of  all 
the  continental  lands  about  and  in  the  Pacific  have  been  in  a 
continual  state  of  see-saw ;  elevations  and  subsidences  have 
occurred,  not  once  or  twice  only,  but  repeatedly. 

The  development  of  coral  reefs  is  a  particular  case  of  the 
eflect  of  earth  movement.  While  the  whole  of  the  phenomena 
of  these  structures  are  by  no  means  fully  understood,  investi- 
gators during  nearly  a  century  have  accumulated  a  good  deal 
of  information.  Briefly,  the  coral  polyp  (the  term  '  insect  ' 
is  absolutely  incorrect  and  misleading)  lives  only  in  warm, 
clear  sea  water,  and  cannot  exist  at  a  depth  of  more  than 
from  ID  to  20  fathoms  at  most.  We  find  coral  reefs 
extending  to  depths  of  more  than  1,000  fathoms,  some- 
times to  much  more  profound  abysses.  While,  as  has  been 
suggested  by  some,  the  coral  might  have  grown  outwards 
over  a  bank  of  loose  rolled  blocks  broken  ofif  the  reef  face 
by  the  waves,  borings  (notably  at  Funafuti  in  the  EUice 
group)  and  investigations  of  upraised  reefs  seem  to  show 
pretty  conclusively  that  the  foundations  consist  of  solid  coral 
rock,  not  of  a  cemented  rubble  of  coral  boulders. 

This  being  so,  the  only  possible  explanation  is  that  sug- 
gested by  Darwin  half  a  century  ago;  namely,  that  the  sea 
bottom  has  slowly  subsided  while  the  corals  have  built 
upwards,  keeping  pace  with  the  downward  movement  of  their 
foundations.  This  theory  explains  fully  and  simply  the 
various  forms  of  f ringing-reef,  barrier-reef,  and  atoll  which 
are  so  charjicteristically  met  with  on  the  Australian  and 
Papuan  coasts  and  amongst  the  islands  of  the  Pacific. 

At  the  present  day  coral  reefs  are  practically  limited  to 
tropical  regions.  In  the  geological  past  very  similar  reefs 
have  been  developed,  at  intervals,  far  beyond  those  limits, 
and  even  perhaps  within  the  Antarctic  circle.  Great  masses 
of  coral  limestone,  like  those  which  contain  some  of  the 
beautiful  limestone  caverns  of  Australia,  are  essentially  coral 
reefs.  If  the  organisms  which  give  rise  to  them  demanded 
the  same  conditions  of  life  as  do  their  modern  descendants, 
we   have   in   these  ancient    reefs   evidence  of   warm   periods 


THE   GEOLOGY  OF   THE   S.-W.   PACIFIC     63 

complementary  in  character  to  the  great  ice  ages  described 
above. 

At  the  present  day  active  volcanoes  exist  on  the  Antarctic 
continent,  in  New  Zealand,  Tonga,  Samoa,  New  Hebrides, 
Solomon  Islands,  New  Britain,  and  many  other  groups  in 
the  Pacific;  but  active  volcanoes  are  conspicuous  by  their 
absence  from  the  mainland  of  Australia. 

As  previously  mentioned,  many  of  the  Pacific  islands,  which 
are  not  now  the  scene  of  active  volcanoes,  are  built  up,  largely 
or  wholly,  of  rocks  produced  by  such  (e.g.  Fiji  group);  in 
other  words,  their  volcanoes  are  extinct.  The  same  applies 
to  the  mainland  of  Australia.  In  western  Victoria  and  south- 
eastern South  Australia  there  are  evidences  of  very  recent 
volcanic  action,  probably  extending  well  within  the  period 
of  the  human  occupation  of  Australia.  Volcanoes  like  Mount 
Gambier  are  still  almost  perfect  cones,  and  in  some  other 
instances  it  is  hard  to  believe  that  the  fires  have  been  extin- 
guished. The  remains  of  volcanic  action  are  met  with  in 
almost  every  formation  throughout  the  whole  geological 
record,  right  back  to  the  most  ancient,  and  in  almost  every 
part  of  the  continent  and  islands.  These  extinct  volcanoes 
have  played  an  important  part  in  the  production  of  rich 
agricultural  soils,  in  the  preservation  of  valuable  deposits  of 
gold,  tin,  and  gems  ('  deep  leads  '),  and  in  the  determination 
of  the  physical  features  of  the  landscape. 

Space  does  not  permit  more  than  an  indication  of  some  of  the 
vaststoresof  wealth  hidden  in  the  rocksof  these  southern  lands. 

Most  notable  are  the  coal  resources.  In  eastern  Australia 
and  in  New  Zealand  coal  measures  of  great  extent  and  value 
are  developed  in  several  different  geological  formations.  It 
is  worthy  of  mention  that  coal  is  formed,  not  from  remains 
of  tropical  forests,  as  is  generally  believed,  but  from  swampy 
vegetation  (peat),  which  is  most  characteristically  developed 
in  sub-polar  regions.  In  the  western  portion  of  Australia  and 
in  New  Caledonia  limited  coal  resources  exist,  while  coal  is 
known  to  occur  in  New  Guinea  and  Antarctica,  but  its  extent 
and  value  are  undetermined. 


64         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Petroleum  is  being  sought  for  and  obtained  in  New  Zealand 
and  New  Guinea. 

The  ore  deposits  of  this  part  of  the  world  probably  con- 
stitute its  most  widely  known  asset.  The  Victorian  gold- 
fields,  the  New  Zealand  gold-fields,  Broken  Hill,  Mount 
Morgan,  Mount  Lyell,  Kalgoorlie,  and  a  score  of  others, 
attract  the  envious  eyes  of  the  whole  world ;  while  the  '  poppet- 
head,'  the  '  open  cut,'  and  the  '  whip  '  are  familiar  features 
over  a  great  part  of  Australia  and  New  Zealand.  The  islands 
have  not  yielded  a  great  amount  of  mineral  wealth.  New 
Caledonia  is  the  most  important  source  of  chromium  and 
nickel  in  the  world;  New  Guinea  has  gold  and  copper 
resources,  and  a  little  mining  has  been  carried  on  in  Fiji ; 
but  for  the  most  part  the  volcanic  and  coralline  formations 
of  the  majority  of  the  islands  are  not  favourable  to  the 
occurrence  of  minerals  of  economic  value.  Antarctica  may 
well  contain  another  Klondyke ;  but  so  far  it  remains 
undiscovered. 

No  country  in  the  world  is  so  extensively  supplied  with 
artesian  and  sub-artesian  water  as  is  Australia;  and  the 
exploitation  of  this  gift  of  Nature  is  opening  up  vast  areas 
of  the  interior  formerly  believed  to  be  useless  desert. 

Finally,  let  me  add  a  few  words  of  explanation.  The 
complex  processes  which  have  brought  into  existence  con- 
tinent and  ocean,  island,  lake,  river,  and  mountain  are  as 
active  to-day  as  ever  they  have  been.  The  history  is  not 
complete,  but  is  in  the  making;  and  we  can  watch  its  pro- 
cesses before  our  eyes.  Perhaps  the  majority  of  people  believe 
that  the  earth,  as  we  see  it,  is  the  result  of  great  convulsions 
of  Nature,  volcanic  eruptions  and  earthquakes  being  their 
favourite  agents.  This  is  not  the  case;  it  is  the  quieter  forces 
of  Nature,  the  rain,  the  sun,  the  air,  and  running  water,  which 
do  the  vast  bulk  of  geological  work. 

A  study  of  these  forces  and  their  results  in  the  lands  of 
the  Pacific  is  open  to  all,  and  will  well  repay  the  time  and 
energy  lavished  upon  it. 


CHAPTER    111 

BIOLOGY 

BY   G.    T.    BAKER,    F.L.S. 

Curator  and  Ecouomic  Bctauist^  Technological  Museum,  Sydney , 

Cor.  M.Ph.Soc,  Grea!  Britain 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Endemic  biology — Marsden  introduces  sheep — Botanical  explorers- 
Banks  and  islands — Forster— Brown — Hooker — French  botanists 
—  Later  collections — New  Zealand — Eucalyptus — Myrtaceae — Pro- 
teaceae  —  Waratah  —  Leguminosae  —  Desert  pea  —  Epacrideae  — 
Compositae — Grasses  and  ferns — Timber  —  Eucalyptus — Hard- 
woods— Cabinet  timbers  — Food — Breadfruit^ — Coco-nut — '  Flax ' — 
Dilo  oil — Eucalyptus  oil — ^Fauna — Gould's  Birds — Survivals — Pla- 
typus—  Kangaroo  —  Echidna — New  Zealand — Bird  life — Fish — 
Cu\ier — British  Museum — Eiidcavoiir — Reptiles — Food  value. 


CHAPTER    111 

BIOLOGY 

The  biology  of  the  Pacific,  more  particularly  the  southern 
portion,  has  always  fascinated  the  scientist.  No  part  of  the 
eartii  presents  such  unique  forms  of  life  as  are  to  be  found  in 
land  and  sea  under  the  Southern  Cross.  In  the  opening  of 
these  seas  the  missionary  has  been  no  small  factor,  having 
in  many  cases  assisted  biological  science  by  collecting  and 
forwarding  specimens.  These  specimens  would  otherwise 
have  been  unrecorded  for  an  indefinite  period,  if  not  lost  for 
all  time,  through  the  destruction  of  the  original  flora  as 
cultivation  advanced. 

This  article  will  deal  only  with  the  endemic  biology  of  the 
Pacific,  the  geographical  area  covered  including  Australasia 
and  the  Pacific  Islands.  To  give  an  historical  sketch  and  to 
describe  the  extra-Pacific  side  of  the  subject,  would  require 
more  space  than  is  available.  The  history  of  the  domestic 
animals  introduced,  the  cereals,  plants,  and  forest  trees,  is 
too  well  known  to  need  recapitulation.  But  it  may  be  men- 
tioned en  passant  that  the  greatest  industry  of  Australasia 
— the  production  of  wool — is  indebted  to  a  missionary,  the 
Rev.  Samuel  Marsden.  Marsden  was  the  first  to  undertake 
the  systematic  production  of  fine  wools  by  selection  from  the 
coarse-'  haired  '  Cape,  Ceylon,  and  Merino.  Authenticated 
specimens  of  his  original  types  are  on  view  at  the  Techno- 
logical Museum,  Sydney.  They  bear  the  following  words  : 
'  Specimens  of  the  first  Australian  wool.  The  Rev.  Samuel 
Marsden  commenced  sheep  breeding  for  wool  in  1796.  These 
specimens  were  sent  to  His  Excellency  Governor  King,  for 
his  information,   with  a  letter  dated   Parramalla,   August   11. 

67 


68         A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

1804,  and  illustrate  the  beginning  of  the  industry  in  Australia ' 
(see  Hist.  Rec,  vol.  v.,  pp.  413-5). 

The  researches  during  the  past  century  have  revealed 
animals,  fish,  birds,  and  plants  new  to  science,  and  in  forms 
that  attract  attention  even  to  the  present  day.  These  investi- 
gations are  still  being  prosecuted  by  enthusiastic  workers. 
The  results  are  found  in  the  publications  of  various  scientific 
societies  and  in  numerous  monographs  prepared  by  special- 
ists. The  scientific  societies  of  the  various  states  concerned 
have  played  no  small  part  in  this  revelation  of  Nature's  book. 
In  this  review  the  term  century  is  interpreted  in  a  broad 
sense.     Time  and  space  are  indefinite  terms  in  Nature. 

A  century  in  the  Pacific  !  What  a  marvellous  vista  appears 
on  the  mental  horizon  as  the  botanist  contemplates  the 
beauties  of  Nature  brought  to  light  during  the  white  man's 
sojourn  in  these  lands  and  the  isles  of  the  sunny  south  !  The 
first  Europeans  might  well  gaze  spellbound  as  they  saw  the 
wonderful  botanical  creations  in  Australia.  This  fact  is  com- 
memorated in  the  name  Botany  Bay,  bestowed  upon  the  spot 
where  they  first  landed  in  New  South  Wales.  On  their 
voyage  of  circumnavigation  their  ship  put  into  other  ports 
in  the  Pacific.  But  no  botanical  novelties  appealed  to  them 
as  did  those  of  Botany  Bay.  Away  to  the  east  also,  lying  in 
a  sea  of  azure  blue  in  a  setting  of  coral  reefs,  were  several 
isles  which  fascinated  the  early  explorers  by  their  luxuriant 
vegetation ;  a  vegetation  so  soul-stirring  and  inspiring,  that 
the  impression  made  is  deep  and  life-long.  The  call  of  the 
islands  remains. 

The  honour  of  first  making  known  the  flora  of  this  part  of 
the  world  belongs  to  the  buccaneer  Dampier,  who  collected 
botanical  specimens  on  the  north-west  coast  in  1688.  These 
specimens  are  now  in  the  Herbarium  at  Oxford.  The  next 
to  collect  in  the  Pacific  were  Banks  and  Solander,  who  accom- 
panied Cook  in  his  first  voyage  round  the  world.  Cook 
entered    Botany    Bay  in    April    1771.     Banks   and   Solander 


BIOLOGY  69 

were  so  imprcssccl  with  the  variety  and  novelty  of  the 
botanical  forms,  that  Cook  as  a  compliment  named  the  bay 
after  their  special  study.  These  two  naturalists  collected 
specimens  wherever  opportunity  offered.  Their  collection 
formed  part  of  the  famous  Banksian  Herbarium,  now  in  the 
Natural  History  Museum,  South  Kensington,  London. 

J.  R.  and  G.  Forster,  noted  botanists,  accompanied  Cook 
on  his  second  voyage,  collecting  many  specimens  in  the 
Pacific.  It  is  recorded  that  these  men,  when  Cook  touched 
at  the  New  Hebrides,  walked  across  the  island  of  Santf)  with' 
out  molestation.  Such  a  feat  is  remarkable  when  we  remem- 
ber that  through  the  hostility  of  the  natives  the  hinterland 
of  these  islands  is  still  a  closed  book.  The  botanical  results 
of  Cook's  third  voyage  are  of  interest  to  Australians.  It  was 
Dr.  Anderson,  the  surgeon  of  the  ship,  who  gave  the  first 
scientific  name  to  the  gum  tree,  calling  it  aromadendrum,  this 
name  giving  place  to  L'Heritier's  later  name  eucalyptus. 
He  bestowed  this  name  on  the  stringy  bark  of  Tasmania 
(e.  ohliqita),  his  specimens  being  collected  near  the  spot 
where  Hobart  now^  stands.  Anderson  also  collected  speci- 
mens in  New  Caledonia. 

Robert  Brown,  who  visited  Australia  in  1801,  and  remained 
four  vears,  collected  botanical  material,  commencing  at  King 
George's  Sound  and  going  round  the  continent.  He  was 
an  enthusiastic  botanist.  It  is  computed  that  he  dispatched, 
or  took  with  him,  over  4,000  species  of  plants.  After  him 
came  Allan  Cunningham,  botanist  and  explorer.  This  in- 
defatigable scientist  covered  thousands  of  miles  in  his  work 
of  exploration  and  plant  collecting.  Arriving  in  18 16,  he 
died  in  1859,  aged  forty-three.  No  man  travelled  greater 
distances  or  collected  more  specimens  than  Cunningham. 
Nor  did  he  confine  his  researches  to  Australia,  for  he  wrote 
the  Prodromus  Florae  Novae-ZeaJandiae,  as  the  result  of 
his  expedition  there.  In  1840  the  ships  Erebus  and  Terror, 
under  Captain  Ross,  brought  Dr.  Lyall  and  ].  D.  Hooker 
(afterwards  Sir   J.    D.    Hooker).      The   latter  died   in    1912, 


70         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

leaving  a  record  of  botanical  work  not  exceeded  by  any  other 
author  in  the  same  field.  His  work  Flora  Tasmaniae  will 
probably  be  the  standard  work  for  all  time.  During  this 
period  others  did  good  work  in  collecting  and  describing 
plants,  many  of  which  bear  their  names,  the  names  being 
given  by  subsequent  botanists.  Amongst  the  more  recent 
workers  in  the  field  of  Australian  botany,  two  authors  stand 
out :  Bentham  and  Mueller.  The  former  did  yeoman  service 
in  publishing  his  compilations,  the  Flora  Australiensis,  a 
work  of  seven  volumes,  in  1863-78.  This  is  the  magnum 
opus  of  Australian  botanical  publications.  Baron  von 
Mueller  has  left  his  indelible  mark  on  Australian  flora  in  such 
monumental  works  as  Eucalyptographia;  Iconography  of 
Australian  Acacias ;  Salt  Bushes ;  Myoporinous  Plants ;  Frag- 
menta  Phytographia  Atistraliae,  eleven  vols. 

From  the  first  settlement  of  the  colony,  scientists  of  other 
nationalities  visited  the  Pacific  in  search  of  botanical  trophies. 
During  the  French  expedition  in  1792,  under  General 
D'Entrecasteaux,  considerable  collections  of  plants  were  made 
by  M.  J.  J.  Labillardiere  in  Tasmania  and  South-Western 
Australia,  the  most  interesting  being  published  with  illustra- 
tions in  his  N ovae-H ollandiae  Plantarium.  Leschenault,  the 
distinguished  botanist  of  Baudin's  expedition  in  1800,  col- 
lected extensively  around  the  Australian  coast.  During  1818 
and  18 1 9  another  French  expedition,  with  Captain  Freycinets 
in  charge,  made  further  collections,  under  the  supervision  of 
M.  Gaudichaud.  In  1838,  an  Exploring  Expedition  left  the 
United  States  of  America  on  a  voyage  round  the  world.  This 
expedition  visited  the  more  important  islands  in  the  Pacific 
as  well  as  Australia.  Botany  formed  an  important  part  of  its 
work.  Its  report  of  the  flora  is  to-day  a  valuable  work  of 
reference.  The  chief  places  visited  were  the  Sandwich 
Islands,  Fiji,  Tonga,  New  Zealand,  and  the  neighbourhood  of 
Sydney.  Two  years  earlier  Endlicher  published  Annalen  des 
Wiener  Museums,  being  an  account  of  the  vegetation  of  the 
Polynesian  Islands.    But  in  this  work  the  Fijian  Islands  were 


BIOLOGY  71 

practically  a  blank.  This  hiatus  was  filled  by  B.  Seemann, 
who,  in  1865-73,  visited  the  islands,  and  published  his  famous 
Flora  Viticnsis.  In  this  work  the  botany  of  these  islands  is 
investigated  systematically  and  economically. 

Mr.  G.  Barclay,  of  H.M.S.  Sulphur,  made  a  collection  of 
Fijian  plants  in  1840.  These  were  described  by  Bentham  in 
The  London  Journal  of  Botany,  vol.  ii.  In  1855  Professor 
W.  II.  Ilarvey  of  Dublin  embarked  at  Sydney  in  the  mis- 
sionary ship  John  Wesley  for  Fiji,  collecting  specimens  in 
Fiji  and  Tonga.  These  specimens,  placed  in  the  British 
Museum  and  Kew,  were  described  in  Seemann 's  Flora 
Vitiensis.  Seemann  is  the  author  of  A  Botany  of  the  Voyage 
of  H.M.S.  'Herald,'  the  result  of  his  collections  in  the  Pacific 
when  he  held  the  position  of  naturalist  to  that  vessel.  H.M.S. 
Herald  also  carried  two  fine  collectors  in  Mr.  J.  McGillivray 
and  Mr.  \V.  Milne,  who  in  1852  visited  Fiji  in  quest  of 
botanical  specimens.  Dr.  Graefe,  a  native  of  Switzerland, 
also  collected  in  Fiji  in  1862  ;  and  a  few  years  later  Mr.  J.  G. 
Veitch  of  Chelsea  visited  the  group  with  a  view  to  obtaining 
plants  suitable  for  cultivation  in  English  gardens.  See- 
mann's  Flora  Vitiensis  is  the  great  work  on  the  flora  of  Fiji. 
But  much  yet  remains  to  be  done  for  the  interior  of  these 
islands. 

The  first  collectors  in  New  Zealand  were  Sir  Joseph  Banks 
and  Dr.  Solander,  who  accompanied  Cook  on  his  first  voyage. 
They  obtained  nearly  400  flowering  plants  and  ferns,  which, 
with  descriptions  and  illustrations,  are  now  in  the  British 
Museum.  The  Forsters,  father  and  son,  who  accompanied 
Cook  on  his  second  voyage,  also  collected;  and  Mr,  Menzies, 
a  collector  of  flowerless  plants,  procured  many  species  of 
ferns,  moss,  and  lichens  in  the  year  1792.  A  French  col- 
lector named  D'Urville,  under  Captain  Duparrey,  assiduously 
collected  plants  for  European  herbaria  from  1S22  to  1827; 
and  in  1840  M.  Raoul,  with  other  French  workers,  published 
a  beautiful  work  entitled  Choix  des  Plantes  de  la  Nouvelle- 
Zealande.     Sir  Joseph    D.    Hooker  visited   New   Zealand  in 


72         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

1841  with  the  Antarctic  expedition,  and  botanically  explored 
the  Bay  of  Islands ;  and  a  few  years  later  Dr.  Stokes  of 
H.M.S.  Acheron  did  splendid  work.  Amoncrst  others  who 
collected,  Colenso,  Dr.  Sinclair,  J.  Haest,  J.  T.  Bidwill, 
Dr.  Munro,  Knij^ht,  Mittern,  W.  T.  L.  Travers,  and  Dr.  L. 
Lindsay  must  not  be  overlooked.  In  1867  there  appeared  the 
first  monograph,  under  the  title  of  A  Handbook  of  the  New 
Zealand  Flora,  by  J.  D.  Hooker.  This  book  embodied  the 
results  of  Hooker's  work  and  that  of  those  already  named. 
This  remained  the  standard  work  until  1906,  when  A  Manual 
of  New  Zealand  Flora,  from  the  pen  of  T.  F.  Cheeseman, 
appeared.  Of  the  other  island  groups  it  is  not  possible  to 
give  the  history,  owing  to  the  difficulty  of  collecting  the 
information,  scattered  as  it  is  through  the  scientific  literature 
of  the  world. 

The  botany  of  the  Pacific  is  now  in  fairly  good  systematic 
order.  Naturally  a  flora  extending  over  so  great  an  area  and 
enjoying  so  long  a  period  of  isolation  presents  distinct 
features,  the  anomalous  forms  being  conspicuous.  Thus  we 
have  a  continental  flora  as  applied  to  Australia,  an  insular 
flora  for  the  islands,  and  an  intrusive  flora  styled  the  Indo- 
Malayan.  The  Australian  flora  stands  alone  in  its  singularity 
of  vegetation.  The  eucalyptus  is  the  most  salient  feature. 
This  group  of  trees  extends  through  the  continent,  giving 
feature  to  the  landscape.  With  the  exception  of  a  few  out- 
liers the  genus  is  practically  endemic.  It  belongs  to  the 
natural  order  of  plants  known  as  the  myrtaceae,  a  family 
distributed  over  the  geographical  area  covered  by  this  article. 
The  distinguishing  generic  character  of  the  eucalyptus  is  the 
covering  of  the  organs  of  reproduction  by  a  calyptra  or 
operculum.  Hence  the  generic  name,  eu,  well,  and  kalypto, 
I  cover.  Nearly  300  species  have  been  described  during  the 
last  one  hundred  years,  and  much  labour  has  been  bestowed 
upon  them.  The  leaves,  which  are  of  two  forms,  lanceolate 
and  cordate,  yield  an  essential  oil   in  varying  qualities  and 


BIOLOGY  77, 

constituents  in  the  difTerent  species.  These  organs  with 
the  fruit,  a  capsule,  are  used  in  their  systematic  classification, 
ahhough  a  cortical  one  is  excellent  for  f^roupin^]^,  as  it  divides 
them  into  natural  classes,  as  iron  bark,  strini2:y  bark,  box  bark, 
smooth  bark,  peppermint  bark,  woollybutt,  blackhutt,  &c. 

Closely  allied  to  the  eucalyptus  is  the  apple-tree  (uuf^o- 
phora),  which  practically  differs  from  its  congener  only  in  the 
absence  of  an  operculum,  i'he  genus  melaleuca,  commonly 
called  the  tea-tree,  has  far  more  species  in  Australia  than  in 
any  other  country.  These  trees  have  a  wide  range,  and  their 
presence  invariably  indicates  swamp  or  flooded  land.  Other 
genera  of  the  myrtaceae  typically  Australian  are  :  verticordia, 
with  its  small,  elegant  flowers  and  aromatic  leaves;  calylhri, 
with  thirty-six  species  distributed  over  the  continent;  thrypto- 
mene,  viicromyrtus,  agonis,  kunzea,  callistcnon,  a  showy 
shrub,  beaufortia,  syncarpia,  or  turpentine,  as  it  is  commonly 
called,  and  backhousia.  The  following  genera  are  extra- 
Australian  :  hacckia,  which  extends  to  New-  Caledonia  and 
the  Indian  Archipelago;  leptospcrmum  in  Australia,  New 
Zealand,  and  the  Indian  Archipelago;  melaleuca,  found  in 
New^  Caledonia,  has  the  largest  number  of  species  next  to  the 
eucalyptus;  tristania  (brush  box)  in  New  Caledonia  and  the 
Indian  Archipelago;  while  metrosideros  viyrtus,  cugcnia,  and 
barrington  are  common  to  the  Pacific  Islands  and  the  north- 
eastern coast  of  Australia.  Rhodoviyrtiis  occurs  in  the 
Indian  Islands;  and  myrtus  is  common  to  the  tropics  and 
temperate  zones. 

Another  prominent,  vet  typical  Australian  natural  order  is 
the  proteaceae,  which  differs  considerably  in  character  from 
the  myrtaceae.  Whilst  the  latter  is  distributed  in  the  temper- 
ate zone  and  in  the  tropics,  the  former  shows  no  dispersal 
in  those  directions.  It  has  some  eleven  genera  in  South 
Africa,  a  point  which  may  help  in  tracing  the  geographical 
centre  of  origin  of  these  orders.  This  family,  which  numbers 
some  of  the  smallest  shrubs,  such  as  sympJiyoncma.  includes 
also  some  of  the  largest  trees.     Representatives  of  this  order 


74         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

are  known  under  such  local  names  as  geebungs  {persoonias), 
honeysuckles  (banksia),  spider  flowers  (gremllcas),  and 
native  pear  (xylomeliuvi) .  They  are  distinguished  by  their 
remarkable  and  showy  flowers,  and  in  the  case  of  trees  by 
the  pronounced  medullary  rays,  which  give  a  beautiful  figure 
when  cut  on  the  quarter.  Not  least  among  the  proteaceous 
plants  is  the  waratah  {telofea  speciosissima).  'The  most 
magnificent  plant  which  the  prolific  soil  of  New  Holland 
affords  is,  by  common  assent  both  of  Europeans  and  natives, 
the  waratah  '  (Smith,  Bot.  New  HolL,  1789).  Of  Australian 
flowers  this  is  the  most  gorgeous  and  beautiful.  For  decora- 
tive purposes  it  has  no  equal. 

The  native  order  of  next  importance  is  the  leguminosae, 
as  widely  distributed  in  Australia  and  the  Pacific  as  the 
myrtaceae.  The  genus  acacia  has  by  far  the  largest  number 
of  species.  These  are  commonly  known  as  wattles,  a  genus 
probably  more  widely  distributed  than  any  other.  In 
Australia  there  are  more  than  300,  and  in  South  Africa  above 
100.  The  genera  common  to  Australia  and  the  South  Sea 
Islands  are  crotalaria,  indigofera,  zephrosia,  desmodium, 
glycine,  canavalia,  mucum,  erythrina,  phaseolus,  vigna, 
abrus,  sophora,  caesalpinia,  cassia,  entada,  dalbergia,  derris, 
and  pargannua.  Clianthus  and  swainsonia  occur  in  New 
Zealand  and  in  Australia ;  whilst  canavalia  and  sophora  occur 
throughout  the  region.  In  this  order  the  smallest  plants  and 
the  tallest  trees  are  found.  The  black  bean  (castanospernnnn 
australe)  and  some  of  the  wattles  assume  tree  form.  The 
remainder  are  composed  of  shrubs,  often  with  showy,  and 
other  yellow  coloured  flowers,  climbers,  creepers,  and  a  native 
wistaria.  Sturt's  desert  pea  is  restricted  to  the  western  half 
of  Australia.  This  pea  is  a  small  shrub,  particularly  showy 
coloured,  the  flowers  being  unique  for  a  leguminous  plant. 
The  standard  keel  and  wings  are  crimson,  with  a  purple  black 
disc  at  the  base.    The  pea  was  discovered  by  Dampier  in  1688. 

The  natural  order  cpacridcae  is  next  in  importance  amongst 
Australian  plants.     This  order  contains  nearly  300  species  as 


BIOLOGY  75 

ajjainst  600  in  tlie  myrlaccae,  and  more  than  1,000  in  tho 
lef^iiminosae,  the  most  numerous  of  all.  Its  flowers  are 
characteristic  of  the  Australian  bush,  beinij:  showy  thoup^h 
small.  A  few  of  the  species  only  attain  small  tree  form, 
the  remainder  beinc:  shrubs  from  i  foot  to  12  foot  hi^h. 
The  plants  of  the  p^enus  epacris  are  familiar  under  the  name 
of  native  fuchsia.  The  ^-enera  extends  to  Australia,  and  has 
representatives  in  New  Zealand,  New  Caledonia,  and  the 
Antarctic,  while  one  species  is  recorded  from  South  America. 
Next  in  rank  in  the  number  of  species  is  the  compositae,  to 
which  the  European  sunflower  belone^s.  This  is  one  of  the 
most  numerous  known.  The  buttercup  family  (ranuncu- 
laceae)  is  common  to  Australia,  Fiji,  New  Zealand,  and  most 
of  the  islands  of  the  Pacific.  Here  also  will  be  found  repre- 
sentatives of  the  natural  orders  e^iven  below.  Grasses  and 
ferns  are  also  widely  distributed.  These  probably  number 
in  their  flora  about  200  natural  orders,  1,500  i:]:^enera,  and  not 
less  than  10,000  species  of  plants.  Some  of  the  islands  have 
characteristic  species  as  genera.  For  example,  Norfolk  Island 
has  its  endemic  species  of  pine  (araucaria  excelsa),  Lord  Howe 
Island  its  world-famed  palms  (kentia  spp.),  New  Zealand  its 
kauri  (agafhis  aiistralis). 

One  hundred  years'  development  has  proved  that  one  of 
the  world's  supplies  of  timber  is  to  be  found  throughout  the 
Pacific.  For  liardwoods  Australia  has  no  compeer;  and  this 
fact  is  recognized  in  the  timber  trade  in  every  part  of  the 
world.  At  the  first,  however,  a  low  estimate  was  put  on  the 
industrial  value  of  hardwood.  In  ]\liitc'<^  Journal  (1780)  it 
is  said  :  '  The  timber  of  this  country  is  very  unfit  for  the 
purpose  of  building.  ...  It  is  the  worst  wood  that  any 
country  or  climate  ever  produced.'  Several  of  the  more 
important  islands,  such  as  Fiji,  Samoa,  and  Tonga,  have  some 
fine  specimens  of  hard  and  soft  woods.  New  Zealand  also  is 
well  favoured  in  its  arboreal  vegetation. 

The  eucalyptus  timbers    are    now    world-famed    for    their 


76         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

hardness  and  durability.  They  are  particularly  well  suited 
for  constructional  work  and  for  bridges,  wharfs,  piers, 
sleepers,  carriage  building,  wood  blocks,  and  many  other 
purposes.  Their  economics  are  so  great  and  so  much  appre- 
ciated that  in  the  United  States  of  America,  not  less  than 
100,000,000  trees  have  been  planted  from  seed  obtained  in 
Australia.  The  South  African  authorities  are  also  exten- 
sively planting  the  eucalyptus,  and  South  America  is  following 
their  example.  The  hardest  and  most  durable  of  the  eucalyp- 
tus is  the  ironbark.  But  other  groups,  such  as  stringybark, 
blackbutt,  box,  and  tallow-wood  give  timbers  scarcely  less 
durable.  The  lightest  in  weight  is  the  ash,  with  varying 
colour,  including  tints  of  red,  brown,  and  yellow.  The  best 
commercial  eucalyptus  timber  is  the  ironbark,  tallow-wood, 
spotted  gum,  blue  gum,  grey  gum,  ash,  box,  stringybark,  and 
blackbutt.  The  eucalypts  of  Australia  by  no  means  exhaust 
the  list  of  hardwoods.  In  New  Guinea  there  is  the  kusi  kusi, 
a  timber  proof  against  the  teredo,  and  quite  as  hard  and 
heavy  as  ironbark. 

The  hardwoods  of  Australia  (non-eucalypts)  include  some 
fine  timbers;  for  instance,  the  teak  (flindersia  australis),  iron- 
wood  (geijera  miielleri),  brush  box  (tristania  conferta),  brush 
ironbark  (bridelia  exaltata),  silky  oak  (grevillea  rohusta),  she 
oak  (casuarina  spp.),  long  jack  (fli7idersia  spp.),  red  ash 
(alphitonia  excelsa),  beefwood  {grevillea  striata),  myall  (acacia 
pendula),  eumung  (acacia  saJicina),  gidgea  (acacia  cambagei), 
N.  S.  Wales  maple  (villaresia  moorei),  scrub  hickory  (pente- 
ceras  aiistralis),  and  mararie  (weinmannia  lachnocarpa).  Fiji, 
Tonga,  and  Samoa  also  have  fine  hardwoods,  such  as  sesi, 
sacan,  sagali,  bau,  dravu,  yasi,  tumana,  tavola,  hoka,  and 
dawa.  In  Samoa  there  are  olasina,  taputsi,  tabi,  masama, 
toa,  ala,  filimoto,  asiva,  ifilete,  island  teak  (afcclia  bijuga), 
alaa,  and  puabulu.  The  principal  New  Zealand  hardwoods 
are  puriri,  mairc-ranui,  and  rata.  New  Guinea  is  particularly 
rich  in  timber.  Little  is  known  concernin<r  their  technoloirv, 
but  ebony  and  kusi  kusi  may  be  mentioned  for  their  hardness. 


BIOLOGY  -j-j 

It  is  doubtful  if  any  otlier  country  is  so  rich  in  cabinet 
timbers  as  Australia.  Many  of  these  timbers  are  to  be  found 
in  churches,  banks,  commercial  and  private  houses,  where 
they  are  used  as  furniture  or  for  decoration.  The  principal 
timbers  are  :  blue  fig  (elaeocarpus  grandis),  black  bean  (casta- 
nospennum  australe),  scrub  hickory  (pentcccras  australis), 
blackwood  (acacia  melanoxylon),  white  cedar  (melia  azeda- 
rach),  coachwood  (ceratopetaliim  apelalum),  rosewood  (dyso- 
xylon  jraserianum),  N.  S.  Wales  mountain-ash  or  Tasmanian 
oak  {e.  dclegatcnsis),  red  bean  (d.  muclleri),  jarrali  (c.  margi- 
iiata),  red  cedar  (cedrela  toona,  Roxb.),  spotted  "um  (e.  macu- 
lata),  Queensland  maple  {flindersia  chataivaiana),  blue  gum 
{eucalyptus  saligna),  hoop  pine  (araucaria  cunninghamii), 
silky  oak  (orites  cxcclsa),  red  myrtle  (fagus  cunninghaiyiii), 
and  Oueensland  kauri  (agathis  robusta).  There  are  also 
valuable  cabinet  timbers  in  Fiji,  Samoa,  Tonga,  and  New 
Zealand,  the  following  being  the  most  important  in  New 
Zealand  :  kauri,  totara,  rimu,  kahikatea,  silver  beech,  rewa- 
rewa,  and  kawaka. 

The  advent  of  the  white  races  to  the  Pacific  brought  the 
exploitation  of  natural  resources  for  food.  Science  and  enter- 
prise have  turned  many  vegetable  products  to  commercial 
use.  Tiie  vegetable  kingdom  was  the  mainstay  of  the 
aborigine.  The  bread  fruit  (artocarpus  incisa),  which 
Dampier  first  made  known  to  Europeans,  was  found  in 
abundance  in  the  Ladrone  Islands  in  1697.  Bligh's  attempt 
to  introduce  this  article  of  diet  into  the  West  Indies  from 
Tahiti  is  well  known.  The  bread  fruit  is  now  generally  culti- 
vated throughout  the  Pacific,  and  forms  a  considerable 
portion  of  the  food  supply  of  the  native  races.  The  banana 
(musa  tcxtilis)  is  also  in  demand  as  a  food  amongst 
Europeans.  Its  cultivation  is  carried  on  in  a  systematic 
manner.  Thousands  of  acres  in  tlu'se  fertile  islands  of  the 
Pacific  are  given  to  its  propagation.  The  export  trade  is 
increasing  so  rapidly  that  ships  of  special   design   are   now 


78         A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

employed.  The  greater  portion  of  the  land  in  Fiji  is  cleared 
for  sugar-cane  raising.  The  suitability  of  these  islands  to 
grow  tropical  plants  and  their  productiveness  are  now  fully 
demonstrated.  Tapioca,  taro,  and  pawpaw  are  indigenous 
products. 

Of  the  native  vegetable  products  in  the  Pacific  Isles  the 
coco-nut  {cocos  nucifera)  is  by  far  the  greatest.  The  uses 
to  which  this  tree  and  its  different  parts  are  put  are  many. 
It  is  the  most  valuable  of  all  the  trees  in  the  islands,  for  every 
part  can  be  converted  to  commercial  use.  The  demand  for 
copra,  the  dried  flesh  of  the  nut,  is  so  great,  that  the  market 
quotation  in  London  is  X30  per  ton.  Extensive  areas  are 
now  placed  under  coco-nut  cultivation  in  Tonga,  the  Solomon 
Islands,  Samoa,  Fiji,  and  the  minor  islands.  The  coco-nut 
is  used  principally  in  the  manufacture  of  soap.  But  a  more 
recent  utilization  is  for  the  making  of  butter,  much  in  demand 
in  Germany,  where  it  is  preferred  to  animal  butter,  as  there 
is  no  danger  of  tubercular  infection.  The  odour  is  removed 
by  a  patent  process.  The  yam,  a  tuber,  forms  one  of  the 
principal  food  supplies  of  the  natives.  There  is  also  another 
aspect  of  the  agricultural  question  of  great  importance.  This 
is  found  in  the  suitability  of  the  soil  for  choice  exotic  plants 
which  contribute  to  man's  sustenance.  These  include  fruits, 
berries  (coffee),  leaves  (tea),  fibre  plants,  rubber,  and  other 
economic  plants. 

When  in  New  Zealand  and  Norfolk  Fsland,  Cook  was 
impressed  by  the  commercial  value  of  the  New  Zealand  '  flax  ' 
(which  is  not  flax)  as  a  fibre  plant.  When  the  first  expedition 
came  to  Australia,  instructions  were  given  to  procure  and  to 
cultivate  plants  for  fibre  for  textile  manufactures.  This  step 
was  advocated  by  J.  M.  Matra  {Hist.  Rec,  N.S.W.,  pp.  2 
and  707)  when  the  expedition  was  being  prepared.  The  first 
attempts  to  utilize  this  fibre  did  not  meet  with  the  success 
anticipated.  It  is,  however,  now  of  great  commercial  value 
in  New  Zealand.     The  suitability  of  the  islands  to  grow  fibre 


BIOLOGY  79 

plants  has  been  demonstrated  beyond  doubl.  Ihe  discovery 
of  the  kauri  gum  as  a  valuable  source  of  resin  for  varnish  has 
also  been  a  source  of  revenue  to  New  Zealand.  In  Australia 
grass  tree  gum  (xanthorhea  haslilis),  which  is  a  true  resin, 
is  in  demand  in  European  countries.  References  are  made 
to  this  substance  by  the  earliest  historians  of  Australian  flora. 
Sandarach,  from  the  pines  (callitris)^  is  also  valuable  for 
varnish  making. 

Dilo  oil  (cola pJiy Hum  inophyllum),  the  fixed  oil  of  the  nut 
of  this  tree,  is  common  throughout  the  Pacific  Islands,  and 
is  one  of  the  most  valuable  oils.  It  is  used  largely  for 
domestic  purposes,  and  as  a  liniment  in  rheumatism  and 
bruises.  There  are  several  kinds  of  seeds  yet  to  be  exploited 
for  their  expressed  oils,  such  as  candle  nut  {aleurites  triluba), 
&c.  The  oil  of  the  coco-nut  is  also  an  expressed  oil.  For 
essential  oils  we  turn  to  Australia,  as  few  essential  oils  are 
produced  in  the  islands.  New  Caledonia  exports  a  volatile 
oil  from  a  tea-tree  (melaleuca  viridijlora),  under  the  name  of 
naioli  oil ;  but  so  far  in  essential  oil-making  very  little  research 
has  been  done  in  these  islands.  Australia  may  be  said  to 
be  the  home  of  native  essential  oil-producing  plants.  It  is 
doubtful  if  any  other  country  is  so  rich  in  volatile  oil-produc- 
ing plants.  This  fact  was  early  demonstrated.  White,  the 
surgeon  of  the  First  Fleet,  states  in  his  Voyages:  '  The  name 
of  peppermint  tree  has  been  given  to  this  plant  by  Mr.  White 
on  account  of  the  very  great  resemblance  between  the  essen- 
tial oil  drawn  from  its  leaves  and  that  obtained  from  the 
peppermint  {mentha  piperita)  which  grows  in  England.  This 
oil  was  found  by  Mr.  White  to  be  much  more  efficacious  in 
removing  all  cholicky  complaints  than  that  of  the  Englisii 
peppermint,  which  he  attributed  to  its  being  less  pungent 
and  more  aromatic.  A  cjuart  of  the  oil  has  been  sent  by 
him  to  Mr.  Wilson.' 

It  thus  appears  that  eucalyptus  oil  was  the  first  natural 
product  exported  to  England.     But  nothing  further  was  done 


8o 


A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 


to  investigate  the  properties  of  this  oil  for  well  over  half  a 
century,  when  specimens  were  exhibited  at  the  International 
Exhibition  in  1851.  Interest  was  then  gradually  developed 
in  this  product  as  a  medicinal  oil,  until  it  was  placed  on  the 
British  Pharmacopoeia  with  a  specified  test.  For  medicinal 
purposes  it  must  contain  over  50  per  cent,  eucalyptol,  the 
principal  medicinal  constituent,  and  have  a  specific  gravity 
of  '91.  Within  the  last  twenty  years  much  research  has 
taken  place  on  eucalyptus  oil,  and  the  knowledge  of  its  various 
constituents  and  their  application  in  medicine  and  commerce 
is  considerably  extended.  The  constituents  discovered  in 
eucalyptus  oils  may  be  seen  from  the  following  list — 


Eucalyptol      ...... 

Eudesomol     ...... 

Geraniol  ...... 

Methyl  alcohol 

Ethyl  alcohol 

Isobutyl  alcohol     .         .         .         .         . 
Amyl  alcohol         .         .         .  .  . 

Aromadendral        .         .         .         .         . 

Citral 

Citronellal      ...... 

Butaldehyde  ...... 

Valeraldehyde         .         .         .         .         . 

Piperitone  (peppermint  constituent) 

Geranyl  acetate       .  .  .  .  . 

Amyl  eudesmate    .  .  .  .  . 

Valeric  acid  ester  .  .  .  .  . 

Acetic  acid  ester    .  .  .  .  . 

Acetic  acid  (free)  .         .         .         .         . 

Aromadendrine      .         .         .         .  . 

Pipene  (both  dextro-  and  laevo-rotatory) 
Phellandrene  .         .         .         .         . 

Cymene  ...... 


Oxides. 


Alcohols. 


Aldehydes. 

Ketone. 

Esters. 

Acid. 
Sesquiterpene. 

[  Terpenes. 

Alkyl-benzene. 


The  two  most  prominent  commercial  constituents  of  this 
list  are  eucalyptol  and  phellandrene,    the  former  being  the 


BIOLOGY  8i 

necessary  constilueiil  in  oil  lo  comply  with  the  requirements. 
Phellandrene  oils  not  bein^  saleable  for  medicinal  purposes, 
other  use  had  to  be  found  for  them.  Within  the  last  five 
years  it  has  been  discovered  that  this  particular  oil  can  be 
successfully  used  for  mineral  separation  by  the  flotation 
process,  with  yields  from  84  to  go  per  cent,  concentrates. 
This  discovery  has  led  to  a  revolution  in  the  mineral  extrac- 
tion processes  and  eucalyptus  oil  industries.  The  millions 
of  tons  of  tailings  at  Broken  Hill  are  being  treated  by  this 
process  in  procuring  silver,  lead,  and  zinc  from  these  dumps. 
As  phellandrene  can  also  be  used  for  the  treatment  of  gold 
and  copper,  its  demand  in  the  near  future  will  be  world-wide. 
Even  now  large  orders  are  placed  by  various  mines,  and  the 
future  of  this  eucalyptus  product  is  assured.  Citral,  obtained 
from  the  leaves  of  e.  staigeriana,  is  a  valuable  product,  as 
ionone,  one  of  the  bases  of  the  artificial  perfume  of  violets, 
is  obtained  from  it.  Citronellal,  which  is  obtained  from 
e.  citriodora,  should  prove  a  strong  rival  to  the  citronellal 
obtained  from  the  lemon  grass  of  Ceylon,  as  the  yield  is  much 
greater.  Geraniol  is  that  important  constituent  in  the  otl(» 
of  roses.  Oil  containing  this  constituent  and  citral  are  the 
highest  priced  eucalyptus  oils.  The  pinene  oils  are  similar 
to  those  of  France  and  America.  Thus  for  the  future 
Australia  has  a  vast  source  of  turpentine  in  its  gum-trees. 
Several  of  the  known  constituents  of  eucalyptus  oil  have  not 
even  yet  been  commercially  investigated. 

The  history  of  research  on  the  fauna  does  not  make  such 
good  reading  as  that  of  botany.  The  zoologist  did  his  work 
in  a  spasmodic  and  fragmentary  manner.  The  collections 
made  by  Banks  and  Solander  may  be  regarded  as  the  foun- 
dation of  the  Pacific  flora.  But  nothing  apparently  was 
done  to  publish  descriptions  of  the  material  collected,  not- 
withstanding its  valuable  nature.  In  Parkinson's  Journal  it 
is  slated  '  that  Banks  and  Solander  have  discovered  in  the 
course    of    tluir    adventures  *    ((\)ok's    first    voyage)    *  many 

G 


82         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

thousand  species  of  plants  hitherto  unknown.  .  .  .  They  have 
also  described  a  great  variety  of  birds  and  beasts  hitherto 
unknown  .  .  .  300  new  species  of  fishes  ...  100  species  of 
new  shells,  and  a  great  number  of  curious  insects  .  .  .  and 
corals;  also  other  marine  animals.' 

In  the  account  of  Phillip's  Voyage  to  Botany  Bay,  pub- 
lished in  1789,  a  number  of  mammals,  birds,  fish,  and  reptiles 
from  New  Holland  are  illustrated  and  described ;  and  in 
White's  Voyages,  published  six  months  later,  similar  ground 
is  covered.  In  1793  Dr.  Shaw-  described  and  figured  zoo- 
logical specimens  from  New  Holland.  Other  workers,  both 
English  and  foreign,  entered  this  field  of  investigation,  and 
the  results  of  their  work  are  scattered  through  the  scientific 
literature  of  the  dates  concerned.  The  epoch-making  period 
of  the  fauna  is  found  when  John  Gould  visited  Australia  at 
his  own  expense  in  the  late  thirties,  and  made  a  collection 
of  mammals  and  birds.  The  latter  numbered  600  species  and 
1,800  specimens,  with  a  full  complement  of  the  eggs  of  more 
than  300  species.  Gould's  Birds  is  to-day  the  finest  mono- 
graph on  the  subject,  and  separate  copies  are  valued  at  ^700 
or  more.  Unfortunately  monographs  of  this  type  have  been 
few,  and  some  of  the  main  groups  of  the  fauna  still  remain 
unmonographed.  There  have,  however,  been  some  splendid 
workers  in  limited  fields  of  the  fauna  since  Gould's  time, 
including  the  JMacleays,  Meyricks,  Masters,  McCoy,  Water- 
house,  and  Dr.  G.  Bennett. 

In  this  wonderland,  the  first  visitors  were  struck  by  the 
strange  forms  of  animal  life.  Since  then  the  geological  age 
of  the  islands  in  the  South  Pacific  has  been  largely  deter- 
mined, and  the  fauna  has  been  identified  as  a  survival  from 
geographical  times.  Hence  its  antiquity,  which  differentiates 
it  morphologically,  physiologically,  and  historically  from  that 
found  in  other  parts  of  the  world.  The  same  applies  to  the 
flora.  It  is  thus  easily  understood  why  the  opening  up  of 
the  Pacific  has  been  a  scientific  revelation  in  biological 
research. 


BIOLOGY  83 

The  first  to  open  (his  book  to  Europeans  was  Dampicr, 
wlu),  in  1688,  records  having  seen  a  kan<^aroo,  or  wallaby, 
iiati\e  dogs,  birds,  and  a  species  of  lizard  now  known  as 
shingle-back.  Within  the  last  century  other  naturalists  came 
upon  tlie  scene,  and  soon  after  the  colonies  were  founded, 
much  information  was  obtained  concerning  the  strange  fauna 
of  Australia  and  the  islands  of  the  South  Seas.  What 
appealed  to  these  early  naturalists  was  the  dissimilarity  of 
the  animals  and  birds  from  anylhing  in  their  own  country. 
For  example:  the  marsupial  carried  its  young  in  a  pouch, 
and  instead  of  walking,  moved  by  leaps  and  bounds.  It  was 
discovered  later  that  its  lower  jaw  had  a  double  movement, 
vertical  and  horizontal,  quite  unique  in  the  animal  w(jrld. 
Again,  there  was  the  platypus,  with  its  duck-bill  and  web- 
feet,  one  of  the  few^  representatives  of  the  animal  kingdom 
which  can  be  classed  as  oviparous.  Black  swans  and  wing- 
less birds,  with  other  zoological  phenomena,  made  a  list  of 
novelties  sufficient  to  arrest  the  attention  of  students  of  this 
science.  These  forms  produced  material  for  much  research 
both  in  the  southern  world  and  in  Europe.  Expedition  after 
expedition  visited  the  southern  seas  in  quest  of  specimens  of 
this  remarkable  fauna.  Besides  these  archaic  survivals,  in- 
vestigation has  shown  the  presence  of  representatives  or 
congeners  of  families  of  animals  found  to-day  in  other  parts 
of  the  globe,  such  as  the  dingo,  rat,  and  flying  fox,  proving 
that  in  the  fauna  of  the  Pacific  there  are  ancient  and  com- 
paratively recent  forms  of  animal  life. 

The  mammals,  so  largely  represented  in  other  parts  of  the 
world,  are  here  almost  limited  to  the  marsupials,  of  which 
one  other  family  only  is  known  to  exist  in  America.  There 
is  one  division  of  mammals,  the  monotremes,  the  lowest  of 
its  class,  endemic  to  Australia.  Of  the  marsupials,  the 
kangaroo  is  typical  of  the  Australian  fauna,  (he  family  being 
divided  into  several  varie(ies,  such  as  the  grey  kangaroo,  red 
kangaroo,  wallaroo,  wallaby,  pademelon,  kangaroo  rat,  tree 
kangaroo,  and  others.     They   range  in    height   from  6  feet 


84         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

to  less  than  a  foot,  each  being  distinguished  by  some  specific 
difference.  Besides  the  l^angaroo  family,  the  life  history  of 
other  closely  allied  marsupials  has  received  much  study  from 
the  systematists.  A  few  of  these  unique  animals  biologically 
investigated  may  be  enumerated.  One  of  the  most  peculiar 
is  the  native  bear,  so  called  by  Europeans,  but  named  kaola 
by  the  autochthonous  inhabitants  of  Australia.  This  short, 
heavy,  serious-looking  animal,  with  large  head  and  scarcely 
any  tail,  lives  almost  entirely  on  eucalyptus  leaves,  and  is 
probably  the  only  animal  exclusively  restricted  to  this  diet. 
The  Australian  opossums  are  commonly  thought  to  live 
exclusively  on  gum  leaves;  but  this  is  not  so.  Like  the  kaola 
they  are  of  arboreal  habit,  preferring  the  gum-tree.  They 
are  also  nocturnal,  similar  to  the  flying  squirrel  of  the 
Australian  bush.  The  wombat,  like  the  kaola,  is  thick-set 
in  body,  but  differs  from  it  by  living  in  burrows  made  by 
its  short,  powerful  limbs,  used  also  in  searching  for  roots, 
which  form  its  principal  food.  The  wombat  is  endemic  to 
Australia  and  Tasmania. 

There  are  also  carnivorous  marsupials  surviving  in 
Australia,  the  largest  being  the  Tasmanian  tiger  or  wolf, 
about  the  size  of  a  sheep-dog.  The  Tasmanian  devil,  though 
smaller,  is  equally  vicious  and  destructive  to  domestic  and 
small  animals,  like  the  tiger  with  flocks.  The  native  cat 
and  the  banded  ant-eater,  representatives  of  this  class,  are 
found  on  the  mainland.  The  flying  fox,  the  bat,  the  rat, 
;mice,  and  the  dingo  or  native  dog,  the  bete  noire  of  the 
pastoralist,  are  also  worthy  of  note. 

Of  all  animals  none  created  greater  interest  in  scientific 
circles  than  the  duck-bill  platypus  and  the  echidna.  They 
are  the  most  remarkable  of  the  Australian  mammals,  possess- 
ing organs  which  ally  them  with  mammals  and  with  reptiles. 
Though  suckling  their  young  like  members  of  the  mammalia 
class,  they  have  no  teats  as  teats  are  generally  understood. 
As  a  substitute  there  is  a  space  perforated  with  pores  through 
which    the    milk    passes.      Then,    again,    they    differ    from 


BIOLOGY  85 

mammals  in  that  tliey  lay  ci^^i^s,  thus  resemblinj^  reptiles  or 
birds.  These  two  animals  have  no  parallel  in  the  realm  of 
bioloo;y  so  far  as  present  knowledge  goes.  Their  mode  of 
life  differs.  The  platypus  is  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
water,  the  innuth  of  the  burrow  being  below  the  water-line, 
where  it  deposits  its  two  eggs.  The  coat  of  the  platypus 
may  be  described  as  a  fur  of  high  value.  Being  of  a  soft 
nature  it  can  be  made  into  various  articles  of  apparel.  The 
form,  structure,  and  functions  of  the  various  parts  of  the 
platypus  make  interesting  reading.  The  same  remarks  apply 
in  lesser  degree  to  the  echidna  or  spiny  ant-eater,  character- 
ized by  its  numerous  strong  spines  and  long  snout.  It 
possesses  a  long,  protrusive  tongue  to  catch  the  ants  which 
form  its  regular  diet.  It  has  powerful  claws,  with  which 
it  burrows  with  great  rapidity.  Owing  to  its  nocturnal 
habits  it  is  thought  to  be  rare,  though  it  may  be  fairly 
numerous. 

The  fauna  of  New  Zealand  is  characterized  by  paucity  of 
mammals,  reptiles,  amphibia,  fresh-water  fish,  and  insect 
fauna.  Distinctive  orders,  such  as  marsupials  and  mono- 
tremes,  characteristic  of  Australia,  are  entirely  absent.  So 
also  are  the  extra-Australian  families,  such  as  tortoises, 
crocodiles,  and  snakes.  Of  the  fauna  the  birds  are  the  most 
peculiar  and  the  most  numerous.  The  New  Zealand  kiwi 
possesses  many  strange  features.  It  is  quite  wingless,  the 
body  being  covered  with  long,  narrow  feathers,  while  the 
beak  is  long  and  curved.  Till  recently  a  genus  of  large 
birds  existed,  since  named  the  moa.  The  bones  on  exhibition 
show  the  moa  to  have  been  much  larger  than  the  ostrich. 

The  first  naturalists  were  struck  by  the  gorgeous  plumage 
and  novelty  of  bird-life  in  the  various  countries.  They  were 
particularly  impressed  by  the  cockatoos  of  Australia,  the 
birds  of  paradise  of  New  Guinea,  and  the  kiwi  of  New 
Zealand.  The  lyre  bird,  the  emu,  and  the  cassowary  were 
but  little  less  appreciated,  as  they,  too,  were  remarkable  and 


86  A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

interesting.  Probably  the  first  bird  to  be  figured  was  the 
Australian  cassowary,  a  plate  appearing  in  The  Voyage  of 
Governor  Phillip  to  Botany  Bay.  But  the  greatest  of  all 
curiosities  was  that  rara  avis  of  the  ancients,  the  black  swan. 
The  emus  and  their  closely  allied  congeners,  the  cassowaries, 
are  the  largest  birds  in  Australia.  They  measure  several  feet 
in  height,  and  have  heavy  bodies  and  rudimentary  wings, 
which  deprive  them  of  the  power  of  flight.  The  male  lyre 
bird,  an  endemic  avis,  is  famous  for  its  tail,  resembling 
the  musical  instrument  after  which  it  is  named.  The  bird 
of  paradise,  world-famed  for  its  beauty  of  colouring,  has  a 
geographical  range  extending  over  New  Guinea  and  the 
neighbouring  islands.  Its  Australian  representatives  are 
found  in  the  bower  bird,  the  rifie  bird,  the  regent  bird,  and 
others. 

Amongst  the  native  fauna  of  Australia,  the  cockatoo  is  a 
feature  of  the  bush.  The  broad-tailed  parroquets,  including 
the  rosellas,  are  like  the  brush-tongued  lories  found  in  the 
Malay  Archipelago.  The  most  numerous  class  in  the  bush 
is  the  honey-eater,  which  varies  in  size  and  form,  from  the 
little,  slender-billed  blood  bird  to  the  comparatively  large 
leather-head  and  soldier  bird.  The  king-fisher,  so  widely 
distributed  over  the  world,  has  the  '  laughing  jackass  '  of 
Australia  as  the  giant  of  its  class.  The  numerous  species  of 
pigeons  are  of  equal  geographical  range,  the  finest  of  the  race 
being  the  New  Guinea  goura,  a  large  and  beautiful  bird. 
The  scrub  turkey  buries  its  eggs  in  decomposing  vegetable 
matter  (ollcctcd  by  itself,  the  incubation  being  caused  by  the 
heat  of  decomposition.  Mention  only  of  the  '  more-porks  ' 
and  magpies,  characteristic  of  Australian  bird-life,  must  close 
an  all  too  brief  account  of  a  remarkable  fauna. 

The  first  record  of  Australian  fish  dates  from  Cook's  first 
voyage.  In  his  private  log  (April  29,  1770)  Cook  says:  '  At 
.1  p.m.  anchored  in  7  fathom  water  in  a  place  which  I 
called  Sling-ray  Harbour,'  his  reason  for  the  name  being  *  the 


BIOLOGY  87 

great  quantity  of  these  son  of  fish  fi)und  in  this  place.' 
Fish  of  this  species,  \vei^hin<^  f,(X)  lb.,  were  captured  and 
eaten.  Little  is  known  concerning  the  fish  collected  on  this 
first  voyao^e.  The  zoological  work  suffered,  as  the  scientists 
of  the  expedition  were  pre-eminently  botanists.  The  first 
Australian  fish  scientifically  described  were  collected  on  this 
voyage.  In  the  year  17S8  Bonnaterre  published  a  work  in 
which  the  '  wobbegong  shark  '  was  described  under  the  name 
of  squalus  maculatus.  White,  the  surgeon  of  the  first  fleet, 
took  a  keen  interest  in  biology,  and  spent  much  time  in  collect- 
ing. In  his  ]'oyages  several  fish  are  illustrated  with  skill. 
This  work,  with  Phillip's  Voyage,  laid  the  foundation  of 
a  systematic  study  of  Australian  biology  in  general  and  of 
fish  in  particular. 

Several  expeditions  set  out  between  Phillip's  time  and  the 
year  1828,  when  Cuvier,  that  famous  student  of  ichthyology, 
with  his  pupil  Valenciennes,  commenced  his  work  on  the 
fishes  of  the  globe.  The  work  of  Cuvier  and  \'^alenciennes 
occupied  twenty-one  years,  from  182S  till  1849.  It  embodied 
descriptions  of  all  the  fish  recorded  from  Australian  waters, 
and  was  therefore  the  most  important  work  on  Australian 
fish  up  to  date.  The  next  work  of  importance  was  the  British 
Museum  catalogue  of  fishes,  under  the  editorship  of  Dr. 
Gunther,  the  greatest  ichthyologist  of  modern  times.  This 
work  of  eight  volumes  occupied  eleven  years  in  compilation, 
and  gave  scientific  descriptions  of  all  the  Australian  fish 
discovered.  Not  confined  to  Australia,  the  investigations 
embraced  all  seas.  This  work  is  the  classic  work  on  fish.  In 
1881  the  Hon.  William  Macleay  published  his  descriptive 
catalogue  of  Australian  fish,  wherein  he  added  many  species 
not  included  in  the  British  Museum  catalogue.  Many  new 
species  have  since  been  added  to  the  already  long  list  of 
Australian  fish. 

Containing  one-tenth  of  the  known  fish  of  the  world, 
Australia  and  the  Pacific  possess  a  rich  fish  fauna.  There 
are  indications  that  when  these  waters  have  been  thoroughly 


88         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

investigated,  the  list  will  be  considerably  increased.  In  this 
connexion  the  Commonwealth  trawler,  the  Endcaiwiir,  is 
doing  very  valuable  work.  Commissioned  in  1909  to  explore 
the  waters  surrounding  the  Australian  coastline,  she  has 
gathered  much  information  as  to  the  haunts  of  the  principal 
edible  fish,  and  many  new  fish  have  been  discovered.  Interest 
in  the  fish  fauna  does  not  end  here,  for  there  are  fish  bearing 
a  close  relationship  to  those  existing  in  very  ancient  geological 
periods.  The  most  interesting  in  this  connexion  is  the  Port 
Jackson  shark  (heterodontus  phiUipi),  whose  ancestors  date 
back  to  the  Devonian  period.  Another  is  the  Queensland 
lung  fish  {neoceratodus  forsteri),  one  of  the  three  existing 
fish  which  has  the  power  of  breathing  both  by  means  of  gills 
and  well-developed  lungs.  It  can  live  out  of  water  for 
considerable  periods. 

The  first  glimpse  of  the  piscine  fauna  of  New  Zealand  is 
due  to  Dr.  Johann  Reinhold  Forster,  who  accompanied  Cook 
on  his  second  voyage,  and  visited  New  Zealand  in  1773,  and 
again  in  1774.  Since  those  times  scientists  and  others  have 
given  much  attention  to  New  Zealand  fish,  the  value  of 
which  was  early  recognized.  In  the  development  of  the  New- 
Zealand  fisheries,  the  names  of  John  Munro  and  Mr.  McLeod 
will  long  be  remembered.  Mr.  McLeod's  opinion  of  the 
value  of  this  industry  may  be  gathered  from  his  words  :  '  I 
was  engaged  for  seventeen  years  in  the  North  American 
fisheries,  but  I  find  that  New  Zealand  possesses  better  fishing- 
grounds  than  either  America  or  Newfoundland.' 

The  reptilian  fauna  is  more  largely  represented  in  Australia 
than  in  the  islands.  Some  of  the  most  venomous  snakes  are 
found  in  Australia,  the  most  deadly  being  the  death  adder. 
Lizards  are  numerous.  Two  species  of  crocodiles  occur,  one 
inhabiting  the  mouths  of  rivers,  and  a  smaller  fresh-water 
species.  There  are  three  indigenous  genera  of  the  order  of 
reptiles,  fresh-water  tortoises,  turtles,  and  marine  tortoises. 
There  is  one  specimen  of  the  vermes  fauna  worthy  of  mention, 


BIOLOGY  89 

the  giant  earth-worm  of  Gippsland.  These  worms,  which  are 
6  feet  long  and  more  than  an  inch  in  diameter,  are  the  largest 
known  worms.  The  insect  fauna  is  extensive,  and  offers  a 
splendid  field  for  research.  Much  yet  remains  to  be  investi- 
gated and  classified. 

The  indigenous  fauna  of  the  Pacific  lacks  commercial 
possibilities ;  and  the  history  of  the  settler  during  the  last 
one  hundred  years  shows  little  benefit  from  these  animals.  In 
the  larger  mammals,  the  marsupials,  for  instance,  the  flesh  is 
not  appreciated,  though  the  hides  are  prized  as  yielding  a  fine, 
light,  durable  leather.  The  early  settlers  found  the  flesh  of 
the  emu  and  cassowary  edible,  but  it  is  rarely  eaten  now.  The 
wild  turkey  is  eaten  in  some  districts.  The  whale,  found  in 
these  waters  and  ranked  as  an  animal,  has  from  the  first  been 
a  source  of  revenue  through  its  valuable  oil.  This  industry  is 
still  carried  on. 

The  fish  fauna  is  much  more  valuable,  for  here  are  to  be 
found  some  of  the  finest  eating  fish  in  the  world.  The  fresh- 
water Murray  cod  has  probably  no  equal  as  a  table  fish.  It 
is  noted  for  its  size,  specimens  sometimes  weighing  150  lb. 
Amongst  salt-water  fish,  the  finest  edible  fish  is  the  snapper, 
which  grows  to  a  large  size.  Specimens  have  been  caught 
weighing  40  lb.  The  flesh  is  choice  eating.  Amongst 
other  first-class  edible  fish  are  the  squire,  red  bream,  mullet, 
black  bream,  common  flathead,  jew  fish,  king  fish,  whiting, 
trevally,  tailer,  red-rock  cod,  garfish,  and  perch.  It  is  strange 
that  the  first  recorded  edible  fish,  the  sting-ray,  should  have 
fallen  in  favour  as  time  passed.  It  is  now  rarely  eaten  by 
the  white  population,  but  it  must  not  be  thought  that  it  is 
useless  as  a  food.  The  large  fins  or  flappers,  which  are  often 
cooked,  are  of  good  flavour  and  jelly-like  consistency.  On 
the  economic  side  the  bays  and  estuaries  of  Australia  have 
been  practically  unexplored.  The  results  of  the  trawler 
Endeavour  indicate  that  they  would  richly  reward  enterprise 
in  working.     The  average  consumption  of  fish  in  New  South 


90         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Wales  alone  for  some  years  has  amounted  approximately  to 
10,000,000  lb.  The  consumption  is  confined  largely  to  snap- 
per, sea  mullet,  black  bream,  and  common  flathead  from 
salt  water,  and  the  Murray  cod  from  the  fresh  waters  of  the 
Murray  and  its  tributaries.  These  fish  are  confined  solely  to 
the  waters  of  Australia  or  the  adjacent  islands. 

It  will  be  seen  what  a  magnificent  field  the  workers  in 
biology  have  in  the  South  Pacific.  The  results  of  their 
labours,  so  far,  are  apparent.  This  page  in  Nature's  book  is 
no  less  remarkable  than  that  of  other  portions  of  the  globe. 


CHAPTER   IV 

LANGUAGES 

By   GEORGE    BROWN,    D.D.,    F.G.S. 

Corresponding  Member  Zoological  Society;  President  Methodist  Church  of 
Australasia  ;  Pioneer  Missionary  and  Explorer 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Limited  area — Polynesian — Melanesian — Papuan — Micronesian — Ray 
— Distribution — Characteristics — Linguistic  summary — Pygmies — 
Altered  nomenclature — Tentative  opinions — Conclusions — Lan- 
guages in  Mission  districts — Types — Tonga — Samoa — Fiji — New- 
Britain — Papua — Character  and  customs — Evidence  of  barbarism 
—  Unrecordable  words — Polite  language — Grammar — Adequate. 


CHAP'IHR    IV 

LANGUAGES 

It  is  impossible  to  consider,  wiihin  the  limits  of  a  short 
sketch,  the  many  and  varied  subjects  involved  in  the  study 
of  the  linguistics  of  the  different  native  peoples  who  inhabit 
Australia,  the  Pacific  Islands,  and  the  large  island  of  New 
Guinea.  Such  a  study  would  involve  the  consideration  of  the 
grammatical  structure  of  the  respective  languages,  their 
affinities,  relationship,  and  differences;  the  production  of  a 
comparative  grammar,  and  the  analysis  of  a  large  number  of 
vocabularies.  It  would  also  be  necessary  to  discuss,  at  length, 
the  vexed  question  of  the  respective  races ;  to  decide  whether 
they  are  indigines  or  immigrants;  and,  in  either  case,  to  show 
how  they  are  related  to  other  peoples ;  if  immigrants,  how 
they  reached  their  present  destination,  and  from  what  country 
they  originally  came. 

The  extensive  literature  on  these  subjects  shows,  not  only 
many  of  the  questions  involved,  but  also  makes  clear  the  fact 
that  our  knowledge  is  still  limited  on  some  essential  details. 
There  are  yet  many  difficulties  to  be  overcome  before  we 
arrive  at  positive  conclusions.  I  propose  to  give  a  simple, 
popular  account  of  the  languages  spoken  by  the  respective 
peoples  in  the  Pacific  and  in  New  Guinea;  to  supply  some 
information  given  by  their  vocabularies  with  respect  to  the 
character  of  the  people;  and  to  show  the  capacity  of  their 
languages  for  expressing  the  great  truths  of  Christianity  and 
the  teachings  of  modern  culture,  as  shown  by  the  changed 
lives  of  the  people,  and  their  continued  advance  in  civilization 
and  knowledge. 

The    languages    of    the    Southern    Pacitic    area    are    now 

93 


94         A    CENTURY    IX    THE    PACIFIC 

c^enerally  described  as  Australian,  Polynesian,  Melanesian, 
Papuan,  and  Micronesian.  The  Polynesian  languages  are 
spoken  in  New  Zealand,  Samoa,  Tonga,  Sandwich  Islands, 
Marquesas,  Tahiti,  and  in  several  other  smaller  groups,  some 
of  which  (as  pan  of  Uea  or  Uvea  in  the  Loyalty  Islands, 
Futuna  in  the  New  Hebrides.  Ontong  Java,  Sikyana,  or 
Stewarts  group,  Feads  group,  Tikopia,  Mae,  Bellona,  and 
Rennell  Islands)  are  situated  amongst,  or  in  close  proximity 
to,  peoples  who  speak  purelv  Melanesian  languages. 

The  Melanesian  languages  include  those  spoken  in  the 
New  Hebrides,  Banks.  Santa  Cruz,  and  Solomon  groups; 
New  Britain  and  all  the  Bismarck  Archipel,  and  many  parts 
of  New  Guinea.  In  some  of  these  groups,  however,  there  are 
a  few  districts,  such  as  Xegone  in  the  Loyalty  Islands.  Vella 
Lavella  and  Savo  in  the  Solomons,  Baining,  and  probably 
other  districts  in  New  Britain,  and  Rossel  Island  in  South- 
Eastern  New  Guinea,  where  the  language  is  considered  to  be 
Papuan,  or  related  to  some  still  older  language,  and  not 
Melanesian.  The  Papuan  languages  have  recently  been 
separated  by  Mr.  Sidney  H.  Ray  from  those  of  Melanesia. 
They  are  now  generally  recognized  as  being  non-Melanesian 
and  distinct  from  all  the  island  languages,  with  the  possible 
exception  of  those  mentioned  above.  With  r^;ard  to  Vella 
Lavella,  ^Ir.  Ray,  in  a  recent  letter  to  me,  says  that  a  voca- 
bulary and  grammar  notes  sent  to  him  by  the  Rev.  R.  C. 
Nicholson  conclusively  prove  the  non-Melanesian  character 
of  the  language.  The  Micronesian  languages  are  sp)oken  in 
the  Gilberts,  Marshall,  Caroline,  and  other  groups,  generally 
known  as  the  Line  Islands. 

In  Linguistics,  the  third  volume  (Reports  of  the  Cambridge 
Anthropological  Expedition  of  Torres  Straits),  Mr.  Ray  bears 
ample  testimony  to  his  great  indiistr>-  in  the  collection  of  the 
numerous  grammars  and  vocabularies  contained  in  the  book ; 
to  his  knowledge  in  classifying  the  respective  languages,  and 
to  the  correctness  of  the  opinions  he  has  expressed  from  the 
study   of   them.      In   discussing    the   classification   of    these 


LANGUAGES  95 

languages  Mr.  Rny  says:  'The  languages  of  British  New- 
Guinea,  which  are  here  termed  Papuan,  show  great  variety, 
both  in  grammatical  structure  and  vocabulary.  They  fall 
into  several  very  distinct  groups  which  have  no  common 
grammar  or  vocabulary  ;  whilst  the  differences  in  phraseology, 
formative  particles,  and  words,  render  the  languages  mutually 
unintelligible.  Though  in  some  respects  similar  to  the  Aus- 
tralian languages,  there  is  no  definite  indication  of  affinity 
with  them  either  in  grammar  or  vocabulary.  Many  of  the 
Papuan  languages  have  somewhat  complicated  grammars, 
and  this  renders  them  difficult  to  acquire.  They  are  by  no 
means  accurately  known  ;  though  in  most  cases  enough  has 
now  been  ascertained  to  show  their  complete  separation  from 
the  Melanesian. 

'  The  characteristics  of  the  Papuan  languages  may  be 
summed  up  as  follows  : 

'  (i)  In  the  individual  languages  the  Roots  of  Words  and 
the  Particles  are  distinct,  and  the  Pronouns  have  no  Common 
Origin. 

'  (2)  Possessive  Pronouns  are  formed  by  suffixing  a  Particle 
to  the  Personal  Pronouns. 

'  (3)  The  Cases  of  Nouns  are  formed  by  Postpositions. 
There  are  no  Prepositions. 

'  (4)  The  Subject  of  a  Transitive  Wrb  is  usually  in  the 
Instrumental  Case. 

'  (5)  Distinct  Numerals  are  in  use  usually  only  for  "one  " 
and  "two,"  rarely  for  "three."  Higher  numbers  are  remem- 
bered by  using  parts  of  the  body  as  tallies. 

'  (6)  The  Verb  is  complicated.  Modifications  of  Tense, 
Person,  and  Number  are  expressed  by  Suffixes.  The  Suffixes 
are  sometimes  used  in  conjunction  with  Prefixes. 

'  The  Melanesian  languages  of  British  New  Guinea  are 
closely  related  to  the  languages  spoken  in  the  Melanesian 
Islands.  They  are,  in  every  essential  feature,  members  of 
the  same  linguistic  family  as  that  found  prevailing  in  the 
Solomon    Islands,    Banks    Island,   New    Hebrides,    and    Fiji. 


96         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

They  have  the  same  structure  as  the  island  languages,  a 
similar  numeral  system,  similar  variations  in  phonology, 
and  the  vocabulary  is  full  of  common  words.  Though  the 
areas  occupied  by  the  speakers  of  the  languages  are  often 
geographically  separated,  words  and  grammar  are  usually 
identical.  The  speakers  of  these  languages,  by  tradition, 
appearance,  and  customs,  appear  to  be  immigrants  of  the  New 
Guinea  mainland. 

'  The  characteristics  of  the  Melanesian  languages  of  New 
Guinea  may  be  summed  up  as  follows  : 

'  (i)  Pronouns  are  of  Common  Origin,  and  many  words 
are  plainly  seen  to  be  the  same  as  those  of  the  island 
languages.  When  one  New  Guinea  language  differs  from 
another,  the  differences  are  such  as  are  also  found  in  the 
islands. 

'  (2)  To  indicate  Possession,  Personal  Pronouns  are 
suffixed  to  the  name  of  the  thing  possessed ;  or  a  special 
Noun,  with  the  suffixed  Pronoun,  indicates  the  nature  of  the 
Possession. 

'  (3)  The  equivalents  of  Case  in  Nouns  are  made  by  Pre- 
positions. 

'  (4)  The  action  of  the  Verb  upon  an  object  is  indicated 
by  a  change  in  the  termination,  or  by  means  of  a  Suffix. 

'  (5)  Numbers,  at  least  as  far  as  five,  are  counted.  Though 
counting  is  performed  on  the  fingers,  other  parts  of  the  body 
are  not  used  as  tallies. 

'  (6)  The  Verb  is  simple.  Modifications  of  Tense,  Person, 
and  Number,  are  expressed  by  preceding  Particles. 

'  The  Melanesian  languages  of  New  Guinea  differ  from  the 
Polynesian.  The  following  is  a  summary  of  the  chief  points 
of  difference  : 

'  (i)  Words  which  are  current  Melanesian  occur  in  New 
Guinea,  but  do  not  occur  in  the  Polynesian  languages. 

'  (2)  Of  words  common  to  Melanesian  and  Polynesian 
languages,  the  New  Guinea  languages  have  preserved  fuller 
and  less  changed  forms  than  the  Polynesian. 


LANGUAGES  97 

'  (3)  The  New  (Guinea  Noun  follows  the  Melanesian  use  in 
suffixing  Pronouns  to  Nouns.  In  Polynesia  only  a  few  words 
take  these  Suffixes. 

'  (4)  The  proper  use  of  the  Verbal  or  Transitive  Suffixes  is 
retained  in  New  Guinea;  but  in  Polynesia  these  have  been 
transformed  into  the  (so-called)  passive  endinj^s. 

'  The  view  here  taken  of  the  Polynesian  and  Melanesian 
languages  is  that  they  are  related  in  grammar  and  vocabulary. 
The  Polynesian  is  regarded  as  a  late  form  of  a  Melanesian 
language  '  (Report  of  Cambridge  Expedition,  Linguistics, 
pp.  287  seq.). 

In  discussing  the  geographical  distribution  of  the  Papuan 
and  Melanesian  languages  of  British  New  Guinea  Mr.  Ray 
says  : 

'  Papuan  languages  appear  to  be  spoken  throughout  the 
known  portions  of  British  territory,  except  in  certain  river 
valleys  on  the  south-east  coast,  in  the  islands  and  adjacent 
mainland  at  the  east  end  of  the  possession,  and  on  a  long 
stretch  of  coast  on  the  north-east  shore  of  the  eastern 
peninsula. 

'  From  the  Netherlands-British  boundary  at  the  Bensbach 
River  to  Cape  Possession,  about  half-way  between  the  Biaru 
River  and  Hall  Sound  on  the  eastern  shore  of  the  Papuan 
Gulf,  there  is  apparently  no  break  in  the  succession  of 
Papuan  forms  of  speech.  The  valley  of  the  St.  Joseph 
(Paimumu  or  Angabunga)  River  is,  however,  occupied  by 
the  speakers  of  Melanesian  languages;  and  others  have 
occupied  the  lower  portion  of  the  Vanapa  River,  and  thence 
spread  along  the  coast  eastward.  In  many  villages  in  this 
region  both  Papuan  and  Melanesian  dialects  are  spoken.  On 
the  hills  inland,  over  the  mountain  ranges,  and  down  the 
river  valleys  to  the  other  (north)  side  of  the  island,  all  the 
languages  are  Papuan.  Another  important  group  of  Mela- 
nesian languages  is  spoken  in  the  basin  of  the  Kemp-Welch 
(VVanigela)  River,  and  on  the  adjacent  coast.  Beyond 
Keakaro  Bay,  the  coast  languages  are  again  Papuan  as  far 


98         A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

as  Orangerie  Bay ;  but  beyond  this,  all  the  south  coast  and 
islands  far  to  the  east  are  held  by  Melanesian  speakers,  with 
the  solitary  (and  perhaps  doubtful)  exceptions  of  Rossel 
Island  and  Tagula  at  the  eastern  end  of  the  Louisiade  Archi- 
pelago. These  doubtful  languages  carry  on  the  Papuan 
languages  to  the  northern  part  of  the  Solomon  group,  where 
they  finally  become  merged  in  the  Melanesian. 

'  Returning  along  the  north  shore  of  the  East  Peninsula 
of  New  Guinea,  the  coast  from  Milne  Bay  to  Cape  Nelson, 
the  adjacent  Dentrecasteaux  group  (probably),  and  the  more 
distant  Trobriands  are  occupied  by  Melanesian  speakers. 
From  Cape  Nelson  northwards,  no  Melanesian  languages 
again  appear,  until  Cape  Cretin  is  reached  in  German 
territory  '  {Linguistics,  Report  of  Cambridge  Expedition, 
p.  290). 

What  is  now  definitely  proved,  is  the  existence  of  a  Papuan 
(or  non-Melanesian)  language  in  British  New  Guinea.  For 
this  discovery  the  credit  is  due  to  Mr.  Ray's  valuable  labours. 
It  seems  also  to  be  proved  that  the  Papuan  languages  are 
more  archaic  than  those  of  Melanesia  or  Polynesia;  but  the 
recent  discoveries  of  a  race  of  pygmies  in  Netherlands, 
German  and  British  New  Guinea,  make  it  probable  that  a 
still  earlier  language,  spoken  by  the  original  inhabitants  of 
New  Guinea,  may  be  proved  to  exist,  when  the  language  of 
these  pygmy  races  is  investigated.  At  present  nothing  is 
known  of  it;  but  Mr.  Ray,  in  considering  the  divergences  in 
grammar  which  appear  in  some  of  the  island  languages,  says 
that  they  '  may  be  survivals  of  former  non-Melanesian 
languages.'  He  states  that  there  is  '  no  trace  of  a  similarity 
between  these  divergences  and  Papuan  forms  '  (Linguistics, 
p.  521).  This  fact  makes  the  knowledge  of  the  languages 
spoken  by  the  pygmy  races  Still  more  desirable  and  interesting. 

The  following  General  Linguistic  Summary,  given  by 
Mr.  Ray  in  his  valuable  Report,  will  be  of  service,  giving 
in  condensed  form  the  opinions  which  he  then  held  as  formed 
from  the  mass  of  evidence  collected  : 


LANGUAGES  99 

'(i)  The  Western  languap^e  of  Torres  Straits  is  Aus- 
tralian. 

'  (2)  The  Eastern  lan^i^uaj^e  of  the  Straits  is  morphologic- 
ally related  to  the  Papuan  of  New  Guinea. 

'  (3)  There  is  no  genealo<j[ical  connexion  between  the  two 
languages  of  the  Straits. 

'  (4)  There  is  no  evidence  of  an  African,  Andaman, 
Papuan,  or  Malay  connexion  with  the  Australian  languages. 
There  are  reasons  for  regarding  the  Australian  as  in  a  similar 
morphological  stage  to  the  Dravidian ;  but  there  is  no 
genealogical  relationship  proved. 

'  (5)  The  Papuan  languages  are  distinct  from  the  Mela- 
nesian.  They  are  in  some  respects  similar  to  the  Australian  ; 
but  their  exact  positions  are  not  yet  proved. 

'  (6)  Languages  of  the  Papuan  type  are  found  in  German 
New  Guinea.  There  is  no  direct  evidence  of  their  existence 
in  Netherlands  New  Guinea. 

'  (7)  There  is  insufficient  evidence  to  connect  the  Papuan 
with  the  Andaman  or  Halmahern  languages. 

'  (8)  In  the  Northern  Melanesian  Islands  a  few  languages 
are  found  which  have  Papuan  characteristics. 

'  (9)  Differences  of  grammar  and  vocabulary,  which  appear 
in  other  island  languages,  appear  to  be  remains  of  an  archaic 
Melanesian  speech.  There  is  no  grammatical  evidence  to 
cor^nect  them  with  the  Papuan;  but  they  show  the  Papuan 
diversity  of  vocabulary. 

'  (10)  The  Melanesian  languages  of  New  Guinea,  and 
those  of  the  islands,  are  closely  (genealogically)  related  in 
grammar  and  vocabulary. 

'(11)  The  Melanesian  languages  of  New  Guinea  and  the 
islands,  stand  in  the  position  with  regard  to  the  Polynesian. 
Both  the  former  represent  an  older  and  fuller  form  of  speech, 
of  which  the  Polynesian  is  a  later  and  more  simplified 
descendant  '  (Linguistics,  Report  of  Cambridge  Expedition, 
p.  528). 

Mr.  Ray  uses  '  morphological  '  as  implying  similar  gram- 


TOO       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

matical  formation ;    '  genealogical  '    as   implying   community 
of  origin. 

The  following  facts,  however,  must  be  remembered.  Since 
the  above  summary  was  written,  a  race  of  pygmies  has  been 
discovered  in  Netherlands  New  Guinea,  by  an  expedition 
organized  by  the  British  Ornithological  Union,  conducted 
by  Mr.  A.  F.  R.  WoUaston  (Pygmies  and  Papuans,  Smith, 
Elder  &  Co.,  London).  Mr.  Williamson  has  also  described 
some  tribes  in  the  interior  of  British  New  Guinea  which  were 
not  previously  described  {The  Mafulu  Mountain  People  of 
British  New  Guinea)-,  and  Sir  Francis  Winter  described,  in 
1903,  some  dw'arf  people  in  British  New  Guinea  near  Cape 
Nelson,  the  measurements  of  the  men  being  only  4  feet  3 
inches.  The  languages  of  these  people  have  not,  I  think, 
been  examined,  and  it  is  quite  possible  that  when  this  is 
done  they  may  be  found  to  throw  some  light  upon,  if  not  to 
explain  clearly,  the  differences  which  exist  in  some  of  the 
Papuan  grammars,  and  those  also  in  the  Melanesian  districts 
of  Nengone,  Savo,  Baining,  New  Britain,  and  their  connexion, 
or  otherwise,  with  Australia. 

It  is  of  the  utmost  importance  to  note  that,  owing  to  Mr. 
Ray's  discovery  of  a  Papuan  language  in  New  Guinea  which 
is  quite  distinct  from  that  of  the  Melanesians  in  New  Guinea 
and  the  island  groups,  the  nomenclature  of  these  languages 
must  be  altered.  This  distinction  must  always  be  borne  in 
mind  when  consulting  the  earlier  writers  on  this  subject.  It 
was,  for  instance,  generally  accepted  that  the  languages  of 
Melanesia  and  New  Guinea  were  of  the  same  family,  and 
this  was  indifferently  called  Papuan,  Melanesian,  or  Western 
Polynesian.  I  myself  contributed  a  paper  to  the  British 
Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  in  1887,  in  which 
I  designated  the  Samoans  as  Eastern  Polynesians,  and  the 
New  Britain  people  as  Western  Polynesians  or  Papuans. 
The  correct  title,  in  view  of  later  information,  should  have 
been  Melanesians  and  Polynesians.  In  this  article  the  word 
Polynesian   applies  to  the  Samoan   and  cognate   languages; 


LANGUAGES  loi 

Melanesian  to  the  languages  spoken  in  1-iji,  the  Western 
Pacific  groups,  and  portions  of  New  Guinea;  and  Papuan 
to  those  languages  spoken  in  New  Guinea  and  in  some  of 
the  Eastern  islands  in  Torres  vStraits  which  are  non- 
iMelanesian.  The  language  spoken  by  the  recently  discovered 
pygmies  is  not  yet  known. 

The  fact  that  in  Australia,  New  Guinea,  and  the  large 
island  groups  in  the  Pacific,  there  are  a  number  of  people 
speaking  languages  which  present  fundamental  differences 
in  grammatical  construction,  and  a  most  bewildering  number 
of  vocabularies,  naturally  suggests  the  inquiry  as  to  which 
of  those  languages  may  be  considered  to  be  the  most  archaic, 
and  the  most  representative  of  the  languages  spoken  by  the 
original  inhabitants  of  the  respective  countries.  It  also  sug- 
gests the  inquiry  as  to  the  original  habitat  of  the  respective 
peoples,  more  especially  with  regard  to  those  considered  to 
be  immigrants,  and  not  indigenes.  These  are  important 
questions,  on  which  varied  opinions  are  held.  It  would  be 
futile  to  attempt  any  adequate  consideration  of  them  in  the 
space  allotted.  I  have,  in  a  previous  work  {Melanesians  and 
Polynesians,  Macmillan  &  Co.,  London,  pp.  14  seq.,  369  scq.), 
given  the  opinions  which  I  had  formed  at  that  time.  These 
have  now  to  be  presented  in  a  somewhat  different  form, 
owing  to  the  discovery,  previously  mentioned,  of  a  distinct 
Papuan  language  in  New  Guinea,  and  that  of  the  pygmies 
in  some  parts  of  the  same  country,  whose  language  will 
probably  be  found  to  be  more  archaic  than  that  of  the 
Papuans. 

It  would  not  be  wise,  with  our  present  knowledge,  to  write 
dogmatically  on  this  difficult  subject.  I  venture  to  submit 
the  following  opinions  which   I   now  hold  : 

(i)  That  the  original  inhabitants  of  New  (iuinca  and  of 
most  of  the  Western  Pacific  groups  were  a  Negrito  people, 
who  occupied  New  Guinea  and  all  the  different  groups  in  the 
Western  Pacific  as  far  west  as  Borneo,  probably  extending 
upon  the  mainland  on  the  side  of  Siam,  the  Malacca  Penin- 


I02       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

sula,  and,  perhaps,  as  far  as  Burmah.  This  large  district 
may  probably  have  formed  part  of  a  great  continent  at  some 
remote  period. 

(2)  That  the  original  home  of  these  peoples  was  in  India ; 
probably  in  the  valley  of  the  Ganges,  which  was  then,  as 
were  other  parts  of  India,  occupied  by  a  people  quite  distinct 
from  the  Aryan  or  Indo-Germanic  race,  which  subsequently 
entered  India,  and  subjugated  or  dislodged,  to  a  considerable 
extent,  the  people  whom  they  found  there.  This  opinion  was 
held  by  Mr.  J.  R.  Logan  (Ethnology  of  the  Indo-Pacific 
Islands,  p.  i  ;  Journ.  Indian  Archipelago,  1852-3,  pp.  34, 
37,  54),  and  I  think  it  is  correct. 

(3)  That  the  languages  spoken  by  them  do  not  belong  to 
the  Indo-European,  but  to  some  non-Aryan  family;  and  that 
these  have  from  time  to  time  been  much  modified  by  admix- 
ture with  forms  of  speech  brought  in  by  repeated  immigra- 
tions from  Aryan-speaking  races  on  the  mainland  of  India. 
The  characteristics  of  the  non-Aryan  family  are  all,  however, 
strongly  marked  in  New  Guinea,  Melanesia,  and  Polynesia 
at  the  present  time.  None  of  the  languages  spoken  by  these 
people  can  be  considered  inflexional,  which  is  one  of  the 
distinguishing  features  of  the  Indo-European  family.  All 
the  languages  with  which  I  am  acquainted  in  the  Pacific  are 
more  or  less  agglutinative.  They  all  preserve  the  characteristic 
non-Aryan  features  that  the  root  is  never  obscured,  that  there 
are  very  few,  if  any,  irregular  forms,  and  that  there  is  often 
a  great  divergence  of  dialects.  It  has  always,  I  think,  been 
found  a  great  difficulty  by  those  who  advocate  the  Caucasian 
origin  of  these  peoples,  that  whilst  the  Indo-European 
languages  are  often  strongly  inflexional,  there  are  few,  if 
any,  evidences  of  an  inflexional  language  in  any  of  the 
Melanesian  or  Polynesian  languages. 

(4)  That  the  pygmies  of  New  Guinea  are  the  oldest  repre- 
sentatives of  the  original  race  in  the  districts  now  under 
consideration. 

(5)  That  successive  immigrants  from  the  mainland  of  India 


LANGUAGES  103 

settled  in  Indonesia,  and  from  there  spread,  by  way  of  the 
island  i^roups,  to  New  Guinea;  that  these  immij^^rants,  mixing 
with  the  orifj^inal  inhabitants,  formed  what  are  now  known 
as  the  Papuan-speaking  peoples,  who  reside  in  New  Guinea, 
and  in  some  isolated  islands  or  districts  in  the  Melanesian 
area. 

(6)  That  the  ianguag^e  of  these  immij^rants  was  aj^ain 
modified  in  New  Guinea,  and  probably  elsewhere,  by  further 
admixture  with  the  original  Negrito  races. 

(7)  That  the  peoples  remaining  in  Indonesia  were  still 
further  affected,  during  a  long  period  of  time,  bv  large  numbers 
of  immigrants  from  the  mainland  of  India  or  Indo-China, 
who,  mixing  freely  with  them,  gradually  introduced  a  dis- 
tinct vocabulary  into  the  language,  and  also  caused  radical 
changes  in  its  grammatical  construction. 

(8)  That  this  admixture  constituted  what  is  now  known  as 
the  Melanesian  race. 

(g)  That  this  Melanesian  race,  in  turn,  overflowed  from 
its  home  in  Indonesia,  and  in  large  numbers  gradually 
peopled  certain  parts  of  New  Guinea  and  the  Western 
Pacific  groups;  and  either  drove  out,  exterminated,  or  assimi- 
lated the  Papuan  peoples  residing  in  those  particular  districts, 
with  the  exception  of  those  living  in  some  isolated  com- 
munities, previously  mentioned,  such  as  Baining  in  New 
Britain;  Vella  Lavella  and  Savo  in  the  Solomon  group; 
Rossel  Islands  in  SE.  New  Guinea;  and  probably  in  some 
other  places,  the  languages  of  which  have  not  yet  been 
examined.  There  appears  to  be  little  or  no  doubt  that  the 
Melanesian-speaking  peoples  in  German  New  Guinea,  and 
those  settled  in  British  New  Guinea  on  nearly  all  the  coast- 
line from  near  Cape  Nelson  on  the  NE.  coast  to  Cape 
Possession  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Gulf  of  Papua,  in  the 
south  and  south-west  part  of  the  island,  and  also  those 
residing  on  all  the  SE.  island  groups,  with  the  exception  of 
Rossel  Island  and  portions  of  Sud  Est  Island,  are  immi- 
grants from    Indonesia,    by   way   of   the   island  groups;   and 


I04       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

that  they  arrived  in  New  Guinea  at  a  date  long  subsequent 
to  that  on  which  the  Papuan-speaking  peoples  eflfected  a 
settlement  there. 

(lo)  That  these  immigrations  must  have  taken  place  in 
very  remote  periods  is,  1  think,  proved  by  the  fact  that,  unlike 
the  Polynesians,  neither  the  Papuans  nor  the  Melanesians 
have  any  traditions  of  these  voyages.  This,  however,  may 
in  some  degree  be  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  they  had 
no  great  chiefs,  and  no  system  of  tribal  government,  which 
made  the  preservation  of  antecedent  laws  and  usages  neces- 
sary ;  nor  had  they  reached  that  stage  of  culture  which, 
as  in  the  case  of  the  Polynesians,  caused  the  institution  of 
a  special  class  of  men,  whose  duty  it  was  to  preserve  the 
traditions  and  laws  of  past  generations  by  which  they  were 
governed. 

(ii)  That  the  Melanesian  peoples  remaining  in  Indonesia 
after  these  emigrations  were,  during  a  long  period,  still 
affected  by  successive  immigrations  from  the  western  groups 
of  India,  who  mixed  with,  and  were  assimilated  by  them. 
This  admixture  modified,  and  in  some  degree  changed,  the 
language,  colour,  and  customs  of  the  people. 

(12)  That  this  mixed  race  were  the  inhabitants  of  In- 
donesia prior  to  the  Malay  irruption,  and  constituted  what 
are  now  known  as  the  Polynesian  peoples. 

(13)  That  many  of  these  people  were  finally  driven  out  of 
Indonesia  by  the  continued  encroachment  of  Malay  and  other 
immigrants ;  and  that  these  expelled  races  migrated  eastward, 
and  probably  settled  in  the  first  instance  in  Manua  in  the 
Samoan  group,  to  which  place  nearly  all  Polynesian  tradi- 
tions point  as  being  that  from  which  the  subsequent 
dispersions  to  the  different  islands  in  the  Eastern  Pacific 
took  place. 

If  the  foregoing  suppositions  are  correct  it  is  assumed  : 
(a)  That   the    languages   spoken  by   the  pygmies   in    New 
Guinea  will  be  found  to  be  the  most  archaic;  and  they  will 
probably    be    found    to    have    a    closer   connexion    with    the 


LANGUAGES  105 

Australian   languages  than    has  yet   been  traced  as  existing 
between  the  Australian  and  Papuan  languag«,*s. 

(6)  That  the  Papuan  peoples  were  immigrants  frcjm  In- 
donesia; and  that  the  languages  now  spoken  by  them  were 
affected  by  admixture  with  those  which  were  spoken  by  the 
pygmy  people,  with  whom  they  were  brought  into  close 
contact. 

(c)  That  the  Melanesians  were  also  from  Indonesia;  but 
that  their  emigration  took  place  at  a  time  long  subsequent 
to  that  of  the  Papuans,  and  when  they  had  been  much  more 
affected  by  intercourse  and  admixture  with  other  immigrants 
than  the  Papuans  had  been  at  the  time  when  tiie  latter  first 
settled  in  New  Guinea  and  the  Western  Pacific  groups. 

(d)  That  the  ancestors  of  the  Polynesians  were  the  people 
who  remained  in  Indonesia  after  the  successive  emigrations 
of  those  that  are  now  known  as  the  Papuan  and  Melanesian 
peoples;  and  that,  during  the  long  period  in  which  they 
remained  there,  they  had  been  still  more  affected  by  successive 
immigrations  of  races  from  the  western  groups,  who  mixed 
with  them,  and  so  changed  in  some  degree  their  language, 
colour,  and  customs. 

(e)  That  these  people  w-ere  finallv  driven  out  of  Indonesia 
by  the  continued  encroachments  of  Malay  and  other  immi- 
grants; that  they  settled  first  in  Samoa,  from  there  were 
dispersed  to  the  different  eastern  islands  of  the  Pacific,  and 
formed  what  is  now  known  as  the  Polynesian  peoples. 

The  languages  used  in  all  our  mission  districts  are  either 
Polynesian  or  Melanesian.  We  have  no  mission  amongst 
the  Papuan-speaking  peoples,  unless  it  should  be  found  that 
the  natives  of  Vella  Lavella  in  the  Solomon  Islands,  whose 
language  is  certainly  non-Melanesian,  the  natives  of  Sud 
Est  and  Rossel  Island  in  New  Guinea,  and  the  people  of  the 
Baining  district  in  New  Britain,  speak  a  Papuan  language. 

The  Maori,  Samoan,  and  Tongan  may  be  taken  as  types 
of  Polynesian;  and  the  languages  of  Fiji,  New  Britain,  New 
Guinea,  and  the  Solomon  Islands  as  typical  of  the  Melanesian 


io6       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

family.  The  Samoan  and  Tongan  resemble  each  other  in 
grammatical  construction,  but  with  many  differences  in  their 
vocabularies,  and  some  perplexing  differences  in  meaning. 
For  example,  a  word  which  in  Tongan  has  a  good  meaning, 
has  an  obscene  meaning  in  Samoan ;  the  word  malanga  means 
a  sermon  in  Tongan,  the  same  word  in  Samoan  means  a 
journey,  or  a  party  of  travellers.  The  word  lauga,  a  sermon 
in  Samoan,  means  a  grumbling  or  murmurs  in  Tongan. 
Some  of  these  words  form  dangerous  traps,  into  which  any 
one  with  a  superficial  knowledge  of  the  two  languages  may 
easily  fall. 

The  first  grammar  and  dictionary  of  the  Tongan  language 
is  found  in  that  wonderful  book.  Mariner's  Natives  of  the 
Tonga  Islands.  Mariner  was  a  sailor  on  board  the  Port 
Prince,  a  whale-ship  and  privateer  captured  at  Haabai,  in 
December  1806.  Most  of  the  crew  were  killed;  but  Mariner 
and  a  few  others  were  spared.  Mariner  lived  about  four 
years  amongst  the  natives,  and  then  escaped  on  a  passing 
vessel.  After  his  arrival  in  England  he  gave  an  account  of 
his  experiences  to  Dr.  Martin,  who  fortunately  preserved  it. 
Mariner  also  dictated  a  grammar  and  vocabulary,  which, 
apart  from  the  old  style  of  spelling,  was  wonderfully  correct. 
The  Rev.  Stephen  Rabone  used  this  book  as  the  basis  of  a 
Tongan  dictionary;  but  he  added  many  words,  modernized 
the  spelling,  and  so  improved  it  as  to  make  it  practically  a 
new  book.  The  missionary  printing-press  in  Vavau,  under 
the  careful  and  skilful  management  of  the  Rev.  John  Hobbs, 
printed  many  portions  of  the  Scriptures  and  Scripture  lessons, 
and  also  the  first  booklets  printed  in  the  Fijian  and  Samoan 
languages  by  the  Methodist  Church.  In  the  course  of  years, 
succeeding  missionaries  completed  the  translation  of  the 
Bible  into  the  Tongan  language.  This  was  afterwards 
revised,  or  rather  re-translated,  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Moulton, 
who,  during  a  long  course  of  years,  also  gave  to  the  Tongans 
an  extensive  literature,  comprising,  among  many  other  books, 
an  up-to-date  arithmetic,  a  geography,  and  a  History  of  the 


LANGUAGES  107 

World.  Dr.  Moulton's  literary  work  for  Ton^a  was  con- 
tinued to  the  last  days  of  his  life.  He  left  a  lejjacy  of  his 
love  for  Tont^a  which  is  of  incalculable  value. 

In  Samoa  the  principal  work  of  translation  has  been  done 
by  the  missionaries  of  the  London  Missionary  vSociety,  who 
gave  to  the  people  one  of  the  best  translations  of  the  Bible 
ever  made  into  any  of  the  island  lan^^uar^es.  The  Rev. 
George  Pratt  published  an  excellent  grammar  and  dictionary 
of  the  Samoan  language,  which  has  always  been  regarded  as 
a  standard  work  by  all  students  of  South  Sea  languages.  It 
has  been  issued  in  at  least  three  editions,  the  last  being 
revised  and  added  to  by  the  Rev.  J.  E.  Newell. 

In  Fiji  the  grammar  and  dictionary  of  the  Rev.  David 
Hazlewood  has  always  occupied  a  high  position,  and  is  still 
accepted  as  the  first,  and  one  of  the  most  valuable  contribu- 
tions to  the  linguistics  of  the  Melanesian  groups.  The  trans- 
lation of  the  Bible,  begun  by  John  Hunt  and  the  early 
missionaries,  has  long  been  completed,  and  a  revision,  the 
last  work  of  the  Rev.  Frederick  Langham,  D.D.,  is  to-day 
the  highly-valued  treasure  of  the  people  of  Fiji.  The  Rev. 
James  Calvert  and  other  missionaries  have  given  literature  of 
great  value  to  the  Fijians.  The  Mission  Press,  under  the 
superintendency  of  the  Rev.  A.  J.  Small,  furnishes  them  with 
a  monthly  Gospel  Messenger,  which  is  eagerly  read  by  the 
people.  The  New  Testament  in  Rotuman,  translated  by  the 
Rev.  William  Fletcher,  B.A.,  was  practically  the  first 
exposition  of  that  curious  language. 

In  New  Britain,  the  language  of  Duke  of  York  Island  was 
first  reduced  to  a  written  form  by  the  writer,  w^ho  also  pub- 
lished a  grammar  in  that  language;  and,  in  conjunction  with 
the  Rev.  B.  Danks,  a  dictionary  of  the  same.  Some  lesson- 
books  were  also  published  by  him,  and  the  Gospel  of  St. 
Mark,  the  first  translation  of  any  portion  of  the  Bible  into 
any  of  the  New  Britain  dialects.  On  the  main  island  the 
Rev.  B.  Danks  printed  and  published  some  Scripture  lessons 
and  booklets,  and  with   the  Rev.   I.   Rooney   translated  the 


io8       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Gospel  of  St.  Matthew  into  the  Duke  of  York  language.  The 
Rev.  R.  H.  Rickard  published  a  very  valuable  grammar 
and  dictionary  of  the  New  Britain  language,  which  is  now 
being  revised  and  added  to  by  the  Rev.  H.  Fellmann. 
Mr.  Rickard  also  translated  portions  of  the  New  Testament. 
These  were  afterwards  completed  by  Mr.  Fellmann  and  other 
missionaries.  The  New  Britain  people  have  long  rejoiced 
in  the  possession  of  that  treasure. 

In  British  New  Guinea,  or  Papua,  as  it  is  now  called,  the 
Rev.  S.  B.  Fellows  compiled  a  grammar  and  vocabulary  of 
the  Panaiet  and  the  Kiriwina  dialects,  and  also  some  Scripture 
lessons.     The  Rev.  M.  K.  Gilmour  translated  the  Gospel  of 
St.  Mark  into  the  Kiriwina  language.     But  the  bulk  of  the 
literary  work  of  that  district  has  been  done  by  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Bromilow,  who  translated  the  whole  of  the  New  Testament 
into  the  Dobuan  language,  and  also  published  some  lesson- 
books  and  a  comparative  vocabulary  of  the  English,  Fijian, 
Dobuan,  and  Samoan  languages,  the  latter  language  being 
contributed  by  the  writer.     From  the  Solomon   Islands,  our 
latest  mission  field,  we  have,  as  yet,  only  a  book  of  hymns, 
catechism,  and  Scripture  lessons  in  the  Ruviana  language. 
This  has  been  prepared  by  the  Rev.  J.   F.   Goldie.     Other 
works  are   in   preparation.     This   does   not  claim   to   be,    in 
any  sense,  a  complete  description  of  the  work  done  by  the 
missionaries.     Nor  does  it  give  the  names  of  all  those  who 
have  taken  part  in  the  great  work  of  translation.     It  can  only 
be  regarded  as  proof  that  the  missionaries  have  done  great 
service  in  giving  to  the  peoples  amongst  whom   they  have 
laboured  the  priceless  blessing  of  the  best  of  all  literatures. 
With  regard  to  the  evidence  of  language  as  to  the  character 
and  customs  of  a  people,  I  give  the  following  extracts  from 
the  late  Rev.  Dr.  Fison's  introduction  to  his  little  known  but 
valuable  and  interesting  book.    Tales  from   Old  Fiji.      Dr. 
F'ison,  in  describing  the  grace  and  dignity  of  a  Fijian  chief, 
showing  how  easily  strangers  and  visitors  might  have  been, 
and    indeed  were,    misled    in    judging    the  character   of  the 


LANGUAGES  109 

people  prior  to  the  introduction  of  Christianity,  thus  writes: 
'  Let  us  call  up  a  few  old  Fijian  words,  and  hear  their 
evidence  as  to  what  might  formerly  be  found  beneath  this 
pleasing  exterior,  before  the  introduction  of  the  white  man's 
lotu,  as  Christianity  is  called.  From  out  of  a  numerous  class 
of  words  which,  innocent  in  themselves,  once  possessed  an 
evil  secondary  meaning,  take  the  word  vaka-sombu,  which 
meant  "the  act  of  lowering,"  or  "that  by  which  a  thing  is 
lowered  down." 

'  Thus  the  act  of  putting  bananas  into  a  pit,  so  that  they 
might  ferment  and  become  mandrai,  or  Fijian  bread,  was 
described  by  this  word;  but  the  vaka-sumbu-ninduru, 
literally,  the  "lowerers  of  the  post,"  were  men  killed  when 
the  corner-posts  of  a  heathen  temple,  or  a  great  chief's  house, 
were  lowered  into  the  holes  dug  for  them.  The  god  in  whose 
honour  the  temple  was  being  erected,  or  the  chief  whose  house 
was  building,  would  be  dishonoured  if  no  human  life  were 
taken  when  the  posts  were  set  up ;  and  it  used  to  be  no  uncom- 
mon occurrence  for  a  living  man  to  be  placed  standing  in 
each  post-hole,  and  there  buried  alive  by  the  side  of  the  post, 
the  hole  being  filled  up  and  the  earth  rammed  down  over 
him.  But  a  few  years  ago  there  were  houses  in  Fiji,  on  whose 
floor  the  babe  and  its  mother  slept  and  little  children  played, 
while  within  hand-reach  underground  grim  skeletons  stood 
embracing  the  corner-posts  with  their  fleshless  arms.  It  is 
even  probable  that  there  are  houses  of  this  description  still 
standing  at  the  present  day.  At  the  root  of  this  horrible 
practice  we  may  doubtless  recognize  the  once  widespread 
superstition  that  the  sacrifice  of  a  human  victim,  when  a 
foundation  wtis  being  laid,  propitiated  the  gods  and  secured 
the  stability  of  the  building. 

'  When  the  house-timber  was  cut  and  ready  for  hauling 
from  the  forest,  then  also  men  were  slain,  who  were  called 
yara-nindiiru,  or  "draggers  of  the  post";  the  setting  up  of 
the  first  pair  of  rafters  was  celebrated  by  a  cannibal  feast, 
whose  victims  were  called  lalawa-ni-sa,  or  "rafter  tiers";  and 


no       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

when  the  building  was  finished  other  unfortunate  wretches 
were  killed  and  eaten.  These  were  known  as  vaka-voti- 
voti,  a  word  whose  etymology  I  am  unable  to  explain. 
Thotho,  a  reduplication  of  tho  (grass),  means  the  dried 
grass  which  was  thickly  strewn  on  house-floors  and  covered 
with  mats.  But  this  word  had  a  fearful  secondary  meaning  : 
for  the  thotho  of  a  chief's  grave  were  the  women  who  were 
strangled,  their  bodies  being  laid  on  the  bottom  of  the  grave 
for  the  dead  chief  to  lie  upon,  and  their  souls  being  supposed 
to  accompany  him  to  Bulu,  or  the  Spirit-land,  and  to  wait 
upon  him  there.  More  than  twenty  women  have  thus  been 
sacrificed  on  the  death  of  a  great  chief  as  the  "thotho  "  of  his 
grave. 

*  Lango  was  a  word  innocent  enough  in  its  primary  signi- 
fication, but  with  a  horrible  subaudition.  It  meant  the  short 
logs  placed  in  rows  on  the  ground  when  a  large  canoe  was 
either  dragged  into  the  water  or  hauled  ashore,  the  canoe 
sliding  over  them  more  easily  than  it  would  over  the  bare 
ground.  But  the  "rollers"  of  a  new  war-canoe  were  bodies 
of  men  killed  for  the  occasion.  So  also  vaka-nduri  was  a 
word  signifying  "that  which  raises  to  an  erect  position,"  or 
"sets  on  end";  and  vaka-mbale  was  "that  which  lowers"  a 
thing  which  was  set  on  end.  But  the  vaka-nduri-ni-vana,  or 
"raisers  of  the  mast,"  were  men  killed  when  the  mast  of  a 
new  war-canoe  was  first  set  on  end ;  and  the  vara-mbale  were 
victims  slain  when  the  mast  was  first  lowered  and  unshipped. 
Another  word,  vaka-tala,  was  also  used  with  this  meaning  ; 
and  it  would  be  considered  ominous  of  evil  if  the  mast  were 
lowered  before  the  vaka-mbale  or  vaka-tala  had  been  pro- 
vided. It  may  be  well  to  explain  that  these  masts  worked 
on  a  pivot  at  the  foot,  being  lowered  down  and  unshipped 
when  the  canoe  was  laid  up,  and  raised  again  when  she  was 
made  ready  for  sea.  When  a  chief  presented  a  new  canoe 
to  his  friends,  which  was  often  done  for  political  ends,  the 
recipients  were  bound  to  pay  him  a  visit  as  soon  as  possible, 
bringing  with  them  a  dead  body  laid  upon  the  deck.     This 


LANGUAGES  in 

was  called  the  vaka-ndrandra,  or  "stainer  with  blood,"  and 
the  deck  was  then  said  to  be  "washed." 

'  Among  the  windward  islands  of  Fiji  two  sorts  of  turtle 
were  spoken  of:  vonit-leka-leka,  or  "short  turtle,"  and  vonu 
balavu,  or  "  lonjj^  turtle."  Of  these  the  former  referred  to  the 
real  turtle,  but  the  latter  to  the  dead  body  of  a  man  which  was 
to  be  eaten.  Amonn^  the  leeward  islands  a  like  distinction 
prevailed,  vuaka  (pig^)  being  substituted  for  vonu  (turtle),  and 
vuaka  balavu  (long  pig)  bore  the  meaning  which  the  wind- 
ward islanders  attached  to  vonu  balavu,  and  which  laughed 
off,  as  it  were,  the  revolting  practice  of  cannibalism  with 
scarcely  less  revolting  jest.  Manu-manu-ni-latha,  literally 
"bird  of  the  sail,"  was  another  word  of  this  class,  for  it  once 
meant  a  child,  suspended  aloft  by  one  foot  or  hand  from  the 
end  of  the  gaff  when  the  canoes  returned  from  a  successful 
raid  upon  the  enemy.  In  the  olden  times  canoes  frequently 
came  into  Bau  with  these  "birds  of  the  sail  "  dangling  in  the 
air,  and  swinging  to  and  fro  as  the  canoe  rolled  or  the  great 
sail  flapped. 

*  Tauvibe-vandra,  literally  a  "necklace  of  the  screwpine  " 
(whose  leaves,  growing  in  tufts  out  of  the  ends  of  its  short 
branchlets,  have  a  mop-like  appearance),  was  a  dead  body 
whose  head  had  been  smashed  in  by  repeated  club-strokes. 
This  taumbe-vandra  worthily  matched  the  well-known 
Tahitian  tiputa  tu'ata,  or  "man-cloak,"  which  meant  the 
body  of  a  slain  enemy  beaten  out  flat,  and  worn  cloakwise 
in  the  day  of  battle.  Boto-walai,  literally  "a  trussed  frog,"  but 
in  actual  use  once  denoting  "a  man  baked  whole,"  was  a  word 
of  this  class.  It  had  been  easy,  especially  if  we  had  extended 
our  researches  into  the  region  of  filth,  as  well  as  into  that  of 
cruelty,  to  multiply  examples  of  these  mots  or  double  entente, 
which,  striving  as  they  did  to  hide  the  loathsomeness  of  the 
practices  they  implied,  show  us,  perhaps,  the  workings  of  con- 
science in  the  Fijian,  and  convict  him  of  a  knowledge  that 
those  practices  were  evil ;  but  the  most  fearfullv  significant 
words  of  this  class  are  so  shocking  in  their  horror,  and  so 


112       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

revolting  in  their  filth,  that  it  is  impossible  to  quote  them. 
.  .  .  The  language  was  full  of  words  having  reference  to  the 
taking  of  human  life,  but  not  one  of  them  was  a  term  of 
reproach.  Ravu-sembe  was  "a  man  who  went  forth  single- 
handed  to  kill  " ;  ngandro  was  a  club  wherewith  somebody 
had  been  slain;  donatha  meant  "to  kill  one  in  the  prime  of 
life";  bati-kandi  was  a  man  who  crept  into  a  house  in  the 
dead  of  night  and  killed  one  of  the  sleeping  housefolk. 

Vaka-matea,  ravu,  ynokuta,  yavita,  rumbi-laka,  sakuta, 
samuta,  lamba,  all  these  words — words  of  one  and  the  same 
dialect — meant  "to  kill,"  but  not  one  of  them  had  the  faintest 
tone  of  reprobation  in  it.  There  was  no  word  in  the  language 
which  answered  to  our  "murder";  no  word  which  called  up 
a  feeling  of  abhorrence.  .  .  .  Koroi,  koli,  visa,  ivangka  were 
four  titles  of  honour  given  to  shedders  of  blood,  and  are  here 
set  down  in  an  ascending  series.  "  Koroi  "  was  prefixed  to  the 
name  of  a  man  who  had  taken  a  life.  "  Koli "  was  the  slayer 
of  ten,  "visa  "  of  twenty,  "wangka  "  of  thirty ;  and  a  few  years 
ago  there  was  living  at  Bau  a  powerful  chief  of  the  Lasakau 
tribe,  whose  admiring  countrymen,  in  order  to  give  him  the 
honour  which  was  his  due,  had  to  combine  three  of  these 
titles,  and  to  call  him  "  Koli-visa-wangka."  .   .  . 

'  Though  the  Fijian  language  was  especially  rich  in  words 
of  cruelty,  but  few  of  them  find  their  way  even  into  the 
dictionary,  for  nearly  all  of  them  were  steeped  in  such  horrible 
filth  that  they  could  not  be  recorded.  Most  of  them  expressed 
different  modes  of  torture,  especially  those  used  in  the  punish- 
ment of  women,  and  set  forth  practices  so  dreadful  and  so 
unutterably  revolting,  that  if  a  writer  had  dared  pollute  his 
pages  with  their  stain,  he  would  have  been  branded  as  a  liar, 
and  execrated  as  a  filthy  wretch.  From  the  two  or  three 
words  of  this  class  which  are  clean  enough  to  be  quoted, 
some  idea  may  be  formed  of  the  horror  of  those  which  must 
of  necessity  be  concealed.  Thulang-gungguna  was  to  pin  a 
man  to  the  ground  by  thrusting  spears,  or  sharp-pointed 
stakes,    through  the   fleshy    parts  of  his   body ;    but    it   was 


LANGUAGES  113 

usually  employed  to  express  the  hiding  of  a  dead  body  under 
water,  it  being-  prevented  from  rising  to  the  surface  by  means 
of  forked  slicks  thrust  into  the  mud  over  the  arms  and  legs. 
'Hiis  was  done  when  a  man  had  been  murdered,  in  order  that 
all  distinctive  marks,  involving  recognition,  might  the  sooner 
be  effaced.  It  was  also  done  when  a  bokola,  or  "dead  body 
for  eating,"  had  been  stolen,  and  it  was  necessary  to  wait  for 
a  convenient  opportunity  of  cooking  and  devouring  it  without 
discovery. 

'  Vaka-totogana  was  a  horrible  word,  which  formerly  meant 
to  torture  an  enemy  by  cutting  off  some  portion  of  his  body 
(preferably  the  tongue,  but  sometimes  the  nose  or  ears), 
roasting  and  eating  it  before  his  eyes,  taunting  him  the  while. 
But  of  this  enough.  .  .  .  Kiinata  meant  to  strangle  a  human 
being;  and  buluta-mbulabula  to  bury  alive.  Widows  were 
killed  to  accompany  their  dead  husbands;  and,  generally 
speaking,  they  were,  as  in  India,  at  least  ostensibly  willing  to 
be  sacrificed,  for  it  was  a  disgrace  to  a  woman  to  show  the 
slightest  unwillingness  to  be  strangled  when  her  lord  and 
master  died.  The  words  used  to  indicate  a  woman  who 
survived  her  husband  were  terms  of  contemptuous  reproach. 
.  .  .  Nothata  and  vaka-ndraunikau-taka  are  words  meaning 
"to  produce  disease  by  witchcraft."  Nothata,  literally  "to 
place  evil  upon,"  is  to  infect  the  dress  of  an  enemy  by  means 
of  sorcery.  An  end  of  the  malo,  or  waist-clout,  if  the  victim 
be  a  man,  or  of  the  liku,  or  waist-fringe,  if  it  be  a  woman,  is 
thus  infected;  and,  unless  a  counterspell  be  used,  certain 
death  is  said  to  befall  the  wearer. 

'  Vaka-ndraunikau-taka  is  to  bewitch  by  tying  up  in  a 
bundle  with  certain  leaves  ("draunikau  ")  hairs  from  the  head 
of  the  man  who  is  to  be  done  to  death,  a  shred  of  his  clothing, 
leavings  of  his  food,  or  other  things  belonging  to  him.  The 
bundle  may  then  be  cooked  or  buried,  or  simply  hung  up  in 
the  forest,  and  death  by  wasting  disease  is  supposed  to 
be  the  result.  Sometimes  the  "draunikau"  only  are  thrust 
beneath  the  doorstep,  or  into  the  thatch  of  the  victim's  house; 
I 


114       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

but  this  is  not  considered  to  be  as  efficacious  as  the  former 
method  '  (Tales  from  Old  Fiji,  London,   1904). 

The  other  island  languages  could  all  produce  many  words 
describing  cannibalism,  war,  slaughter,  treachery,  deceit,  and 
words  similar  in  meaning  to  those  given  by  Dr.  Fison  ;  but 
it  is  not  possible  in  this  article  to  give  a  list  of  them.  It  is 
far  more  pleasant  to  record  the  fact  that  both  the  Melanesian 
and  Polynesian  languages  contain  many  words  which  afford 
abundant  evidence  that  the  people  recognized  the  possession 
of  other  and  higher  feelings  than  those  of  enmity  towards 
others;  and  that  they  have  words  which  show  that  the  dis- 
tinction between  right  and  wrong,  according  to  their  standard, 
was  clear.  They  knew  that  certain  actions  ought  not  to  be 
done,  even  if  they  were  of  temporary  advantage  to  the  indi- 
vidual ;  and  that  there  was  some  value  and  praise  due  to 
the  man  who  performed  some  meritorious  act,  even  at  great 
personal  loss  or  suffering. 

I  believe,  as  already  stated,  that  the  Papuan,  Melanesian, 
and  Polynesian  languages  are  from  one  common  stock,  and 
that  they  were  all  successively  affected  by  admixture  with  the 
languages  of  Aryan-speaking  people,  during  long  periods  of 
time,  in  a  greater  or  lesser  degree.  The  Polynesians,  who 
emigrated  from  Indonesia  at  a  comparatively  recent  date, 
show  most  the  effect  of  this  admixture  in  their  language  and 
customs;  whilst  the  Papuans,  who  were  the  earliest  emigrants, 
show  it  least.  There  are  some  instances  of  the  use  of  polite 
or  court  language  in  Melanesia;  but  these  are  not  common. 
I  have  given  the  following  examples  in  a  previous  work. 

*  On  Duke  of  York  Island  the  ordinary  words  for  fare- 
well are  wan  ma  (you  go) ;  but  the  polite  term  is  un  turu  (stand 
up).  Another  form  of  farewell,  used  in  the  evening,  is  to 
say  un  ruk  (you  enter)  the  house ;  that  is,  they  use  the 
opposite  term,  and  say,  you  enter,  instead  of  go,  or  farewell. 
The  latter  term  it  is  not  polite  to  use  at  night.  Mat  is  the 
ordinary  term  for  death.  The  polite  words  tapula  (to  be 
blind),  tadoko  (to  be  bound  up),  ivaturu,  literally  meaning  to 


LANGUAGES  115 

cause  to  stand  up,  is  the  polite  term  for  stating  that  the  man 
(especially  a  wounded  man)  is  near  death.  Walanguru  is 
the  name  of  a  tree,  the  leaves  of  which  are  eaten  with  some 
food,  or  with  human  flesh;  and  in  speaking  of  a  man  who 
has  had  a  narrow  escape  from  death  they  say  that  he  has 
escaped  from  the  walanguru.  A  kutn  na  turn  liklik,  literally, 
a  number  of,  or  small  children,  is  the  polite  term  used  for 
wife;  and  the  use  of  the  plural  instead  of  the  singular  number 
in  this  instance  is  another  mark  of  respect.  They  say,  for 
instance,  a  kum  na  turn  liklik  awai  dial:  "your  wives,  where 
are  they?"  instead  of  "where  is  your  wife?"'  (Melanesians 
and  Polynesians,  p.  374).  These  words,  however,  were  seldom 
used  in  Melanesia;  but  in  Samoa  especially,  and  in  all  the 
Polynesian  languages,  the  use  of  the  polite  or  court  language 
is  general,  and  the  knowledge  and  use  of  it  is  essential  in 
ordinary  conversation.  The  following  extract  will  show  that 
the  underlying  principle  in  the  use  of  this  language  is  that 
a  man  must  not  praise  himself  or  assert  his  own  position,  or 
boast  of  his  own  accomplishments.  The  polite  or  respectful 
word  must  be  used  w-hen  addressing  others,  but  the  ordinary 
word  must  be  used  by  a  man  speaking  about  himself,  his 
thoughts  or  his  actions. 

'  The  ordinary  words  for  "come  "  are  anganga  mai,  or  sau ; 
the  polite  terms  to  chiefs  in  the  order  of  their  rank  would  be 
nialiu  mai,  susii  mai,  afio  mai.  To  sit  is  nofo ;  the  polite 
words  are  alala,  falafalanai.  To  eat  is  ai;  the  polite  terms 
are  tausami,  taumafa,  taute.  To  die  is  m,ate  or  pe  (of  animals), 
oil  (of  men) ;  the  polite  terms  are  maliu  (gone),  folau  (gone 
on  a  voyage),  fale-lauasi,  ngasolo  ao,  masaesaelelangi, 
taapeape-papa,  and  a  number  of  others.  To  be  sick  is  mai; 
the  polite  terms  are  ngasengase,  faataga,  pulupulusi.  Anger 
is  iia;  the  polite  term  is  toasa.  House  is  fale ;  the  term  for  a 
chief's  house  is  maota.  To  sleep  is  moe ;  the  polite  term  is 
tofa  or  toa.  Ua  mapu  mai,  literally,  you  are  rested,  is  a  polite 
salutation  to  a  man  returning  from  fishing.  Ua  matii  (you 
are  dry),  or  faamalu  (you  are  cool),  would  be  the  polite  saluta- 


ii6       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

tion  to  a  person  returning  from  bathing;  in  reply  he  would 
simply  say  taele,  the  ordinary  term  for  bathing  '  (Melanesians 
and  Polynesians,  p.  381). 

These  are  samples  only  of  the  complimentary  terms  which 
are  used  every  day  in  the  intercourse  of  the  people.  The 
grammar  of  all  these  languages  is  a  complex  one,  more 
especially  with  regard  to  the  pronouns  and  their  specific 
relations  to  the  object  affected.  In  most,  if  not  in  all,  the 
Melanesian  groups  the  pronouns  have  four  numbers,  viz. 
singular,  dual,  trial,  and  plural ;  but  in  Polynesia  the  trial  has 
in  many  instances  taken  the  place  of  the  plural,  and  is  always 
used  as  such.  The  pronouns  in  all  the  numbers  except  the 
singular  are  inclusive  of  the  persons  addressed,  or  exclusive 
of  them.  There  are  also  special  pronouns  which  are  used 
only  in  connexion  with  food  or  drink.  They  had  no  written 
grammar,  but  the  grammatical  construction  of  their  language 
was  well  known  by  the  people,  and  I  have  never  known  a 
native  make  a  mistake  in  grammar.  Both  the  Melanesian 
and  Polynesian  languages  are  deficient  in  abstract  terms; 
and  a  metaphor  or  simile  would  have  to  be  used  in  trans- 
lating such  a  sentence  as  '  Prevention  is  better  than  cure.' 
The  Fijian  is  perhaps  the  strongest  and  the  most  expressive 
of  the  Melanesian  languages,  especially  in  its  transitive 
terminations,  which  have  still  retained  their  force  and 
meaning.  The  Polynesian  transitives  have  in  many  cases 
become  merely  a  form  of  the  passive;  but  a  number  of  them 
still  retain  their  original  force,  more  especially  those  which 
affect  the  instrument  rather  than  the  object.  These  are,  I 
think,  also  presumptive  evidence  of  identity  of  origin. 

It  would  be  quite  erroneous  for  any  one  to  think  of  these 
languages  as  being  either  poor  in  vocabularies  or  imperfect 
in  their  grammatical  construction.  After  two  editions  of  the 
Samoan  Dictionary  had  been  published,  the  Rev.  G.  Pratt 
obtained  500  new  words  from  a  MS.  which  I  forwarded  to 
him ;  and  this  after  being  engaged  forty  years  in  the  compila- 
tion of  the  dictionary.     A  man  can  express  his  best  thoughts 


LANGUAGES  117 

and  much  of  his  knowledge  to  these  peoples  in  their  own 
language.  The  history  of  our  missions  proves  that  the 
languages  of  the  islanders  of  the  Pacific  groups,  and  of 
those  on  the  mainland  of  New  Guinea,  are  quite  adequate 
for  the  work  of  conveying  to  the  minds  and  hearts  of  the 
people  the  great  truths  contained  in  that  best  of  all  books, 
in  which  the  will  of  God  is  revealed  unto  men,  and  that 
they  are  sufiicient  also  for  most  of  the  purposes  and  knowledge 
of  our  advanced  civilization. 


PART    II 
SOCIOLOGICAL 


CHAPTER    I 

THE    MAORI    OF   NEW   ZEALAND 

Bv    WILLIAM   SLADE 
Secretary  of  Foreign  Missions,  New  Zealand 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Origin  of  Maoris — Physique — Survival  of  fittest — Industrious — Cruel — 
Treacherous — Polite — Tapu — Spirit  world — Tohungas — Mythology 
— First  white  visitors — Marsden— C.  M.S. — Industrial  work — 
Selwyn — Leigh — Whangaroa — Turner  and  Hobbs — Withdrawal — 
Reoccupation — Roman  Catholics — Friction — Educational  work — 
Beginnings  of  government — Proclamation  of  chiefs — Annexation — 
Treaty  of  Waitangi — Peaceful  outlook— Rebellion — Natives  cheated 
— Tactlessness — Maori  independence  declared — Ten  years'  war — 
Hauhau  —  Present  numbers  —  Politics — Education —  Industry — 
Future. 


CHAPTER    I 

mil    MAORI    OF    Ni:\V    ZEALAND 

A  CENTURY  ago  the  Maoris  held  undisputed  possession  of 
New  Zealand.     The  date  of  their  arrival  has  been  the  subject 
of   much   conjecture   and   discussion ;   but   there    is   a   fairly 
general  agreement  that  it  does  not  extend  farther  back  than 
550  years.     Tradition  makes   Hawaiki  their  original   home; 
but  what  island  group  the  name  Hawaiki  denotes  cannot  be 
decided  with  certainty.     That  it  was  one  of  the  many  groups 
in  the  Eastern  Pacific  seems  plain  ;  but  there  is  no  safe  clue 
to  identify  any  place  from  which  the  ancestors  of  the  Maoris 
set  out  upon  the  hazardous  voyage  to  New  Zealand.     A  recent 
writer  claims  Samoa  as  the  traditional    Hawaiki ;   but  why 
Samoa  ?     If  Samoa  were  their  ancient  home,  the  question  is 
but   carried   farther    back,    and    we   find    ourselves   asking : 
'  Whence  came  that  Polynesian  race  which  has  taken  posses- 
sion  of   the   great   island   groups  of   the   Eastern    Pacific  ?  ' 
Their  racial  characteristics,  language,  customs,  and  mythology 
prove  they  come  from  common  stock.     Their  resemblance  to 
the  older   Malay   type   is  plain.     From   their  traditions  and 
certain  resemblances  plainly  marked  to  those  who  spend  con- 
siderable time  among  them,  we  seem  to  see  a  great  Malay 
invasion  of  the  Eastern  Pacific,  which  overcame  and  obliter- 
ated an  earlier  and  inferior  race,  except  in   Fiji,  where  the 
size  of  the  country  and  the  inaccessible  mountains  enabled 
the  original  population  to  defend  themselves  against  invaders. 
In  the  course  of  time,  the  wide  ocean  barriers  which  separate 
the  island  groups  of  the  Pacific  led  to  the  isolation  of  sections 
of  the  newcomers,  and  resulted  in  variations  of  speech  and 
habit  similar  to  those  found  among  the  Papuans  of  the  West. 


122       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

The  Western  Polynesians  are  physically  fine  specimens  of 
humanity.  Tall,  exceeding  well  proportioned,  and  possess- 
ing a  strong  physiognomy,  they  differ  greatly  from  the 
negrito  population  of  Melanesia.  Not  in  physique  only  are 
they  superior,  but  also  in  mental  power;  and  though,  as 
we  may  reasonably  expect,  the  long-continued  isolation  of 
the  Polynesians  caused  an  arrest  of  their  mental  development, 
they  have  no  lack  of  brain.  Under  the  stimulus  of  European 
civilization  they  are  able  to  stride  forward,  and  cover,  in  a  few 
years,  the  progress  which  it  took  our  forefathers  centuries  to 
attain. 

The  Maoris  share  with  the  Hawaians  the  honour  of  being 
at  the  head  of  the  Polynesian  nations.  It  is  not  difficult  to 
account  for  this  on  the  ground  of  natural  selection  and  the 
survival  of  the  fittest.  Only  the  bravest  and  best  of  the  tribes 
would  face  the  hardships  and  dangers  of  the  voyage  from 
Hawaiki  to  far  away  New  Zealand.  Once  there,  the  condi- 
tions of  life,  which  were  harder  than  in  the  old  home,  would 
have  a  tendency  to  stiffen  and  improve  the  breed.  If  Hawaiki 
were  a  tropical  land,  then  the  ancestors  of  the  Maoris  lived 
that  kind  of  life  which,  as  it  calls  for  a  minimum  of  exertion 
and  foresight,  tends  rather  to  enervate  than  invigorate. 
Perpetual  sunshine,  rich  soil  which  grows  with  little  prompt- 
ing all  manner  of  vegetables  and  fruits,  shores  laved  by 
warm  seas  swarming  with  edible  creatures  : — such  lands  make 
life  too  easy  to  afford  the  discipline  necessary  for  the  develop- 
ment of  the  best  manhood. 

Not  so  in  the  new  land  to  which  the  Maoris  came.  Truly 
they  had  found  a  wonderful  country,  yet  not  a  country  v/hich 
lets  men  live  without  exertion.  There  real  seasons  alternate; 
the  geniality  of  summer  is  followed  by  the  rigour  of  winter, 
during  which  no  food  grows.  One  of  the  first  lessons  the 
Maoris  had  to  learn  in  their  new  home  was  foresight,  if 
they  would  not  starve  in  the  cold  months.  In  their  tropical 
home  the  Maoris  enjoyed  the  security  of  the  reef-girt 
lagoons,  in  which  they  could  fish  with  ease.     If  they  wished 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      123 

to  venture  outside  the  reefs,  they  had  only  to  choose  their 
weather  to  be  sure  of  an  easy  and  safe  voyage.  But  the 
new  land  enjoys  the  honour  of  possessing  one  of  the  stormiest 
coasts  in  the  world,  which  makes  sea  travelling  always  more 
or  less  difTicult  and  perilous,  and  forbids  liberties  such  as 
may  be  taken  with  impunity  in  the  tropics.  Such  a  coast 
demands  skill  and  courage  in  the  mariner.  The  original 
Hawaiki  was  probably  a  circumscribed  land;  but  in  New 
Zealand  the  Maoris  found  a  country  of  great  distances  and 
wide  expanses,  of  magnificent  physical  features  and  of 
gorgeous  scenery.  The  change,  therefore,  from  Hawaiki  to 
New^  Zealand  could  not  fail  to  have  a  marked  beneficial 
influence  on  the  Maoris  themselves,  and  contribute  to  their 
pre-eminence  over  other  sections  of  the  race. 

If  we  remember  that  we  are  speaking  of  natives  of  the 
South  Seas  and  not  of  Europeans,  it  may  be  claimed  that 
the  Maoris  were  an  industrious  people.  They  built  good 
houses ;  they  executed  elaborate  carvings  with  rude  stone  tools, 
needing  great  skill  and  patience ;  they  wove  splendid  mats 
and  rugs;  they  hewed  great  canoes  capable  of  holding  large 
numbers  of  persons,  and  sailed  them  with  marvellous  skill ; 
they  understood  the  art  of  fortification  ;  they  took  pride  in 
working  the  hard  green  stone  into  weapons  and  ornaments. 
Above  all,  they  w^ere  a  warlike  people  who  enjoyed  fighting, 
and  were  bold  in  planning  and  executing  expeditions  to  places 
far  distant. 

It  must  be  added  that  if  the  Maoris  were  at  the  head  of 
the  Polynesian  race  phvsically  and  mentally,  they  held  a 
place  all  their  own  in  finding  diabolical  pleasure  in  shedding 
blood.  They  knew  no  pity  for  age  or  sex.  Though  capable, 
when  the  mood  took  them,  of  heroic  action,  they  fathomed  the 
deepest  abysses  of  cannibalism.  Their  passion  for  blood  was 
monstrous  in  its  abnormality;  and  the  wonder  is  that  they 
had  not  perished  bv  mutual  extermination  before  European 
settlement  began.  Thev  were  cannibals  when  Tasman  visited 
New  Zealand  in  1642;  they  were  cannibals  when  Cook  came, 


124       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIEIC 

nearly  a  century  and  a  half  later ;  and  they  still  practised  the 
revolting  custom  when  Europeans  began  to  settle  in  the 
country.  To  drink  the  warm  blood  of  the  conscious  victim 
was  an  exquisite  form  of  revenge ;  to  capture  a  family,  kill 
and  eat  the  children  under  the  eyes  of  the  parents,  who  after- 
wards perished  in  the  same  way ;  to  gouge  out  the  eyes  of  a 
captured  foe  before  killing  him  :  such  were  ordinary  incidents 
in  old  Maori  life. 

in  1813  the  Maoris  had  not  been  included  within  the  sphere 
of  Christian  Missions;  nor,  except  for  the  occasional  visit  of 
a  passing  ship  or  the  arrival  of  escapees  from  Botany  Bay, 
had  they  held  much  intercourse  with  white  people.  They 
had,  however,  already  well  earned  notoriety  for  treachery,  as 
the  crews  of  several  ships  learned  to  their  cost.  They 
attempted  to  trap  Tasman,  and  plotted  against  Cook.  In 
1809  the  Whangaroa  natives  captured  the  ship  Boyd  and 
massacred  the  crew;  in  1818  the  American  brig  Agnes  met 
with  a  similar  fate  at  Tokomaru  Bay. 

But  their  ordinary  behaviour  suggested  nothing  of  the 
savage.  Their  demeanour  and  speech  were  quiet  and  polite ; 
their  manner  gentle  and  unassuming.  They  carried  them- 
selves with  a  natural  dignity  and  grace  which  charmed 
strangers.  A  few  visited  Sydney  even  in  those  distant  days, 
and  won  golden  opinions  by  their  courteous  conduct.  When 
the  great  Ngapuki  chief  Hongi  visited  England  in  1820,  the 
Rev.  Samuel  Leigh  entertained  him,  and  to  make  him  feel 
at  ease,  slept  for  some  weeks  beside  him  on  the  floor.  He 
accompanied  him  during  his  visits  to  distinguished  people, 
whom  Hongi's  gentlemanly  behaviour  greatly  delighted. 
Even  Leigh  imagined  that  the  chief's  savage  nature  had  been 
tamed  by  contact  with  civilized  people.  How  completely  he 
was  mistaken  he  discovered  not  a  year  later,  on  their  return 
to  New  Zealand,  when  the  gentlemanly  Hongi  collected  a 
huge  war  party,  sailed  against  the  Thames  natives,  shot  their 
chief,  gouged  out  the  dying  man's  eyes,  and  drank  his  warm 
blood.     Before  returning  to  Hokianga,  Hongi's  warriors  slew 


THE    MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      125 

1,000  people.     No  beast  of  prey  ever  killed  with  the  savage 
glee  of  the  polite  Maori. 

Their  moral  and  social  life  was  in  keeping  with  their 
savage  nature.  In  that  sphere  of  activity  which  lies  within 
the  prohibitions  of  the  Mosaic  Decalogue,  the  Maoris  stood 
outside  the  law.  Chastity  among  the  unmarried  was  un- 
known ;  and  though  married  men  expected  fidelity  to  the 
marital  bond  from  their  wives,  they  recognized  no  obligations 
to  observe  it  themselves.  Lying  and  stealing  caused  no 
shame ;  like  all  uncivilized  races,  to  lie  well  had  almost  become 
a  necessity.  But,  as  if  to  compensate  for  the  absence  of  a 
moral  code,  they  had  raised  the  custom  of  tapu  to  a  higher 
place  in  their  social  life  than  the  provisions  of  the  Decalogue 
have  attained  in  ours.  The  Maori  might  murder,  steal,  lie, 
and  commit  shocking  acts  of  immorality ;  but  break  througli 
the  tapu  never  !  As  one  of  the  early  missionaries  said : 
'  What  caste  is  in  India,  tapu  was  in  New  Zealand;  it  held 
unlimited  sway  over  the  mind,  and  compelled  obedience  to 
its  requirements.'  Tapu  was  associated  with  religious  super- 
stition. To  violate  tapic  was  to  incur  the  displeasure  of  the 
spirits,  against  whom  the  Maoris  w-ere  powerless.  The  tapu 
had  its  uses.  It  supplied  an  element  of  law  to  an  otherwise 
lawless  society.  While  it  was  no  safeguard  of  a  man's  person 
or  property  to  say  :  '  Thou  shalt  not  kill,'  and  '  Thou  shalt 
not  steal  ' ;  to  make  either  of  them  tapu  was  to  make  them 
absolutely  safe.  The  custom,  exercised  mostly  by  the  chiefs, 
was  used  to  maintain  their  power  and  dignity.  When  applied 
to  their  persons  it  made  them  sacrosanct,  and  neither  them- 
selves nor  their  belongings  must  be  so  much  as  touched 
by  others.  Commoners  occasionally  used  the  tapu;  but  in 
their  case  it  was  Jiot  widely  observed.  In  the  judgement  of 
the  early  missionaries,  the  custom  of  tapu  was,  on  the  whole, 
beneficial.  In  the  absence  of  law  and  in  view  of  the  fierce 
character  of  the  people,  it  formed  no  bad  substitute  for 
government,  and  made  some  approach  to  an  organized 
society. 


126       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

The  Maoris  had  a  wide  beHef  in  the  existence  of  a  spirit 
world.  Like  all  Polynesians,  they  were  thorough-going 
animists,  and  believed  that  spirits  lived  in  everything.  There 
were  spirits  of  the  sky,  of  the  air,  of  the  forest,  of  the  water, 
of  the  soil ;  the  rocks  held  spirits,  and  so  did  birds  and  fish. 
Their  priests,  or  tohungas,  were  able  to  summon  spirits  to 
their  aid ;  and  when  thus  inspired  their  bodies  were  subject 
to  strange  convulsions.  They  spoke  in  short,  enigmatic 
sentences,  reminding  one  of  the  adroit  prognostications  of  the 
priests  of  Delphi  or  of  Amnon.  If  we  are  careful  not  to  read 
into  Maori  minds  our  own  conceptions  of  Deity,  it  may  be  said 
that  the  Maoris  believed  in  gods,  but  they  were  not  benevo- 
lent or  good.  Of  a  hereafter  they  had  extremely  vague 
notions;  of  future  retribution  none  whatever. 

Like  other  Polynesian  tribes  they  had  an  influential 
hierarchy,  which  possessed  well-understood  rights  and  privi- 
leges, and  guarded  them  as  jealously  as  do  hierarchies  in 
more  civilized  lands.  The  tohungas  ranked  as  chiefs;  they 
alone  could  absolve  from  the  obligations  of  the  tapu;  their 
persons  were  sacred;  they  practised  witchcraft,  interpreted 
dreams  and  omens,  and  presented  offerings  to  gods.  Not  the 
least  important  function  of  the  tohunga  was  the  preservation 
and  transmission  of  the  legends  and  traditions  of  the  race. 
The  Maoris  were  greatly  dominated  by  superstition  ;  witch- 
craft they  dreaded.  The  failure  of  an  expedition,  a  bad 
harvest,  an  unprofitable  fishing  excursion,  personal  sickness 
and  death,  were  all  attributed  to  the  evil  spells  cast  by 
enemies.  They  possessed  one  peculiarity  of  the  Polynesians 
that  has  excited  considerable  astonishment  in  the  minds  of 
Europeans;  that  is,  the  power  to  fix  the  hour  of  their  death. 
The  dying  Maori  announces  to  his  friends  that  he  will  pass 
away  at  midnight  or  sunrise ;  when  the  moment  arrives  he 
loosens  his  moorings  and  slips  away. 

Maori  mythology  would  require  a  volume.  It  may  be 
classified  under  two  heads :    ancient  mythology,    which   the 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      127 

Maoris  share  with  other  Polynesian  tribes;  modern  myth- 
ology, which  deals  with  the  discovery  and  settlement  of 
New  Zealand.  The  former  was  probably  brought  from  the 
original  home  of  the  race,  and  is  noteworthy  as  dealing  with 
a  time  before  matter  began.  It  begins  with  that  beyond 
which  there  is  no  going.  It  commences  with  nothing,  yet 
produced  something  and  brought  forth  something  more,  in 
other  words,  the  ancient  Maori  mythologist  anticipates  even 
the  existence  of  Spirit,  and  makes  pure  thought  the  origin  of 
the  universe.  There  were  six  periods  in  the  work  of  creation  : 
Thought,  Night  or  Darkness,  Light,  Creation  of  Sun  and 
Moon,  Creation  of  Land,  and  Formation  of  Gods  and  Men 
— a  Maori  first  chapter  of  Genesis.  Modern  mythology  treats 
of  the  origin  and  development  of  the  chief  families,  and 
reminds  one  of  Hellenic  genealogies  in  giving  their  ancestors 
semi-divine  origin. 

It  was  the  province  of  the  priests  or  tohungas  to  preserve 
and  pass  on  to  their  sons  the  elaborate  and  picturesque 
mythology  of  the  Maoris.  They  took  great  pride  in  this, 
and  fiercely  resented  the  intrusion  of  outsiders  into  their 
domain.  Sir  George  Grey  and  others  have  committed  many 
native  myths  and  legends  to  writing ;  but  through  the  dis- 
organization of  the  old  Maori  life  much  has  been  irrecoverably 
lost.  The  young  Maori  takes  scarcely  any  interest  in  the 
traditions  of  his  race;  tlie  language  in  which  the  tohunga 
of  a  century  ago  repeated  them  has  become  as  unintelligible 
to  the  Maori  of  to-day  as  the  language  of  Chaucer  to  a  modern 
English  school-boy. 

An  Egyptian  darkness  rested  on  New  Zealand  in  1813;  a 
darkness  which  the  first  wdiite  arrivals  in  the  country  did 
nothing  to  remove.  The  whaling  ships  and  stray  cargo- 
hunting  vessels,  which  found  the  harbours  of  the  North  Island 
safe  and  pleasant  to  winter  in,  were,  as  a  rule,  manned  by 
men  more  intent  upon  the  gratification  of  lust  than  upon 
civilization.     They  too  often  afforded  exhibitions  of  lewdness 


128       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

and  drunkenness,  which  dispelled  whatever  suggestion  of 
divinity  may  have  been  associated  with  white  skins  and  big 
vessels.  Such  as  risked  the  danger  of  the  heavy  mere  or 
stone  club  and  settled  down  among  the  natives,  becoming 
Pakeha-Maoris,  quickly  approximated  to  the  savage  life 
around  them.  They  assisted  their  hosts  in  war,  and  by  the 
possession  of  firearms  often  turned  the  scale  in  their  favour ; 
while  from  the  critical  nature  of  their  own  situation  thev 
could  not,  even  if  they  wished,  restrain  the  ferocity  of  the 
natives.  But  if  the  night  of  1813  was  dark,  day  was  at  hand. 
Even  at  that  date  plans  had  been  laid  which  were  destined 
to  inaugurate  a  new  era  for  the  Maori  race.  Space  permits 
only  a  brief  and  inadequate  sketch  of  the  w^ork  of  the  mis- 
sionary societies  which  undertook  to  evangelize  New  Zealand. 

To  the  Rev.  Samuel  Marsden,  Senior  Chaplain  of  the 
Anglican  Church  in  New  South  Wales,  belongs  the  honour 
of  designing  and  executing  the  first  plan  for  taming  the 
savage  Maori.  Between  Sydney  and  the  north  of  New 
Zealand  a  trade  in  timber  had  sprung  up — the  existence  and 
value  of  the  splendid  kauri  forests  were  becoming  known — 
and  a  number  of  Maoris  of  chiefly  families  had  been  bold 
enough  to  cross  the  Tasman  Sea,  to  see  the  white  man's 
land.  Marsden  made  their  acquaintance,  and  became  greatly 
interested  in  them  and  their  land.  Impressed  by  their  quick 
intelligence  and  ready  power  of  observation,  he  invited  them 
to  his  house  at  Parramatta,  and  began  to  learn  their  language. 
The  splendid  capabilities  of  his  brown-skinned  guests,  so 
great  a  contrast  to  the  Australian  black,  brought  home  to 
his  alert  mind  the  waste  of  life  their  savage  ways  involved. 
He  became  anxious  that  an  effort  should  be  made  to  save  so 
fine  a  people. 

Marsden 's  urgent  appeals  induced  the  Church  Missionary 
Society  to  send  missionaries,  under  the  guidance  of  Marsden 
himself.  Though  he  did  not  settle  in  the  country,  he  became 
its    pioneer   missionary    and    the    founder    of    the    Anglican 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      129 

Mission.  At  the  Bay  of  Islands,  on  Cliristmas  Day,  1814, 
he  preached  the  first  sermon  heard  by  a  Maori  audience,  from 
Luke  ii.  10,  '  Fear  not  :  for,  behold,  I  bring  you  good  tidings 
of  great  joy,  which  shall  be  to  all  people.'  He  could  not 
have  chosen  a  more  appropriate  text,  nor  one  more  pregnant 
with  hope.  The  life  of  Marsden  is  so  well  known  as  to 
demand  only  a  passing  word.  The  part  he  played  in  the 
early  history  of  iXew  Zealand  alone  entitles  him  to  undying 
fame.  His  interest  in  the  Maori  Mission  ended  only  with 
life.  Between  1814  and  1837  he  visited  New  Zealand  seven 
times,  the  last  visit  being  paid  in  his  seventy-second  year. 
He  died  the  same  year.  His  last  words  were  '  New  Zealand,' 
showing  how  dear  was  the  land  for  which  he  had  done  so 
much. 

Marsden's  plan  for  converting  the  Maori  was  first  to 
civilize  him  by  teaching  useful  handicrafts,  and  thus  make 
civilization  smooth  the  path  for  evangelization.  It  was  on 
his  recommendation  that  the  first  missionaries  sent  out  by 
the  C.M.S.  were  mechanics,  who  were  to  teach  their  fierce 
flock  the  advantages  of  useful  arts.  The  plan  failed,  as  might 
have  been  expected;  it  attempted  conversion  from  without, 
instead  of  from  within.  It  was  soon  given  up,  and  direct 
evangelization  began.  But  the  first  lay  missionaries,  Messrs- 
King  and  Hall,  did  useful  work.  They  took  great  pains  to 
teach  the  natives  to  saw  kauri  logs  into  planks,  to  weave 
rope  out  of  the  splendid  flax  which  everywhere  abounded,  to 
raise  European  crops,  and  convert  wheat  into  flour  and  bread. 
Better  still  was  their  educational  work.  A  school  opened  at 
Rangihoua  was  soon  filled  with  eager  scholars,  both  Maori 
and  half-caste.  On  one  of  his  early  visits  Marsden  suc- 
ceeded in  purchasing,  for  forty-eight  axes,  13,000  acres  of 
land  at  Kerikeri,  Hokianga,  for  the  establishment  of  a  large 
scliool.  Meantime,  the  indefatigable  chaplain  kept  a  seminary 
for  Maori  young  men  in  his  house  at  Parramatta.  The  limits 
of  space  prevent  us  following  in  detail  the  tempting  story  of 
those  early  days.     Marsden's  efforts  and  achievements  would 


I30       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

fill  a  volume.  He  acquired  marvellous  influence  over  the 
Maoris.  During  his  later  visits  they  would  sit  and  gaze  for 
hours  at  his  kindly  face.  He  was  allowed  to  make  journeys 
through  their  country  that  few  dare  attempt.  He  was  re- 
warded by  seeing  the  Anglican  Mission  firmly  established 
and  the  citadel  of  native  heathenism  weakened  to  its  fall. 
At  the  time  of  his  death  in  1837,  he  had  the  joy  of  seeing  the 
first  complete  copy  of  the  New  Testament  in  the  Maori 
tongue. 

The  Anglican  Mission  was  conducted  with  great  energy. 
After  the  industrial  mission  gave  place  to  direct  evangeliza- 
tion, a  number  of  missionaries  arrived,  who  afterwards  filled 
important  places  in  the  early  life  of  New  Zealand.  The 
brothers  Henry  and  William  Williams  were  ideal  mission- 
aries, and  there  were  many  such.  In  no  part  of  the  world 
has  the  C.M.S.  been  represented  by  finer  men.  One  name 
must  be  mentioned,  George  Augustus  Selwyn,  the  first 
Bishop  of  New  Zealand.  Selwyn  was  thirty-three  when  con- 
secrated to  his  high  office.  By  a  mistake  in  the  Letters 
Patent,  his  diocese  was  made  to  extend  to  latitude  23°  North, 
instead  of  South,  which  gave  him  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction 
over  the  whole  of  Melanesia,  even  including  Japan.  Selwyn 
would  not  have  the  mistake  rectified,  as  it  enabled  him  to 
commence  missionary  work  in  the  countless  islands  of 
Melanesia,  of  which  he  thus  became  pioneer  bishop.  It  is 
difficult  to  imagine  a  better  choice  for  a  missionary  bishop 
than  Selwyn.  He  possessed  a  keen  and  cultured  mind,  an 
apostolic  zeal,  and  an  athletic  frame;  a  combination  eminently 
fitting  him  to  guide  the  destinies  of  his  Church  in  a  new 
country.  At  home  on  land  or  sea,  undaunted  by  perils  of 
the  deep  or  the  difficulties  of  roadless  travel,  he  did  the  work 
of  half  a  dozen  ordinary  men.  He  has  been  justly  termed 
the  father  of  the  Church  of  England  in  New  Zealand.  He 
gave  thirty-four  years,  the  best  of  his  life,  to  the  country. 

To   the   Rev.   Samuel   Leigh   belongs   the  honour   of   in- 


THE    MAORI    OF    NEW   ZEALAND      131 

augurating  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Mission  to  the  Maoris, 
though  the  door  was  really  oj>ened  by  Samuel  Marsden,  who 
in  early  life  was  connected  with  Methodism.  Marsden  knew 
Leigh  in  Sydney,  and  conceived  for  him  great  admiration 
and  affection.  His  arduous  labours  there  broke  down  his 
health,  and  at  the  invitation  of  Marsden  he  sailed  in  the 
brig  Active  for  New  Zealand.  Of  the  terrible  scenes  Leigh 
witnessed  in  the  Bay  of  Islands,  where  he  landed,  and  of  his 
resolve  to  dedicate  himself  to  the  cause  of  the  Maoris,  full 
account  is  given  in  his  Life.  His  visit  to  England,  his  appeal 
to  the  Missionary  Society  and  its  refusal  because  of  debt,  his 
appeal  to  the  Methodist  people  and  their  wonderful  response 
in  goods  on  a  scale  so  ample  that  they  maintained  the  new 
mission  for  five  years,  are  also  told.  The  Conference  of  1821 
formallv  sanctioned  the  mission,  and  appointed  Leigh  to  be 
its  pioneer.  With  his  newly-wedded  wife,  he  reached  his 
sphere  in  February  1S22,  to  be  welcomed  with  such  warmth 
by  the  Maoris  that  the  skin  was  rubbed  off  his  nose  by  their 
salutations. 

At  the  time  of  Leigh's  arri\-al  the  Anglican  Mission  was 
firmly  established  round  the  Bay  of  Islands,  and  the 
Wesleyan  missionan.-  had  to  seek  a  sphere  further  afield.  To 
rind  the  right  place  needed  great  care  and  considerable  time ; 
and  it  is  a  further  proof  of  the  brotherliness  of  the  Anglican 
lay  missionaries  thai  Mr.  Hall  shared  his  home  with  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Leigh  for  sixteen  months,  until  the  station  was 
selected.  Weighing  the  claims  of  several  places,  it  was 
decided  to  begin  at  Whangaroa.  That  place  supplied  the 
necessary  conditions.  It  was  wiciced  enough,  as  was  proved 
by  the  capture  of  the  Boyd  and  the  massacre  of  her  crew : 
it  possessed  a  good  harbour;  and  it  lay  outside  the  sphere 
of  the  Anglican  Mission.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leigh  reached 
Whangaroa  in  June  1S22.  A  site  for  a  station  \v-as  chosen 
up  the  Kaeo  river,  in  a  sequestered  ^-a]ley  among  hills  and 
mountains,  then  denselv  covered  with  kauri  forests,  and  close 
to  a  native  \-illage  or  kainga.     Mr.  Leigh  doubled  the  price 


132       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

asked  for  the  land  by  the  native  owners ;  and  thus  the 
Methodist  Church  acquired  its  first  site  in  New  Zealand.  In 
accordance  with  instructions  it  was  named  Wesleydale. 

The  erection  of  a  dwelling  began  without  delay ;  and  as  it 
proceeded  the  missionary  made  many  discoveries  concerning 
the  character  of  his  flock.  He  knew  that  they  were  hardened 
cannibals ;  and  he  was  now  taught  by  many  disagreeable 
incidents  that  they  were  unscrupulous  thieves.  They  stole 
the  cooking  food,  together  with  the  pots  and  pans.  They 
appropriated  the  clothes  hung  out  to  dry.  A  tool  left  for  a 
minute  unguarded  disappeared  as  by  magic.  They  prowled 
round  the  house,  squatted  in  doorways,  and  having  noticed 
the  hours  when  meals  were  eaten,  invited  themselves  to 
the  table,  leaving  little  for  their  hosts.  Their  demands  were 
insatiable,  extending  even  to  the  bed  of  the  missionary;  and 
when  their  requests  were  refused,  they  flew  into  paroxysms  of 
rage  which  made  them  capable  of  any  outrage.  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Leigh  had  frequent  opportunities  of  staring  death  in  the 
eyes  during  those  days;  but  the  brave  pair  held  on,  until  the 
strain  proved  too  great,  and  Leigh's  health  utterly  broke 
down.  There  was  no  hope  of  its  restoration  so  long  as  he 
remained  at  Whangaroa.  The  mission  house  was  not  water- 
proof, and  the  subtropical  rains  soaked  the  bed  of  the  fever- 
stricken  missionary.  It  was  plain  that  he  must  leave  the 
country  or  die.  But  help  arrived  in  the  persons  of  the  Revs. 
Nathaniel  Turner  and  John  Hobbs.  They  had  just  reached 
New  Zealand,  and  were  ignorant  of  the  people  and  the 
language.  It  would  have  been  an  inestimable  advantage 
could  Leigh  have  remained  to  guide  them  during  their 
novitiate  period,  but  his  health  forbade.  He  left  New  Zealand 
in  November  1823,  never  to  return.  Though  Leigh's  actual 
residence  in  the  country  was  less  than  two  years,  he  had 
made  a  great  impression  on  the  Maoris,  and  prepared  the 
way  for  others. 

Messrs.  Turner  and  Hobbs  bravely  grappled  with  the 
difficult  situation  at   Wesleydale.     They  were  both  men  of 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      133 

tlie  right  type,  capable  in  head  and  hands.  If  success  were 
possible,  they  were  the  men  to  succeed.  But  the  formidable 
Hongi  came  on  the  scene.  His  love  of  fighting  kept  the 
entire  north  in  a  ferment.  Wars  and  alarms  were  incessant, 
and  at  length  Hongi  made  a  successful  descent  on  Whan- 
garoa.  In  the  general  havoc  the  mission  station,  where 
Leigh  had  toiled  so  heroically,  was  destroyed.  The  lives  of 
the  missionaries  were  saved ;  but  they  had  to  seek  shelter 
with  the  Anglican  missionaries  at  Hokianga,  and  abandon 
Wesleydale,  which  became  a  desolation.  The  only  object  to 
remind  them  of  the  past  was  the  clay  chimney  which  Leigh 
had  built.  The  temporary  abandonment  of  Whangaroa  has 
generally  been  regarded  as  a  mistake;  but  we  are  too  far 
removed  from  and  too  little  acquainted  with  the  circumstances 
of  the  case  to  pass  judgement  on  the  action  of  men  whose  sub- 
sequent careers  showed  that  they  lacked  neither  courage  nor 
discretion.  Suffice  to  say  that  the  temporary  abandonment 
of  Wesleydale  was  approved  by  the  Anglican  missionaries. 
There  seems,  indeed,  to  have  been  no  other  course  open. 

But  the  Missionary  Executive  was  not  daunted  by  the 
failure  of  the  Whangaroa  Mission.  Within  six  months  of 
the  return  of  Turner  and  Hobbs  to  Sydney,  a  second  cam- 
paign was  planned.  As  Mr.  Turner  was  too  ill  to  take  part, 
the  task  fell  to  Messrs.  Hobbs  and  Stack.  They  fixed  on 
Hokianga,  and  ultimately  established  their  station  at  Man- 
gungu,  on  the  southern  bank  of  the  river.  Mangungu  became 
the  permanent  home  of  the  Wesleyan  mission  in  Hokianga 
from  1828  until  the  changed  conditions  of  recent  years  made 
its  occupation  unnecessary.  From  its  second  founding  the 
mission  went  steadily  forward.  As  missionaries  were  sent, 
the  mission  took  up  fresh  ground.  Wesleydale  was  re- 
occupied,  and  in  a  few  years  a  chain  of  Methodist  stations 
stretched  from  Hokianga  down  the  west  coast  to  Wellington. 
There  were  also  stations  at  Cloudy  Bay  and  at  Waikouaiti  ; 
the  former  in  the  northern,  the  latter  in  the  southern  end  of 
the  Middle  Island.   The  missionaries  of  the  Wesleyan  Society 


134       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

suffer  nothing  in  comparison  with  those  of  the  C.M.S.;  they 
were  nearly  all  men  of  high  character  and  great  ability,  and 
exercised  a  powerful  influence  over  the  Maori  people. 

Between  the  two  Protestant  Missions  there  existed  an 
unwritten  understanding,  honourable  to  both,  that  so  far  as 
tribal  conditions  allowed,  the  Anglican  Mission  should  occupy 
the  east  coast,  and  the  Wesleyan  the  west.  This  under- 
standing, which  referred  mainly  to  the  North  Island,  pre- 
vented that  friction  which  must  have  arisen  had  one  mission 
felt  at  liberty  to  encroach  on  the  other's  sphere.  In  the  early 
years  the  friendliest  feeling  existed  between  the  Anglican  and 
Wesleyan  missionaries.  The  difficulty  and  magnitude  of  their 
tasks  outweighed  ecclesiastical  and  personal  considerations. 

The  history  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Mission  is  difficult  to 
write,  owing  to  the  absence  of  material.  It  is  not  the  policy  of 
the  Roman  Church  to  admit  the  public  to  its  confidence.  It 
publishes  no  annual  reports,  issues  no  balance  sheets  or 
statistical  tables.  To  its  synods  and  assemblies  reporters  are 
not  admitted,  and  great  reserve  marks  the  information  given 
to  the  press.  It  is  not  our  business  to  criticize  this  policy. 
We  mention  it  to  explain  the  paucity  of  information 
available. 

The  Roman  Mission  began  with  the  arrival  of  Bishop 
Pompallier  on  January  lo,  1838;  that  is  to  say,  twenty-four 
years  later  than  the  Anglican,  and  sixteen  years  later  than 
the  Wesleyan  Missions.  The  pioneering  work  was  done.  In 
1829  Marsden  expressed  the  opinion  that,  owing  to  the  great 
progress  of  the  two  Protestant  Missions,  every  part  of  New 
Zealand  was  open  to  missionary  work.  There  were,  at  the 
time,  thousands  of  natives  not  reached  by  the  missionaries, 
and  great  expanses  of  country  not  trodden  by  their  feet;  yet 
Bishop  Pompallier  began  his  work  in  Hokianga,  where  the 
two  Protestant  Societies  had  covered  all  the  ground.  The 
Wesleyan  missionaries  were  most  concerned  by  what  they 
considered  the  Bishop's  intrusion.     They  were  annoyed  by 


THE   MAORI    OF    NEW   ZEALAND      135 

the  invasion  and  the  method  of  attack.  The  teaching  and 
practices  of  the  Roman  Church  are  so  antagonistic  to  Evan- 
geHcal  Protestantism,  that  for  both  to  work  on  the  same 
ground  without  friction  is  impossible. 

On  his  first  arrival  in  Hokianga,  Bishop  Pompallier  was 
accompanied  by  one  priest,  I'^ather  Servant;  others  followed 
ere  long,  and  the  mission  was  extended,  but  again  on  ground 
already  occupied.  The  Bishop  himself  crossed  from  Hoki- 
anga to  the  Bay  of  Islands,  where  the  head  quarters  of  the 
Anglican  Mission  were  situated.  As  other  priests  arrived, 
Whangaroa  became  the  object  of  their  attention.  The  old 
station  at  Wesleydale  was  then  for  the  second  time  the  home 
of  a  Wesleyan  missionary.  At  each  place  the  priests  claimed 
to  make  many  converts.  The  Bishop  combined  healing 
powers  with  spiritual  functions,  and  his  priests  placed  to  his 
credit  cures  little  short  of  miraculous.  These  cures  were  used 
to  impress  the  Maoris  with  the  superior  advantages  of  the 
Roman  Church.  The  policy  of  the  priests  added  greatly  to 
the  difficulty  of  the  situation,  and  much  bitter  feeling  resulted. 
One  cannot  but  regret  that  the  minds  of  natives,  just  emerg- 
ing from  barbarism,  should  be  confused  by  the  introduction 
of  old-world  controversies. 

Only  the  societies  above  mentioned  took  up  work  among 
the  Maoris  in  the  early  period.  The  Reformed  Church  of 
Scotland,  through  the  Rev.  J.  Duncan,  began  operations 
much  later,  too  late  to  have  much  influence  on  the  natives 
as  a  whole.  Since  the  war  the  Maoris  have  been  the  object 
of  attention  from  many  religious  bodies.  The  Baptist  Church 
and  the  Salvation  Army  began  missions.  The  *  Brethren  ' 
have  felt  concern  for  their  brown-skinned  relations;  and  the 
Mormons  are  now  seeking  to  shed  upon  the  unfortunate 
Maoris  the  light  which  first  dawned  on  Utah. 

The  critics  of  missions  usually  overlook  the  great  services 
they  render  to  native  races  in  connexion  with  education.  No 
non-Christian  nation  maintains  a  national  system  of  popular 


1^0       A    CENTURY    IN    Till":    PACIFIC 

schools;  not  many  possess  a  literatiiro;  and  ot  uiUMvilized 
tribes,  none  are  found  whose  lang^uapfe  exists  in  written  form. 
A  loiii^-  Hst  of  native  lani^uat^es  by  Christian  missionaries 
i-ould  he  made  if  reilucod  to  writinj^.  To  thtMU  the  world  owes 
its  knowlcdL;e  ot  the  habits  and  customs  of  more  than  e»ne 
vanished  nation.  Mad  they  done  nothing  more,  Christian 
missions  have  contributed  immensely  to  our  knowledi^e  of 
the  earth  and  its  people.  In  New  Zealand  the  missionaries 
were  the  lirst  to  ori^anize  a  system  of  education.  They  recoj^- 
ni/ed  that  thoui^h  much  could  be  accomplished  by  personal 
labour,  more  could  be  done  by  the  printed  book,  especially 
if  that  book  were  the  l>ible.  Two  thini^s  were  necessary.  A 
Maori  literature  must  be  compiled,  and  the  Maoris  must  be 
tauj^ht  to  reaii.  The  missionaries  be^an  their  educational 
work  immediately  on  arrival.  Marsden's  lay  missionaries 
i>pened  a  school,  which  was  soon  crowded.  The  Kerikeri 
bUnk  was  bought  for  work  on  a  lari^er  scale.  As  the  mission 
grew,  every  station  possessed  a  school.  There  was  no  age- 
limit.  Vo  read  was  io  tenter  a  new  world;  to  write  brought 
a  new  sense  of  pt^wer.  The  mission  schcx>ls  held  several 
sessitMis  every  day;  one  for  gri/zled.  tattcH>ed  warriors,  eajjer 
to  r(\id  the  l^aipcro  Taf'u  (Holy  Hix'tk)  which  had  arrived 
from  I'jiglanci;  another  for  wtMiien.  who  were  not  allowed  to 
.ittend  with  tluMr  lords  ami  masters;  and  a  third  for  vounp 
cl'.ildten.  To  obtain  the  highest  results  large  boarding- 
schools  were  (opened,  for  it  was  found  that  the  scholars  did 
best  when  removed  from  the  distractiims  anil  interru(itions  of 
village  life.  The  training  was  comprehensive;  industrial, 
social,  hygienic,  moral,  religious,  and  evervthing  else  calcu- 
lated to  ujilift  the  native  race.  Another  class  of  schools  aimed 
at  the  equipment  o{  young  men  and  women  to  act  as  village 
pastors  and  teachers.  All  these  schools  were  carried  on  at 
the  i"\pense  of  the  missions.  Vhc  tirst  school  sites  were 
bought  from  the  natives;  later  graius  of  land  were  made  bv 
the  Ciovernment  of  the  newly-founded  colonv.  Between  1.S25 
and  iv^so  th(^  missions  accomplished  a  vast  educational  work. 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      137 

The  missionaries  taught  in  the  training  colleges,  and  also 
engaged  white  school-masters  and  mistresses.  From  the 
farthest  north  to  the  remote  south  the  Maoris  were  offered  free 
education. 

For  the  first  forty  years  of  the  nineteenth  century  New- 
Zealand  remained  outside  the  pale  of  the  British  Empire. 
The  roaming  white  men  who  reached  its  shores  considered 
themselves  beyond  the  reach  of  all  European  law,  and 
behaved  accordingly.  Their  conduct  depended  more  on 
expediency  than  law  and  order ;  nor  would  it  be  difficult  to 
quote  instances  of  outrage  by  white  men  on  Maoris,  which 
go  far  to  excuse  outrages  by  the  latter.  In  November  1814 
the  Governor  of  New  South  Wales  issued  a  proclamation 
which,  after  stating  that  commanders  and  seamen  touching 
a:  New  Zealand  were  in  the  habit  of  offering  insults  and 
injury  to  the  natives,  laid  down  rules  for  the  prevention  of 
further  outrages.  But  it  was  easy  to  issue  a  proclamation. 
The  difficulty  was  to  enforce  it  in  a  country  1,200  miles  over- 
sea without  British  institutions  or  machinery. 

A  more  important  step  was  taken  in  1823,  when  the 
Imperial  Parliament  passed  an  Act  extending  to  British 
subjects  in  New  Zealand  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Courts  of 
Justice  in  New  South  Wales.  This  Act  was  supplemented 
by  another  in  1828.  The  intention  of  the  Act  was  good;  the 
problem  was  to  catch  offenders;  and  the  lawlessness  of  roving 
white  men  still  continued.  The  Takou  outrage,  in  which 
Captain  Stewart,  master  of  the  brig  Elizabeth,  acted  a  shame- 
ful part,  impelled  Governor  Bourke  in  1832  to  appoint  Mr. 
James  Busby  Resident  Commissioner  in  New  Zealand. 
The  appointment  was  a  failure.  Mr.  Busby,  though  an  excel- 
lent man,  was  not  suited  to  the  position,  and  he  was  hampered 
by  instructions  which  prevented  the  exercise  of  any  real  power 
of  control.  Mr.  Busby's  helplessness  to  enforce  authority 
led  the  quick-witted  Maoris  to  describe  him  as  a  man-of- 
war  without  guns. 


138       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

In  1835  a  ridiculous  person,  styled  Baron  De  Thierry, 
claimed  the  sovereignty  of  New  Zealand,  and  expressed  his 
intention  of  setting  up  his  kingdom  there.  In  reply  to  this 
absurd  claim  Mr.  Busby  convened  a  meeting  of  chiefs  at 
Waitangi,  famed  a  few  years  later  in  connexion  with  the 
Treaty  of  Waitangi,  and  they  agreed  to  issue  a  proclamation 
declaring  their  independence.  The  proclamation  stated  that 
all  sovereign  power  and  authority  within  the  territories  of 
the  United  Tribes  of  New  Zealand  resided  entirely  and 
exclusively  in  the  respective  chiefs;  that  every  autumn  the 
chiefs  should  meet  in  congress  at  Waitangi  for  the  purpose 
of  passing  laws,  for  the  dispensation  of  justice,  the  preserva- 
tion of  peace  and  good  order,  and  the  regulation  of  trade, 
&c.  Though  the  voice  in  this  proclamation  was  Maori,  the 
hand  was  Mr.  Busby's.  That  the  chiefs  were  willing  to  sign 
the  declaration  was  a  great  step  forward.  In  1837  another 
important  move  was  made.  A  petition  was  addressed  to  the 
King,  William  IV,  signed  by  missionaries,  traders,  settlers, 
and  others,  praying  him  to  extend  to  New  Zealand  the  bless- 
ings of  British  government.  In  their  petition  the  monstrous 
claim  of  Baron  De  Thierry  was  referred  to.  No  doubt  the 
possibilities  looming  behind  that  cloud  added  point  to  their 
prayer. 

Meanwhile,  European  settlement  grew  rapidly ;  large  so- 
called  purchases  of  Maori  land  were  made,  and  the  time  was 
ripe  for  the  establishment  of  government.  New  South  Wales 
was  too  far  away,  and  its  Governors  were  too  little  acquainted 
with  the  country.  New  Zealand  needed  its  own  adminis- 
trator, possessing  adequate  authority  and  means  of  enforcing 
it.  In  January  1840  Captain  William  Hobson,  R.N.,  pro- 
claimed New  Zealand  a  dependency  of  the  British  Crown 
under  Sir  George  Gipps,  Governor  of  New  South  Wales. 
In  May  the  following  year  it  became  a  separate  colony,  with 
Captain   Hobson  as  Governor, 

In  the  negotiations  culminating  in  the  British  annexation 
of  New  Zealand,  the  Maoris  had  borne  no  part ;  their  own 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      139 

proclamation  of  independence,  prompted  and  framed  by  a 
former  British  Resident,  was,  in  their  minds,  valid.  In  what 
light  would  they  view  the  assertion  of  British  sovereignty? 
Captain  Hobson  felt  that  prompt  action  was  necessary.  Four 
days  after  his  arrival  he  convened  the  chiefs  at  VVaitangi. 
A  large  number  attended,  together  with  the  most  influential 
Europeans  in  the  Bay  of  Islands.  The  Governor  laid  the  matter 
of  annexation  before  them,  the  Rev.  Henry  Williams  inter- 
preted, and  the  chiefs  were  invited  to  express  their  opinions. 
From  twenty  to  thirty  spoke,  halt  a  dozen  strongly  opposing 
annexation,  prompted,  so  Hobson  thought,  by  the  French 
priests.  At  one  time  the  Governor  feared  a  hostile  vote. 
At  the  critical  moment  two  chiefs  of  Hokianga,  Waka  Nene 
and  Patuone,  arrived.  In  eloquent  and  persuasive  speech, 
Waka  Nene  addressed  the  meeting.  His  influence  and  force 
of  argument  brushed  away  opposition,  and  the  meeting 
adjourned  to  give  the  chiefs  time  to  reflect.  Next  morning 
they  communicated  to  the  Governor  their  wish  to  sign  a 
treaty,  accepting,  under  certain  conditions,  the  sovereignty 
of  Queen  Victoria  over  New  Zealand.  On  February  6,  1840, 
the  Treaty  of  Waitangi  was  signed  by  forty-six  head  chiefs 
in  the  presence  of  500  of  lesser  rank.  The  treaty  was  hastily 
made.  It  was  just  as  well.  Delay  would  have  given  design- 
ing white  men  time  to  spread  sinister  reports.  There  were 
some  not  of  British  blood,  who  had  no  wish  to  see  the  Union 
Jack  hoisted  in  New  Zealand.  Trouble  and  bloodshed  would 
have  followed  refusal  to  accept  annexation,  but  the  ultimate 
result  would  have  been  the  same.  British  government  was 
bound  to  come;  the  longer  it  was  deferred  the  more  difficult 
became  the  problems  awaiting  solution. 

It  should  be  noted  that  the  Treaty  of  Waitangi  was  made 
by  the  chiefs  who  occupied  the  Bay  of  Islands  and  con- 
tiguous districts  only.  They  could  not  claim  to  represent  the 
more  numerous  tribes  of  the  south.  That  the  latter  ultimately 
acquiesced  in  the  treaty  was  largely  owing  to  the  influence 
of  the  missionaries,  who  bore  an  active  part  in  the  negotiations. 


I40       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

The  Treaty  of  Waitangi  is  the  Magna  Charta  of  the  Maoris. 
It  guarantees  them  full,  exclusive,  and  undisputed  possession 
of  their  lands,  estates,  forests,  fisheries,  and  other  properties 
so  long  as  they  wish  to  retain  them  ;  while  it  concedes  to 
the  Crown  the  exclusive  right  of  pre-emption  over  such  lands 
as  the  proprietors  wish  to  alienate;  in  consideration  of  which 
the  Crown  guarantees  the  Maoris  royal  protection,  and  im- 
parts to  them  the  rights  and  privileges  of  British  subjects. 

Before  dealing  with  the  catastrophe  which  shook  to  pieces 
the  fabric  reared  with  such  devotion  by  able  hands,  we  may 
take  a  general  survey  of  Maoriland  as  it  appeared  in  1850. 
Thirty  years  had  witnessed  a  great  change,  and  the  savage 
Maori  of  1820  was  becoming  merely  a  memory.  North  of 
Auckland  the  great  tribe  known  as  Ngapuhi  had  been  won 
over  to  Christianity.  In  every  fair-sized  kainga  there  was  a 
church  with  resident  native  preachers,  and  non-worshipping 
Maoris  were  the  exception.  Large  numbers  were  enrolled  as 
members  of  one  or  other  of  the  missionary  Churches,  and  the 
entire  tribe  welcomed  the  new  order.  The  bad  old  days  had 
passed.  Confidence  and  peace  prevailed  where  distrust  and 
war  had  reigned.  The  condition  which  Marsden  and  Leigh 
found  had  gone  like  a  nightmare. 

South  of  Auckland  the  same  happy  change  was  in  progress. 
The  noble  tribe  of  the  Ngatimaniapoto  was  won.  Mission- 
aries lived  at  Manakau,  Waingaroa,  Aotea,  Kawhia,  and 
inland  on  the  banks  of  the  Waipa.  The  Anglican  mission- 
aries on  the  east  and  the  Wesleyan  on  the  west  occupied 
strategic  points  from  which  they  were  able  to  reach  the  tribes 
of  the  North  Island.  The  battle  seemed  won.  The  letters 
of  the  missionaries  to  the  home  societies  rang  with  praises  of 
Maori  converts,  whose  zeal  and  fidelity  seemed  a  reproduc- 
tion of  Apostolic  times.  The  sounds  of  war  were  dying,  a 
new  generation  was  rising,  trained  in  mission  schools,  and 
every  year  added  to  the  strength  and  permanence  of  the  new 
order.     The  Maori  Mission  became  one  of  the  glories  of  the 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      141 

Christian  Churcii.  Us  triumphs  were  proclaimed  on  scores 
of  English  platforms.  The  conversion  of  Maoriland  was  a 
modern  miracle,  a  nation  won  as  in  a  day.  The  seed  sown 
with  tears  had  produced  a  magnificent  harvest,  gathered  with 
greater  joy  because  the  reapers  were  also  the  sowers.  One 
generation  sufficed  to  produce  this  change. 

Then  a  cloud  gathered  and  broke  into  a  storm  (jf  war. 
Like  the  tropical  cyclone,  which  in  a  few  hours  transforms 
a  smiling  landscape  into  desolation,  this  war-storm  swept 
away  in  a  few  months  the  work  of  thirty  years.  The  harvest 
song  broke  off  midway,  and  in  its  place  was  heard  the  dis- 
cordant tumult  of  fratricidal  strife.  With  breaking  hearts 
the  missionaries  were  driven  from  their  stations,  in  most  cases 
never  to  return.  When  the  storm  was  over  there  were  left 
tribes  broken  by  defeat,  embittered  by  a  sense  of  failure,  and 
smarting  under  the  sweeping  confiscation  of  land,  the  penalty 
of  rebellion. 

The  decade  from  i860  to  1870  forms  the  saddest  and  most 
humiliating  page  in  the  history  of  British  colonization  in 
New  Zealand.  The  story  reveals  great  folly,  criminal  want 
of  tact,  and  not  a  little  wickedness.  Were  it  possible  to  get 
to  bedrock  in  the  history  of  the  wars  Britain  has  waged 
against  aboriginal  populations,  the  chief  causes  would  be 
found  to  be  :  Failure  of  the  white  race  to  understand  the 
habit  of  mind  and  the  point  of  view  of  the  coloured  man  ; 
the  interference  of  interested  people  who  saw  in  the  conflict 
means  of  personal  enrichment ;  and  the  tactlessness  of  persons 
in  official  positions.  The  war  between  the  Maoris  and  the 
British  was  not  a  sudden  outbreak ;  it  was  the  harvest  of  half 
a  century  of  sowing.  The  first  white  men  to  visit  New 
Zealand  soon  dispelled  the  halo  of  superiority  with  which 
civilization  invested  them.  They  were  shocked  by  the 
cannibalism  of  the  Maoris;  but  in  chastity  they  sank  to  the 
level  of  the  natives  themselves.  Captain  Cook  takes  no  pains 
to  conceal  the  licence  allowed  to  his  crew  during  their  visits 


142  .     A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

on  shore.  The  whaling  crews  who  came  later  were  no  better ; 
and  the  escapees  from  the  convict  settlements  of  Australia 
were  too  familiar  with  vice  to  shun  it  in  New  Zealand. 

Most  of  the  white  traders  thought  little  of  defrauding  the 
Maoris.  Masters  of  ships  robbed  them  of  their  wages,  or 
sailed  away  without  paying  for  the  native  produce  they  pro- 
fessed to  buy.  In  the  purchase  of  land  the  white  man  grossly 
deceived  and  cheated  them.  Hundreds  of  thousands  of  acres 
were  claimed  as  duly  bought  for  a  few  axes,  blankets,  or 
muskets,  in  total  disregard  of  Maori  land  laws,  and  often  in 
ignorance  of  the  owners.  Until  the  advent  of  settled  govern- 
ment, '  land  sharking  '  was  carried  on  to  a  frightful  extent. 
In  1840  Governor  Hobson  issued  a  statement  showing  that 
from  181 5  to  1840  an  area  of  45,000,000  acres,  one  half 
of  the  entire  country,  was  claimed  to  have  been  bought  by 
white  men.  In  1839  the  New  Zealand  Company  professed 
to  buy  the  whole  South  Island,  20,000,000  acres,  from 
seven  chiefs  for  ^200  cash  and  an  inconsiderable  annual 
payment  for  life.  Yet  these  chiefs  owned  only  a  small 
portion  of  the  island,  and  had  not  power  to  alienate  even 
their  own  tribal  land.  Had  that  claim  been  admitted,  it  would 
have  dispossessed  all  the  Maoris  of  the  South  Island.  Only 
the  firmness  of  Governor  Hobson  saved  New  Zealand  from 
being  locked  up  by  a  few  unscrupulous  speculators.  How 
scandalous  these  claims  were,  appears  from  the  fact  that 
when  sifted  by  a  competent  tribunal,  the  so-called  purchase 
of  20,000,000  acres  was  cut  down  to  100,000  acres.  This 
is  surpassed  only  by  an  American  company,  which  claimed 
so  much  land  in  another  British  South  Sea  possession  that 
it  exceeded  the  total  area  of  the  islands,  and  included  many 
miles  of  ocean  ! 

In  these  nefarious  land  purchases  lay  the  root  of  the  Maori 
rebellion.  Though  the  Government  rejected  such  a  large 
number,  enough  were  retained  to  cause  the  Maoris  uneasi- 
ness. Evil-minded  mischief-makers  also  infused  distrust  into 
the  natives,   telling  them  that  the  white  people  were  deter- 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      143 

mined  to  possess  their  country  and  make  them  slaves.  At 
the  same  time  it  must  be  admitted  that  English  officials 
often  displayed  criminal  tactlessness  and  impatience  in  their 
dealings  with  the  Maoris.  If  their  commands  were  not 
immediately  obeyed,  force  was  used,  blood  was  shed,  and  out 
of  what,  at  the  most,  would  have  been  awkward  incidents, 
quarrels  grew,  resulting  in  savage  outrages  and  loss  of  life. 
It  is  almost  certain  that  the  massacre  at  Wairau  in  1843, 
which  cost  the  lives  of  over  twenty  Europeans,  and  the  out- 
break in  1844  by  Hone  Heke  at  the  Bay  of  Islands,  which 
became  a  war,  could  have  been  prevented  by  tact  and  patience. 
In  every  part  of  the  world  the  imperious  pride  of  Europeans 
has  prevented  them  from  becoming  acquainted  with  native 
habits  of  thought.  The  result  has  been  seen  in  torrents  of 
blood. 

As  white  settlement  advanced  in  New  Zealand,  every  in- 
ducement was  offered  to  the  Maoris  to  sell  land.  For  some 
years  they  sold  freely,  until  a  few  of  the  older  and  wiser  heads 
became  alarmed.  Land  was  sometimes  bought  from  persons 
who  did  not  own  it,  or  whose  ownership  was  disputed,  and 
the  real  owners  resisted  possession.  An  incident  of  that  kind 
led  to  war  in  the  district  of  Taranaki.  Everywhere  the  natives 
were  filled  with  fear  and  distrust  as  their  lands  passed  to 
the  possession  of  the  ever-increasing  white  settlers.  Then 
two  ideas  emerged  :  (i)  to  form  a  Maori  Land  League  pledged 
not  to  sell  more  land,  and  to  prevent  its  sale  by  natives  who 
had  not  joined  the  league,  and  (2)  to  elect  a  Maori  king.  The 
latter  idea  grew  from  the  disappearance  of  tapu.  Christianity 
was  fatal  to  tapu,  so  closely  allied  to  heathenism.  The 
chief's  power  lay  in  the  tapu,  and  as  it  passed  away  his 
power  and  prestige  passed  also. 

Tapu  could  not  be  restored;  but  the  election  of  a  king 
might  weld  the  tribes  into  homogeneity,  with  a  monarchy  and 
nobility  at  their  head.  At  a  great  meeting  of  Maoris  in  1858 
at  Ngaruawahia,  where  the  rivers  Waipa  and  Waikato  have 
their  junction,  Te  Wherowhero,  chief  of  the  Ngatimaniapoto, 


144       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

was  chosen  king,  under  the  title  of  Potatau.  Decisions  were 
also  made  which  revealed  the  fear  existing  in  Maori  minds. 
The  king  was  empowered  to  make  laws  for  the  Maoris,  to 
create  offices,  and  to  appoint  officers.  More  ominous  still 
was  the  decision  that  the  Maori  should  no  longer  be  subject 
to  the  white  man's  laws;  that  no  roads  should  be  made 
through  Maori  country ;  and  that  no  Maori  should  be  amen- 
able to  the  white  man's  tribunals.  The  Land  League  and  the 
kingship  amounted  to  a  declaration  of  rebellion.  Those  who 
formed  the  Land  League  were  within  their  rights  in  refusing 
to  sell  their  own  land ;  but  when  they  prevented  non-members 
from  selling,  they  were  certain  to  collide  with  the  Govern- 
ment. And  when  they  attempted  to  make  their  special 
territory  an  imperium  in  imperio,  they  were  repudiating  the 
authority  of  the  British  Crown.  The  gauntlet  was  thrown 
down ;  the  march  of  events  compelled  the  Government  to 
accept  the  challenge,  and  the  gathered  storm  burst. 

Hostilities  began  in  1859  at  Taranaki,  where  the  chief 
Wiremu  Kingi  resisted  the  Government  taking  possession  of 
land  sold  by  Te  Teira,  which  he  had  no  right  to  sell.  From 
Taranaki  the  war  spread  over  the  North  Island  as  far  as 
Auckland.  It  was  a  bitter  struggle.  There  were  no  pitched 
battles,  the  Maoris  making  war  in  guerilla  fashion,  and 
many  savage  acts  were  done.  Families  and  isolated  settlers 
were  ruthlessly  murdered.  There  were  old  scores  to  settle, 
which  added  to  the  fierceness  of  the  fight.  The  Maoris 
showed  both  sides  of  their  character  :  its  heroism,  as  when 
they  sent  food  to  hungry  British  soldiers ;  its  ferocity,  as 
when  they  slaughtered  helpless  women  and  children.  Two 
missionaries  were  murdered,  Messrs.  Volkner  and  Whiteley. 
It  required  10,000  British  soldiers,  led  by  experienced 
generals,  beside  colonial  auxiliaries,  to  overcome  the  natives. 
Beginning  in  1859,  the  last  Maori  pah  fell  in  1870,  although 
long  ere  that  the  Maoris  knew  their  cause  was  hopeless. 
They  withdrew  in  sullen  dejection,  and  for  nearly  ten  years 
refused  intercourse  with   Europeans.      They   locked  up   the 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      145 

interior  of  the  North  Island  against  European  settlement, 
until  Rewi,  a  great  chief  of  the  Ngatimaniapoto  and  the  hero 
of  more  than  one  sturdy  defence,  visited  Auckland  in  1879, 
where  he  received  an  enthusiastic  public  welcome.  The 
advent  of  a  new  generation  has  brought  complete  resumption 
of  friendly  relations;  the  completion  of  the  Trunk  Railway 
has  opened  up  millions  of  acres  of  land,  much  of  which  the 
Government  has  acquired ;  and  changing  circumstances  have 
made  another  struggle  between  the  two  races  impossible. 
His  Majesty  George  V  has  now  no  subjects  more  loyal  than 
the  Maoris  of  New  Zealand. 

The  war  clouded  the  bright  prospect  of  1850.  The  mission- 
aries exerted  themselves  to  persuade  their  flock  from  entering 
upon  the  disastrous  struggle,  sacrificing  their  popularity  and 
risking  their  lives.  After  hostilities  began  they  held  to  their 
posts  until  compelled  to  leave.  From  the  majority  of  natives, 
even  when  in  arms,  they  had  nothing  to  fear;  but  there  was 
danger  from  the  baser  sort.  Because  they  dreaded  the  stigma 
of  slaying  their  ministers,  the  chiefs  told  them  to  leave,  as  they 
could  no  longer  guarantee  their  safety.  The  Ngapuhi  tribe 
in  the  north  of  Auckland  fortunately  kept  out  of  the  strife, 
and  turned  a  deaf  ear  to  solicitations  from  the  south.  But 
throughout  the  hostile  area  the  native  Church  suffered  wreck. 
Very  few  of  the  abandoned  mission  stations  could  be  re- 
occupied,  owing  to  the  removal  of  the  people.  While  the 
war  was  in  progress  the  Hauhau  superstition  spread  among 
the  tribes.  It  has  been  well  described  as  an  '  amazing  farrago 
of  nonsense  and  wild  improbabilities,'  a  combination  of 
scraps  of  the  Old  Testament  and  the  follies  of  a  crazy  mind. 
It  was  originated  by  a  half-mad  Maori,  and  w^as  the  more 
readily  adopted  in  that  it  offered  a  substitute  for  the  religion 
of  the  white  men,  with  whom  the  Maoris  were  at  war. 
Efforts  to  reconvert  the  native  race  have  been  greatly  hindered 
by  Hauhauism.  It  is  slowly  dying.  Two  chiefs,  Te  Whiti 
and  Tohu,  sought  to  revive  it,  with  temporary  success,  but 
when  they  died  it  again  languished.     The  danger  now  is  that 

L 


146       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the   native    race   may    lapse    into   stolid   indifference    to   all 
religion. 

It    was    thought    that    the    Maoris    were    decreasing    in 
number;  but  with  the  break-up  of  their  isolation  it  became 
possible  to  take  a  census.    The  census  of  1901,  1906,  and  191 1 
show  that  they  are  increasing,  the  increase  being  given  as 
over  6,000  for  the  decade.     Possibly  the  returns  of  1901  were 
not  as  complete  as  those  of  191 1  ;  but  the  general  opinion  now 
is  that  the  race  is  holding  its  own,  and  with  the  spread  of 
enlightenment,  there  is  every  reason  for  its  increase.    Greater 
cleanliness,    proper  sanitation   of   houses  and  villages,    and 
more  systematic  modes  of  living  may  be  expected  to  bear 
fruit    in    increased    virility    and    reduced    mortality.     The 
Maoris   now    number    50,000   (including   half-castes).     They 
enjoy     full     political     rights    and     privileges.      For    native 
electoral   purposes,    New   Zealand   is  divided    into   four   dis- 
tricts,  Northern,  Southern,   Eastern,  and  Western,  each  of 
which  elects  a  Maori  member  of  the  Dominion  Parliament. 
The    Maori    members    receive    the    same    honorarium    as 
Europeans,   and  are   under   no   restriction    in   speaking   and 
voting.     The  election  is  by  manhood  suffrage.     Every  adult 
may  vote  without  restriction.     A  few  of  the  most  eminent 
chiefs   have   been   made   members  of  the   Upper   Chamber. 
The  Maoris  are  well  able  to  appreciate  and  greatly   value 
their  political  privileges. 

In  the  districts  affected  by  the  rebellion,  the  schools  and 
colleges  attached  to  the  missions  were  completely  wrecked, 
and  nothing  could  be  done  to  restore  them  during  the  long 
isolation  that  followed.  Among  the  Northern  Maoris  and 
in  the  South  Island  the  schools  remained  open,  but  several 
generations  of  the  children  of  the  disaffected  tribes  grew  up 
without  education.  At  the  present  time,  however,  through 
the  combined  efforts  of  the  Government  and  the  religious 
bodies,  free  education  is  within  reach  of  nearly  every  native 
child.  Primary  schools  for  Maoris  are  included  in  the 
Dominion  educational  system.     Good  buildings  are  erected 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      147 

on  sites  convenient  to  the  kaingas,  and  European  teachers 
are  employed.  It  is  a  sine  qua  non  that  all  tuition  must  be 
imparted  in  the  English  language.  The  curriculum  includes 
English,  arithmetic,  handwork,  Nature  study,  morals,  sing- 
ing, and  physical  culture. 

In  many  schools  woodwork  is  taught,  and  the  girls  learn 
plain    cooking    and    practical    dressmaking.      A    scheme    of 
cottage  gardening  as  a  branch  of  handwork  is  in  operation. 
In  most  schools  some  form  of  elementary  handwork  is  taken 
with   success.     At   the  end   of    191 1    there   were    104   native 
primary  schools  in  charge  of  European  teachers.     There  are 
also   nine   boarding-schools   conducted  by   various  religious 
denominations,  supported  partly  by  Government,  and  partly 
by  endowments,  and  five  purely  mission  schools.     At  several 
of  the  boarding-schools,   which  correspond  to   the  ordinary 
English    secondary  schools,    the    Government    provides    150 
scholarships,  or  free  places,  for  Maori  pupils.     Of  these  128 
were  current  in  191 1.     The  senior  free  places  take  the  form 
of  industrial  scholarships,  by  which  a  Maori  boy  may  receive 
a  sum,  not  exceeding  £40,  in  the  course  of  the  first  three 
years  when  he  is  learning  a  trade.     As  a  result  of  the  promi- 
nence given  to  industrial  training,  a  number  of  native  youths 
have  been    apprenticed    to    trades,   saddlery,    blacksmithing, 
engineering,  building,  and  farming.     A  beginning  has  been 
made  in  training  Maori  girls  for  the  important  vocation  of 
nursing.     Several  have  already  qualified  for  registration,  and 
are  now  working  among  their  own  people,  under  the  Public 
Health  Department.     In  many  places  Maori  children  attend 
the  ordinary   public  school,    mingling  freely  and  on   equal 
terms   with    European    children.     As   the   settlement   of    the 
country  proceeds,  purely  Maori  schools  will  cease  to  exist, 
and  the  children  of  both  races  will  be  merged  in  the  public 
schools.     Already  several  Maoris,  not  perhaps  full-blooded, 
have    passed    through    the    university,    and    are    practising 
medicine  or  law.     Thus  it  will   be  seen   that  the   Dominion 
has  adopted  a  wise  and  liberal  policy  towards  the  Maoris; 


148       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

a  policy  which  will  bear  rich  fruit  in  transforming  them 
into  enlightened  and  wealth-producing  members  of  the 
community. 

The  Maoris  untouched  by  the  rebellion  have  settled  down 
to  habits  of  industry  and  independence.  As  labourers, 
stalwart  and  muscular,  expert  with  axe  and  spade,  they 
rendered  great  service  to  the  early  settlers  in  subduing  the 
virgin  wilderness,  clearing  the  heavy  bush,  and  draining  the 
great  swamps.  They  shared  with  white  men  the  toil  of  cut- 
ting and  hauling  the  huge  kauri  logs  which  grew  on  every 
hand,  and  they  early  learnt  the  profit  to  be  made  from  kauri 
gum.  With  the  falling  off  in  timber  and  gum,  they  began 
to  cultivate  their  lands,  practising  both  agriculture  and  dairy- 
ing. Of  late  years  the  industrial  movement  has  become 
general.  The  wiser  heads  of  the  tribes  recognize  that  the 
surest  way  to  retain  their  lands  is  by  cultivation,  and  they 
are  becoming  cultivators.  In  Hawke's  Bay  they  are  pastoral- 
ists;  in  the  Wairarapa  they  add  cropping  to  sheep-breed- 
ing ;  in  Taranaki  they  have  turned  to  dairy  farming.  The 
communal  system  is  dying  before  the  healthy  growth  of 
individualism ;  provident  habits  are  ousting  the  old  hand-to- 
mouth  mode  of  living ;  and  it  is  not  at  all  uncommon  to  find 
Maoris  who  appreciate,  as  keenly  as  any  white  man,  the 
comfort  of  a  credit  balance  at  the  bank.  A  not  uncommon 
sight  is  the  Maori  employer  riding  to  market  or  fair  in  buggy 
or  motor-car,  while  his  hired  white  labourer  drives  the  cattle 
or  sheep.  That  this  picture  is  not  overdrawn  the  following 
figures  prove.  The  stock  owned  by  Maoris  in  191 1  com- 
prised 48,222  horses,  61,300  cattle,  486,922  sheep,  and  33,290 
pigs. 

What  does  the  future  hold  for  tTie  Maoris?  They  are 
increasing  in  number;  they  possess  nearly  5,000,000  acres 
of  land;  they  are  drawing  nearer  to  European  civilization. 
They  will  survive,  but  how  ?  There  is  but  one  answer.  They 
will  become  assimilated  and  absorbed  in  the  general  popula- 


THE   MAORI   OF    NEW   ZEALAND      149 

tion  of  the  Dominion,  and  so  help  to  form  a  fresh  type  of 
colonial.  Claimed  to  be  an  offshoot  of  the  Caucasian  race, 
they  share  a  common  stock  with  Europeans.  No  such  gap 
exists  between  the  brown  and  white  man  as  between  the 
black  and  white.  It  needs  only  a  few  generations  of  inter- 
marriage to  obliterate  distinctive  Maori  characteristics.  The 
means  now  employed  to  educate  the  Maoris,  and  to  form  in 
them  habits  of  industry  and  providence,  will  hasten  their 
assimilation  into  the  general  population.  The  fusion  is 
already  in  progress,  and  as  the  present  educational  policy 
diminishes  the  disparity  between  the  two  races,  the  pace  will 
be  accelerated.  In  that  happy  way  will  be  solved  the  native 
question  of  New  Zealand. 


CHAPTER    II 

THE   AUSTRALIAN   ABORIGINE 

By  JOSEPH   BOWES 
Ipswich  ;  Ex-President  Methodist  Church,  Queetisland 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Early  contempt  of  black  man — Bamngton — A  hybrid — Melanesian — 
Antiquity — Social  organization — Food  and  climate — Character — 
Sex — Tribal  classification — Lineage — Social  rank — Totem — Magic 
— Religion — Supernatural  —  Reincarnation — Pastime — Corrobberie 
— Hunting — Methodist  Mission — Other  efforts — Reasons  of  failure 
— Government  and  Churches — Results— Untouched  majority — 
Distribution  of  work — Prospects. 


CHAPTER    11 

THK    AISTRALIAN    ABORIGINE 

The  Australian  native  is  a  picturesque  personality,  and 
furnishes  a  wide  and  vastly  interesting  study  from  the  points 
of  view  of  the  scientist  and  moralist.  He  is  to-day,  so  to 
speak,  the  most  valuable  product  in  the  human  market  for 
scientific  purposes;  for  he  may  fairly  claim  to  be  the  most 
primitive  living  representative  of  prehistoric  man  among  the 
surviving  tribes.  F'rom  the  beginning  of  colonial  settlement 
and  expansion  he  has  been  the  subject  of  speculation  ;  and 
later  on  of  serious  study.  Those  who  accompanied  the  first 
fleet  gravely  discussed  the  blackfellow's  rank  in  the  brute 
creation.  From  the  social  point  of  view,  he  was  placed  so 
low  in  the  scale  of  the  human  as  to  be  incapable  of  mateship 
with  the  more  civilized  species  of  the  genus  homo.  Generally 
speaking,  he  was  regarded  as  one  controlled  by  merely  animal 
instincts,  his  possession  of  a  soul  being  a  moot  point. 

The  hastily  formed  but  erroneous  opinions  of  those  first 
days  were  not  without  good  excuse.  An  almost  immeasurable 
gulf  of  degree  lay  between  the  white  and  the  black.  On  the 
one  hand  was  the  finished  specimen  of  the  human,  the  product 
of  countless  generations  of  civilization  ;  on  the  other  hand 
the  creature  who,  in  thought  and  habit,  dated  back  to  the  type 
which  prevailed  in  pre-glacial  days.  Such  a  disparity  is 
immense;  but,  after  all,  it  is  a  difference  in  degree  and  not 
of  kind.  Owing  to  the  prevalence  of  the  inaccurate  and  low 
views  held  by  the  early  Australians  in  regard  to  their 
aboriginal  brother,  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  that  the  blacks 
were  cruelly  used  by  private  and  unlicensed  authority,  as 
well  as  being  treated  with  unpardonable  neglect  by  the 
Government. 

153 


154       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

These,  however,  were  pre-Darwin  days.  The  theory  of  the 
fundamental  kinship  and  persistency  through  all  change 
between  '  all  the  forms  of  human  life  '  had  not  been  pro- 
pounded a  century  ago.  There  was  no  anthropological  out- 
look. The  coloured  races  were  regarded  as  mere  savages,  and 
used  as  beasts  of  burden  where  possible.  The  Australian 
native  was  placed  at  once  upon  the  lowest  rung  of  the  human 
ladder  in  relation  to  intelligence  and  social  life.  He  was 
treated  by  the  settlers  with  little  more  respect  than  was  shown 
to  the  marsupial.  He  was  practically  denied  the  right  to 
live.  He  was  a  vagrant.  The  very  horses  sniffed  the  wind 
contemptuously  when  it  revealed  his  presence.  Like  the 
dingo,  he  was  a  disturber  and  ravisher  of  the  flocks  and 
herds.  There  were  many  exceptions  to  this  attitude,  it  is 
true.  There  were  those,  even  in  the  beginning  of  settlement, 
who  viewed  him  as  a  man  and  a  brother,  with  a  body  to  be 
cared  for  and  a  soul  to  be  saved.  But  these  only  proved  the 
rule  of  contemptuous  treatment,  which  at  times  reached  the 
point  of  extermination.  To  '  pot  a  black  '  was  an  achieve- 
ment which  called  for  congratulation.  To  have  caught  the 
'  nigger  '  on  the  outskirts  of  a  mob  of  cattle  or  in  the  vicinity 
of  a  sheep-fold  was  justification  enough  for  the  hardy 
pioneers,  who  viewed  him  as  *  vermin  '  to  an  equal  degree 
with  the  dingo.  '  Murder  M  It  were,  indeed,  a  gross  exag- 
geration to  attach  such  a  name  to  so  light  and  trifling  a 
thing. 

While  frankly  admitting  that  the  aboriginal  was  often 
treated  with  unpardonable  contumely,  that  little  effort  was 
made  to  civilize  and  uplift  him  in  the  early  days  of  settle- 
ment, it  must  be  borne  in  mind,  in  common  fairness,  that  the 
progenitors  of  the  Commonwealth  came  out  with  no  mission. 
They  were  animated  by  no  lofty  motive.  Neither  humanity 
nor  patriotism  stirred  them  to  the  point  of  expatriation. 
There  is  humour  of  a  grim  kind  in  the  couplet  of  Barrington's 
prologue  to  the  first  colonial  play,  having  relation  to  the  type 
of  men  who  first  pitched  the  tents  of  settlement  in  Australia  : 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE        155 

True  patriots  all,  for  be  it  understood. 
We  left  our  country  for  our  country's  good. 

The  compulsory  exodus  of  Enp^land's  undesirables  bore 
hardly,  in  its  incidence,  upon  the  original  holders  of  the  land. 
The  absence  of  humanitarianism  from  the  system  of  treatment 
meted  out  to  the  white  prisoners  ^ave  small  colour  to  any 
hope  that  the  blacks  would  be  treated  with  compassionate 
consideration.  While  on  the  other  hand,  the  convicts,  whose 
sensibilities,  where  possessed,  had  been  blunted  after  trans- 
portation, could  not  be  expected  to  exhibit  much  tenderness 
towards  those  who,  in  popular  esteem,  ranked  but  little  above 
the  primaeval  tvpes  of  fauna  peculiar  to  Australia. 

Among  the  earliest  observers  of  this  primitive  race  was 
George  Barrington,  already  referred  to.  While  expiating  his 
offences  on  these  shores  he  gave  some  time  to  the  study  of 
the  manners,  customs,  and  religion  of  the  natives.  His 
description,  allowing  for  minor  variations,  due  principally  to 
climate,  is  an  accurate  portrait  of  the  blackfellow  under  savage 
conditions :  '  The  men  in  general  are  from  5  feet  6  to 
5  feet  9  inches  high ;  are  rather  slender,  but  straight 
and  well  made.  The  women  are  not  so  tall,  rather  lustier, 
but  are  mostly  well  made.  Their  colour  is  of  a  brownish 
black,  of  a  coffee  cast,  but  many  of  the  women  are  as  light 
as  a  mulatto.  Now  and  then  you  may  find  some  of  both 
sexes  with  pretty  tolerable  features,  but  broad  noses,  wide 
mouths,  and  thick  lips  are  most  generally  met  with  ;  their 
countenances  are  not  the  most  prepossessing,  and  what 
renders  them  less  so  is  that  they  are  abominably  filthy.  They 
know  no  such  ceremony  as  washing  themselves,  and  their 
skin  is  mostly  smeared  with  the  fat  of  such  animals  as  they 
kill,  and  afterwards  covered  with  every  sort  of  dirt.  Sand  from 
the  beach,  and  ashes  from  their  fires,  all  adhere  to  their  filthy 
skin,  which  never  comes  off,  except  when  accident  or  the  want 
of  food  obliges  them  to  go  into  the  water.  Some  of  the  men 
wear  a  bone  or  piece  of  wood  through  the  septum  of  the  nose, 
which,  by  raising  the  opposite  sides  of  the  nose,  dilates  the 


156       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

nostril,  and  spreads  the  lower  part  very  much.  Many  of  them 
want  two  front  teeth  on  the  right  side  of  the  upper  jaw,  and 
I  have  seen  several  of  the  women  who  have  lost  the  two  first 
joints  of  the  little  finger  of  their  left  hand,  a  circumstance 
which  I  have  never  been  able  to  discover  the  meaning  of. 
The  men's  beards  are  short  and  curly,  like  the  hair  of  their 
heads.     They  all  go  entirely  naked.' 

This  portraiture,  while  true  as  it  relates  to  the  general 
appearance  of  the  Australian  native,  reveals  severe  limitations 
of  knowledge.  Barrington,  in  common  with  other  observers 
of  those  early  times,  while  curious  to  know  what  the  bodily 
mutilations  stood  for,  failed  to  see  that  they  were  but  outward 
and  visible  signs  of  inward  and  social,  if  not  spiritual,  prin- 
ciples. In  a  word,  they  were  unable  to  penetrate  the  social 
organization  of  the  blackfellow,  perhaps  the  most  complex 
of  any  race,  whether  ancient  or  modern.  This  same  com- 
plexity makes  the  Australian  black  a  study  of  infinite  interest 
to  the  modern  anthropologist.  The  growth  of  the  science  of 
anthropology  has  at  least  one  great  merit,  that  of  throttling 
race  prejudice.  No  investigator  in  the  jungle  of  social 
organizations  can  successfully  explore  and  bring  the  hidden 
things  to  light  who  does  not  unveil  himself  from  racial 
prejudices,  which,  while  they  are  natural,  are  fatal  to  impartial 
research.  This  freedom  has  marked  the  splendid  work  of  the 
observers  for  the  past  thirty  or  forty  years.  The  Australian 
records  of  observations  from  the  anthropological,  ethnological, 
and  linguistic  points  of  approach  constitute  a  bibliography  of 
no  mean  dimensions. 

First  and  foremost,  who  is  the  Australian  aborigine  ?  Is 
the  man  whom  we  have  dispossessed  of  his  hunting-ground, 
salving  our  consciences  with  the  dole  of  a  blanket  per  annum, 
the  true  autochthone  of  Australia?  If  not,  who  is?  On  this 
question  observers  are  divided ;  but  the  theory  that  the  black 
is  a  hybrid  is  a  growing  one.  It  is  stated  by  Mathew  and 
others  with  great  force  that  the  ancestors  of  the  now  extinct 
aboriginals   of   Tasmania   were    the   original    inhabitants   of 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE        157 

Australia.  These  were  curly-pated,  short,  black  people,  con- 
geners of  the  Papuans  and  the  Melanesians.  These  Tas- 
manians,  however,  being  absolutely  separated  from  the  higher 
races,  made  virtually  no  advance  in  culture.  In  those  far-off 
days  Tasmania  formed  a  part  of  the  mainland  of  Australia, 
or  at  any  rate  was  more  easily  accessible  from  it  than  in 
historic  times,  and  was  peopled  with  the  Australian  race. 
Owing  to  the  formation  or  enlargement  of  Bass  Strait  by 
the  surface  depressions  which  took  place,  Tasmania  and  its 
inhabitants  were  cut  off  from  the  mainland,  and  the  latter  so 
remained  until  the  advent  of  the  whites. 

It  has  been  clearly  shown  by  Ling  Roth,  Tylor,  and  others 
that  the  marooned  Tasmanians  differed  in  many  important 
details  from  the  modern  Australian  blackfellow.  After  a 
careful  collecting  and  sifting  of  the  mass  of  data  on  the 
question  of  relation,  Ling  Roth  (with  whom  Dr.  Howitt 
agrees)  comes  to  the  conclusion  that  there  is  a  relationship 
between  the  Tasmanians  and  the  Andaman  Islanders,  thereby 
establishing  a  racial  affinity  with  the  Melanesians.  '  To 
which  of  the  great  divisions  of  the  human  family  may  this 
Australian  stock  belong  on  which  the  Tasmanian  scion  is 
grafted  ?  '  asks  the  late  Dr.  A.  W.  Howitt.  This  is  a  problem 
of  great  magnitude.  The  theory  advanced  by  Keane,  and 
more  particularly  by  Mathew,  is  that  a  superior  race,  akin, 
perhaps,  to  the  Dravidians  of  India  or  the  Toalas  of  the 
Celebes,  though  not  necessarily  derived  from  one  of  these 
lands,  migrated  to  Australia  from  the  north-east  in  those 
times  of  the  geologic  past  when  there  was  far  more  land 
between  Asia  and  Australia  than  now  exists.  These  new- 
comers differed  in  many  details  from  the  original  inhabitants. 
Whereas  the  latter  were  frizzly-haired  and  black  in  com- 
plexion, the  former  were  straight-haired  and  lighter  in  colour. 
The  theory  is  that  they  advanced  along  the  line  of  least  resist- 
ance, that  is,  the  coastal  line.  In  process  of  time  they  absorbed 
orexterminated  the  lowlier,  earlier  inhabitants,  until  they  finally 
occupied  the  continent  from  its  circumference  to  its  centre. 


158       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Dr.  Howitt,  on  the  other  hand,  joins  forces  with  Flower 
and  Lydekker,  who  suggest  that  the  original  stock  of  the 
Australians  is  'a  low  form  of  Caucasian  Melanochroi,'  a 
race  anterior  even  to  the  Dravidians,  and  from  which  they, 
too,  may  have  been  derived.  This  theory,  the  learned  doctor 
is  free  to  admit,  demands  '  a  vast  antiquity  '  for  the  Tas- 
manians,  and  '  a  very  long  period  of  at  least  prehistoric  time  ' 
for  the  Australian.  But  whatever  the  differences  in  detail 
between  scientists,  they  agree  in  concluding  that  the  native 
Australian  of  historic  times  is  not  the  pure  aborigine,  but  a 
mixture  of  Tasmanian  and  other  elements,  which  fusion  is 
indicated  by  certain  physical  affinities.  The  fact  that  the 
modern  Australians  comprise  two  primary  classes  is  taken 
by  Mathew  as  a  support  to  the  hybrid  theory.  The  natives, 
he  says,  recognize  this,  and  designate  themselves  by  names 
which  indicate  a  contrast  of  colour.  The  darker  complexion 
is  called  the  Crow,  the  lighter  the  Eaglehawk.  The  Crow 
class,  therefore,  would  represent  the  Tasmanian  strain;  while 
the  Eaglehawk  would  indicate  the  so-called  Dravidians. 

The  social  organization  of  this  most  interesting  people, 
brought  to  light  by  patient  observation  and  research,  is  so 
vast  and  complicated  that  it  can  only  be  lightly  touched  on  in 
this  article.  The  family  and  other  class  organization  common 
to  all  the  tribes  betray  an  order  of  intelligence  and  subtle 
distinction  not  usually  attributed  to  the  mental  powers  of 
these  primitives.  The  question  asked  by  every  anthropologist 
is  :  '  How  do  their  forms  of  social  organization  come  into 
being  ?  If  1  were  called  upon  to  exhibit  the  chief  determinants 
of  human  life  as  a  simple  chain  of  causes  and  effects  ...  I 
should  do  it  thus  :  Working  backwards,  I  should  say  that 
culture  depends  upon  social  organization ;  social  organization 
on  numbers;  numbers  on  food;  and  the  food  on  invention. 
Here  both  ends  of  the  series  are  represented  by  spiritual 
factors  :  namely,  culture  at  the  one  end,  and  invention  at  the 
other.  Amongst  the  intermediate  links,  food  and  numbers 
may  be  reckoned  as  physical  factors  '  (AnihTopology,  A.  R. 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE       159 

Marett).  In  this  way  Marett  makes  social  organization  some- 
thing half-way  between  a  spiritual  and  physical  manifestation. 
Let  us  see  how  it  works  out  in  the  case  of  the  Australian. 

There  is  probably  no  country  in  the  wide  world  where  food 
is  more  plentiful  and  easier  to  obtain  than  in  Australia. 
Before  its  occupation  by  white  settlement  the  island  continent 
swarmed  with  marsupials.  While  herbivorous  animals  were 
so  plentiful,  the  carnivora,  on  the  other  hand,  were  a  negligible 
quantity.  Two  or  three  species  of  the  cat  tribe  (which  are 
not  true  felines)  and  a  dog,  which  in  all  likelihood  '  came 
over  '  with  the  conquerors  of  the  indigenes,  were  found.  Be- 
yond these  no  large  or  dangerous  varieties  of  beasts  exist. 
There  was  nothing  in  Nature  or  in  animal  life  to  keep  down 
the  natural  increases  of  herbivorous  animals.  When  we  come 
to  feathered  game,  we  find  that  Australia  is  richer  in  variety 
than  any  other  equal  portion  of  the  globe.  All  species  of  the 
bird  creation  are  edible  to  the  blacks.  Then  the  rivers  and 
streams  are  well  stocked  with  fish,  and  the  same  applies  to  the 
littoral.  The  jungles  and  forests  abound  with  edible  fruits, 
roots,  and  tubers,  while  the  ground  is  thick  with  creatures  of 
the  reptilian  and  insectivorous  orders,  all  of  which  figure 
on  the  aboriginal  menu.  All  this,  taken  together  with  the 
character  of  the  climate,  makes  living  on  a  generous  scale, 
with  the  greatest  variety  of  foods,  to  be  possible  at  the 
irreducible  minimum  of  exertion.  The  influence  of  this 
environment  on  character  hardly   needs  pointing  out. 

Spencer  and  Gillen,  in  their  monumental  work,  The  Native 
Tribes  of  Central  Australia,  depict  the  native  as  a  kindly 
disposed  and  easy-going  individual.  He  is  not  vindictively 
inclined,  nor  is  he  warlike  in  his  tendencies.  This  may  be 
taken  as  a  broad  generalization  of  the  aboriginal,  and  is 
practically  endorsed  by  all  observers  who  have  a  working 
knowledge  of  him.  He  has  not  been  compelled  to  fight  for 
an  existence  or  work  hard  for  a  living;  at  least  not  for 
innumerable  centuries.  There  has  been  no  call  to  labour, 
to  fight,  or  to  invent.     This  arrest  of  development  is  most 


) 


i6o       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

striking.  There  has  been  nothing  in  his  Hfe,  it  would  seem, 
to  quicken  the  sense  of  responsibility,  save  wherein  the  tribal 
rites  and  ceremonies  exhibit  the  sense  of  communal  obligation. 

One  might  be  inclined  to  think  that  a  race  of  people,  living 
practically  under  the  same  conditions  as  those  which  prevailed 
in  the  palaeolithic  age,  would  manifest  what  might  be  regarded 
as  looseness  of  living,  judged  by  our  moral  standards.  Yet 
we  find  that  the  greatest  emphasis  is  laid  upon  sex,  both 
ceremonially  and  socially.  Although  on  certain  ceremonial 
and  social  occasions  a  degree  of  promiscuity  is  allowed,  the 
matrimonial  aspect  of  their  social  organization  is  severe,  and 
carries  with  it  heavy  penalties.  Each  distinct  tribe  is  split 
into  two  phratries  or  brotherhoods,  which  intermarry,  yet 
neither  of  which  may  marry  within  itself.  '  This  fundamental 
law,'  says  Howitt,  '  of  communal  division  underlies  and  runs 
through  all  the  more  developed  systems  of  four  or  eight  sub- 
classes, and  even  shows  traces  of  its  former  existence  in  tribes 
in  which  the  class  system  has  become  decadent  and  the  local 
organization  has  taken  place  and  assumed  control  of  mar- 
riage.' The  whole  question  of  social  and  individual  nomen- 
clature is  complicated.  Both  Spencer  and  Gillen  and  Dr. 
Roth,  labouring  independently  of  one  another,  have  worked 
out  elaborate  tables,  with  a  view  of  making  these  complexities 
intelligible. 

At  the  outset  it  must  be  remembered  that  every  aboriginal 
is  related  or  connected,  in  one  way  or  another,  not  only  with 
all  the  members  of  his  own  tribe,  but  also  with  others,  scores 
of  miles  away  who  may  be  actually  unknown  to  him.  Now, 
in  the  tribal  classes  or  groups  there  is  this  wonderful  organiza- 
tion, comprising  '  three  principles  :  exogamy  (marrying  out), 
lineage,  and  totemism.'  All  these  come  in  when  the  question 
of  marriage  crops  up.  The  old,  loose  idea  of  the  whites  was 
that  when  a  marriageable  buck  wanted  a  wife  he  seized  his 
club  and  bowled  over  the  first  girl  that  took  his  fancy,  and 
bore  her  to  his  gunyah,  his  lawful  prey  by  right  of  capture. 
Such  an  act  would  have  been  no  more  tolerated  by  the  tribes 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE        i6i 

in  their  primaeval  condition  than  it  would  be  in  Hn^^lish  society 
of  the  present  day.  In  most  of  the  tribes  the  penalty  for  such 
an  act  is  death.  The  twofold  tribal  classification,  with  its 
sub-sections,  then,  is  the  foundation  principle  upon  which  the 
structure  of  aboriginal  society  is  raised.  It  is  absolutely 
necessary  to  the  preservation  and  endurance  of  the  race. 

Lineage  is  the  principle  of  reckoning  along  one  or  other 
of  the  two  lines,  the  father's  line  or  the  mother's.  The 
observers  are  all  agreed  that  descent  with  the  Australian 
native  is  reckoned,  with  very  few  exceptions,  along  the 
mother's  line.  Some  few  of  the  central  tribes,  which  count 
descent  in  the  paternal  line,  form  the  exception.  Dr.  Roth 
says  of  the  two  classes  in  the  Pitta-Pitta  tribe  :  '  These  two 
groups  are  exogamous ;  but  the  offspring  follows  the  mother 
always.  Thus,  no  matter  what  its  sex,  the  child  of  an  Ootaroo 
mother  becomes  an  Ootaroo,  while  that  of  a  Pakoota  mother 
becomes  a  Pakoota  '  (Ethnological  Studies).  Mathew,  who 
is  a  keen  observer,  says  that  the  child's  class  was,  as  far  as 
his  observations  went,  invariably  determined  by  the  mother's 
class.  Why  this  should  be  characteristic  of  the  primitive 
tribes  the  world  over,  has  long  been  a  puzzling  question. 
Professor  Lofthouse,  in  his  Ethics  and  the  Family,  says  : 
'  Often,  in  spite  of  the  existence  of  the  marriage  groups,  or 
perhaps  because  of  them,  the  actual  fatherhood  of  a  child 
would  be  dubious.  The  physical  bond  is  undeniably  stronger 
between  the  child  and  mother  than  between  child  and  father. 
These  elements  in  the  social  experience  of  the  tribe  would 
naturally  lead  to  a  matriarchal  rather  than  a  patriarchal 
reckoning  of  descent.' 

It  is  quite  conceivable  that  in  the  primal  days  of  this  race, 
as  of  all  primitives,  life  was  so  '  simple  '  as  to  be  unregulated. 
The  evolution  of  the  marriage  relations,  family  life,  and  sub- 
sequent tribal  organization  may  be  predicated  of  them  on  the 
principle  that  seems  to  run  through  life  in  all  its  forms. 
Advance  is  from  the  simple  to  the  complex ;  from  an  ultimate 
particle  to  a  star  or  a  man.     But  at  the  same  time  it  must 

M 


i62       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

be  remembered  that  there  were  outstanding  men  even  among 
the  most  primitive  peoples.  The  variations  shown  in  the 
various  tribes  are  largely  due  to  men  of  outstanding  person- 
ality, who  not  only  had  initiative,  but  also  strength  of  charac- 
ter to  break  down  a  custom  or  originate  a  new  one.  Professor 
Baldwin  Spencer,  in  his  recent  ethnological  investigations 
into  some  of  the  native  tribes  of  the  Northern  Territory,  made 
the  following  remarks  on  the  question  of  the  classificatory 
systems  :  '  The  contrast  between  him  (a  particular  native)  and 
the  other  old  men  from  whom  I  was  attempting  at  the  same 
time  to  get  information  on  the  organization  of  the  tribes  was 
most  striking,  and  made  me  feel  more  than  ever  convinced 
that  matters  such  as  the  organization  of  the  tribe  into  inter- 
marrying groups  could  very  well  be  the  result  of  the  deliberate 
thinking  out  of  a  scheme  on  the  part  of  certain  members  of 
the  tribe  more  highly  gifted  than  the  common  run.^ 

In  regard  to  marriage  ceremonies  there  was  no  prescribed 
form,  yet  it  was  none  the  less  a  recognized  fact.  In  marrying 
without  consent  or  by  capture,  the  amorous  lover  ran  the  risk 
of  losing  his  wife  or  losing  his  life  in  combat.  Sad  to  say, 
the  mother-in-law  is  viewed  even  more  suspiciously  in  savage 
life  than  she  is  among  cultured  peoples.  Customs  forbade 
the  mother-in-law  and  son-in-law  to  look  at  one  another.  If 
a  man  saw  his  wife's  mother  approaching,  he  instantly  turned 
his  back  upon  her  to  avoid  seeing  her;  one  of  them  would 
invariably  cover  the  head  with  a  skin.  There  are  degrees  of 
social  rank  which  in  many  tribes  are  scrupulously  observed, 
and  from  which  there  is  no  escape.  When  a  child  attains  a 
certain  age  he  (or  she)  undergoes  a  ceremony  which  leaves 
its  marks  upon  the  body.  This  entitles  the  acolyte  to  a 
particular  social  rank  or  status  in  the  tribe.  As  life  pro- 
gresses, other  and  higher  ranks  or  degrees  are  conferred  with 
much  ceremony  and  in  the  strictest  privacy.  The  rites  of 
initiation  vary;  but  all  the  tribes  confer  a  less  or  greater 
number  of  degrees,  most  of  which  are  accompanied  by  mutila- 
tion of  a  part  of  the  body.    Dr.  Roth,  in  his  close  observations 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE       163 

of  the  north-western  tribes  of  (Queensland,  found  four  social 
stages,  some  of  which  could  only  be  taken  after  a  long  interval 
of  years. 

The  Australian  native  is  a  profound  believer  in  the  super- 
normal. This  is  indicated  in  his  use  of  'taboo,'  'totem,'  and 
'  magic'  Every  native  belongs  by  birth  to  a  totem  or  natural 
object.  Individuals  are  grouped  according  to  their  totem. 
In  most  tribes  the  totems  regulate  the  marriages  of  the  tribes; 
there  are  some,  however,  in  which  they  bear  no  such  relation. 
'  The  whole  past  history  of  the  tribe,'  says  Spencer  and  Gillen, 
'  may  be  said  to  be  bound  up  with  the  totemic  ceremonies, 
each  of  which  is  concerned  with  the  doings.of  certain  mythical 
ancestors  who  are  supposed  to  have  lived  in  the  dim  past,  to 
which  the  natives  give  the  name  of  "  Alcheringa."  '  These 
Alcheringa  ancestors  are  represented  as  carrying  about  sacred 
stones.  The  stones  bear  the  name  of  '  Churinga,'  an  equiva- 
lent to  '  Bull-roarer.'  The  theory  is  that  when  the  body  died 
some  natural  object  came  into  existence  to  mark  the  spot 
where  the  decease  was  accomplished.  The  spirit  of  the 
departed  one  was  embodied  in  the  Churinga.  '  It  is  this 
idea  of  spirit  individuals  associated  with  Churinga,  and 
resident  in  certain  definite  spots,  that  lies  at  the  root  of  the 
present  totemic  system  of  the  Arunta  tribe.'  This,  with  con- 
siderable variation  in  some  tribes,  is  common  throughout  the 
race.  The  practices  and  beliefs  in  it  are  more  or  less  religious, 
in  some  cases  assuming  a  sacramental  cast. 

Every  tribe  has  its  '  medicine  man,'  or  magician.  These 
fellows  do  not  confine  themselves  to  healing.  Their 
practices  vary  largely.  They  may  be  '  rain-makers  '  or 
'  mediums.'  Their  magic  may  be  beneficent  or  malevolent. 
Some  of  them  are  bards,  and,  after  the  manner  of  the  classic 
magicians,  compose  love  charms;  or  their  enchantments  may 
be  with  the  object  of  procuring  the  death  of  an  enemy.  A 
common  method  is  '  pointing.'  The  pointer  may  be  a  stick, 
stone,  or  bone,  which  is  imbued  with  power  from  the  magician. 
Pointing  this  instrument  at  his  victim,  uttering  the  while  deep 


i64       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

and  dreadful  curses,  the  evil  magic  is  transmitted  to  this 
person,  who  immediately  begins  to  sicken,  and  ultimately 
dies,  unless  the  evil  effects  be  countervailed  by  some  other 
medicine-man,  through  the  use  of  beneficent  magic.  This 
imposition  is  believed  in,  more  or  less,  by  the  magic-workers. 
With  the  uninitiated  the  belief  is  profound,  and  is  part  and 
parcel  of  their  daily  life,  influencing  the  commonest  acts. 

The  relation  of  magic  to  religion  is  a  most  interesting  one. 
The  Australian  aborigine  furnishes  an  object  lesson,  and  has 
been  so  used  by  investigators  of  this  comparative  study.  Both 
Andrew  Lang  and  |.  G.  Frazer  have  studied  it  largely  in  the 
light  of  the  blackfellow's  beliefs  and  practices.  Frazer  holds 
that  religion  is  the  outcome  of  despair  in  the  efficacy  of 
magic;  and  as  Australians  are  firm  believers  in  magic,  and 
universally  practise  it,  he  comes  to  the  conclusion  that  they 
have  not  attained  to  the  degree  of  culture  which  makes  it 
easy  to  discard  magic  for  religion.  Marett  only  partly  sup- 
ports this  view.  He  places  them  together  as  belonging  to 
the  X  region  of  experience;  the  region  of  mental  twilight. 
'  Magic,'  he  says,  '  includes  all  bad  ways,  and  religion  all 
good  ways,  of  dealing  with  the  super-normal — bad  and  good, 
of  course,  not  as  we  may  happen  to  judge  them,  but  as  the 
society  concerned  judges  them.' 

It  is  extremely  hard  to  draw  the  line  between  magic  and 
religion  in  a  study  of  the  primitive  races.  If  we  accept 
Frazer's  definition,  w^e  must  conclude  that  the  Australian 
native  is  destitute  of  religion.  But  against  that  there  are 
many  evidences  which  prove  the  contrary.  He  must  be 
regarded  as  a  being  with  spiritual  conceptions.  These  con- 
ceptions have  become,  in  course  of  time,  crystallized  in 
customs  and  rites  that  relate  to  the  supernatural  and  are 
symbolic  in  their  character.  His  religious  conceptions,  in 
all  probability,  have  suffered  an  arrest  which  has  caused 
him  in  this  respect  to  remain  at  a  prehistoric  stage.  He  is 
not  destitute  of  religion  in  the  absolute  sense.  Indeed,  he 
is  far  from  that.     For,  however  vague  and  occult,  there  are 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE        165 

abundant  traces  of  the  relifjious  instinct  and  spiritual  con- 
ceptions in  the  totemic  beliefs,  and  in  the  practice  of  witchcraft 
and  ma^ic.  The  blackfellow  has  a  belief  in  the  unseen  and 
eternal.  There  is  to  him  a  spiritual  universe.  There  are 
unseen  '  powers  '  to  be  feared  bee  ause  of  the  influence  they 
are  able  to  exert  over  the  individual. 

In  his  investigations  among  the  Kabi  and  \\\'ikki  people 
Mathew  says:  'These  tribes  possessed  the  elementarv  con- 
tents of  religion.  They  acknowledge  the  existence  of  super- 
natural beings  who  had  power  to  render  assistance  or  to 
inflict  injury.  They  spoke  of  them  with  reverence.  They 
also  believed  in  the  continued  existence  of  the  ngurthura.  or 
"shades,"  of  human  beings  after  death.  These  ngurthura 
could  occasionally  be  seen  with  smiling  faces  as  they  floated 
away  among  the  foliage  at  night,  and  peered  down  upon 
their  quondam  fellow  mortals.  One  of  their  conceptions  was 
that  of  a  great  supernatural  being  who  was  nameless.  He 
was  referred  to  only  with  bated  breath  as  Ngunda,  i.e.  He. 
like  the  "That,"  the  supreme  atman  of  the  Brahmas.  This 
spirit  was  vast  and  wonderful.'  This  belief  is  more  or  less 
held  in  common  by  all  the  tribes.  While  it  is  hardly  possible 
to  find  any  evidences  of  propitiation  in  the  numerous  rites, 
there  are  some  which  might  be  termed  acts  of  conciliation. 

Many  of  the  totemic  ceremonies  indicate  that  the  blacks 
hold  to  the  sacramental  idea  of  life.  The  initiation  ceremonies 
by  which  an  individual  is  admitted  into  the  sacred  secrets  of 
the  tribe  consist  of  a  long  series,  some  of  which  extend  over 
several  months.  It  is  reasonable,  therefore,  to  infer  from  the 
foregoing  statement  of  facts  that  the  blackfellow's  religion 
is  fixed  in  certain  customs,  sacerdotal  in  character,  which 
f)btain  with  variations  throughout  the  race.  These  ritualistic 
and  sacerdotal  rites  represent  their  faith  and  their  hope.  Thev 
visualize  the  unseen.  They  constitute  the  source  of  their 
confidence.  They  are  what  they  fall  back  upon  in  their  hour 
of  need.  To  the  superficial  observer  these  rites  are  for 
(he  most  part  meaningless  and  purely  materialistic.     Their 


i66       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

tendency,  like  all  religious  observances,  is  to  become 
mechanical ;  as,  for  instance,  church-going.  Yet  they  are 
not  all  letter.  There  is  a  spiritual  significance  that  is 
sacramentally   expressed. 

They  have  a  belief  in  the  hereafter,  which  is  firmly  held 
in  connexion  with  the  reincarnation  theory.  In  this  the  blacks 
are  confirmed  Buddhists.  The  spirit  of  the  departed  returns 
to  its  totem-centre,  to  be  reincarnated  at  some  time  in  the 
future  when  the  right  woman  appears.  If  a  woman  con- 
ceives after  having  been  near  one  of  the  totem-centres,  it  is 
because  one  of  these  spirit  individuals  has  entered  her 
body.  The  child,  when  born,  belongs  to  that  particular 
totem.  Spencer  describes  a  large  tree  on  the  Roper  River, 
Northern  Territory,  that  is  full  of  'spirit  children,'  who  are 
always  on  the  look-out  for  the  '  right  lubra.'  In  some  of 
the  tribes  the  sexes  are  believed  to  alternate  at  each  successive 
reincarnation. 

The  Australian  native  is  a  confirmed  believer  in  the  homely 
dictum,  '  All  work  and  no  play  makes  Jack  a  dull  boy.' 
Probably  no  class  of  people  existing  is  more  given  to 
pastime.  He  is  a  merry,  laughter-loving  individual.  He 
is  gifted  with  a  strong  imagination,  which  he  uses  to  good 
purpose  in  his  story  recitals.  Dr.  Roth  has  paid  more 
attention  than  any  other  observer  to  the  recreations  of  the 
natives.  He  found  the  Queensland  tribes  to  be  fertile  in  the 
amusements  employed  to  beguile  the  tedium  of  camp  life. 
Utterly  ignorant  of  the  barest  rudiments  of  literature,  they 
are  at  the  same  time  adepts  in  the  art  of  story-telling.  Highly 
spiced  and  fanciful  stories  many  of  them  are.  The  realism 
of  these  children  of  Nature  would  shock  their  civilized  and 
conventional  brothers.  Their  legends  and  fairy-tales  are 
compounded  of  truth  and  fiction,  which  deal  largely  with  the 
origins  of  things.  The  element  of  mischief  enters  into  many 
of  their  games.  Some  of  them  are  of  a  disputative  character. 
Then  there  are  games  of  skill,  v.hich  are  played  with  their 
weapons  of  warfare.    The  children  have  many  impish  games. 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE        167 

They  are  wonderfully  imitative,  and  love  to  '  take  of!  '  their 
seniors  in  these  mimetic  games. 

The  corrobberie  is  their  best-known  pastime.  It  may  be 
described  as  an  action  song,  and  is  almost  invariably  played 
at  night-time,  for  it  needs  the  firelight  to  give  the  right 
colouring  to  this  fantastic  and  weird  display.  The  bucks 
pride  themselves  on  their  decorations  of  pigments  and 
feathers.  The  lubras  constitute  the  orchestra,  the  music  of 
which  is  runic  in  character.  The  theme  varies.  The  chase, 
love,  war,  marriage,  and  other  things  common  to  their 
domestic  life  are  enacted  in  this  primitive  fashion.  Action 
songs  of  acknowledged  ability  and  interest  travel  round  the 
continent.  This  means  that  the  words,  for  the  most  part,  are 
unintelligible,  for  the  simple  reason  that  there  is  no  common 
language,  the  native  tongue  being  split  into  innumerable 
dialects.  The  only  thing  that  is  common  in  the  way  of 
communication  is  the  gesture  language.  Natives  from  tribes 
far  asunder  are  able  to  converse  by  the  use  of  these  ideagrams. 
Thus  a  corrobberie,  which  is  a  gesture  plav,  will  be  intelligible 
even  when  enacted  in  an  unknown  tongue. 

Nothing  has  been  said  of  the  art  of  the  native  in  his  search 
for  food.  Space  will  not  permit  details  on  this  important  and, 
to  the  native  mind,  supreme  question.  The  men  take  great 
delight  in  hunting,  and  are  superb  trackers  of  game.  Thev 
have  many  ingenious  devices  for  the  capture  of  both  land 
and  water  animals.  The  women  are  adept  in  searching  for 
edible  roots  and  tubers,  and  have  many  ways  of  preparing 
both  flesh  and  vegetables.  Being  a  non-cultivator,  the  native 
is  of  necessity  a  nomad.  He  changes  camp  according  to  the 
condition  of  the  food  supply.  Although  a  nomad,  each  tribe 
has  its  district,  with  defined  boundaries.  This  is  sub-divided 
according  to  the  classes  and  sub-classes  of  the  tribe. 

From  the  beginning  of  white  settlement  attempts  have  been 
made  from  time  to  time  to  civilize  the  blacks  and  bring  them 
under  the  restraints  of  the  Christian  religion.  The  records, 
for  the  most  part,  have  been  those  of  failure.     As  early  as 


i68       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  year  1815  the  Rev.  Samuel  Leigh,  in  his  report  to  the 
British  Methodist  Missionary  Committee  on  the  work  of  the 
Government  Institution  for  native  children,  started  during 
the  previous  year,  said  :  '  If  the  Methodist  Conference  should 
think  it  right  to  send  a  zealous,  holy,  patient,  and  persevering 
missionary,  to  be  devoted  entirely  to  the  native  tribes,  I  have 
no  doubt  but  he  would  be  gladly  received  and  well  supported 
by  the  inhabitants  of  the  colony.' 

It  was  not,  however,  until  1821  that  the  Rev.  William 
Walker  arrived  in  Sydney  for  the  purpose  of  starting  a 
Methodist  Mission  to  the  blacks.  An  institution  was  founded 
in  the  vicinity  of  Parramatta.  This  continued  with  small 
encouragement  until  1824,  when  it  was  abandoned.  A  little 
later  work  was  begun  among  the  tribes  of  the  Wellington 
Valley ;  but,  owing  to  difficulties  connected  with  the  work,  the 
agent  was  withdrawn  and  sent  on  a  tour  of  inspection  to 
Twofold  Bay.  As  the  result  of  his  investigations  and  report, 
negotiations  were  carried  on  between  the  district  secretary 
and  the  Governor  for  a  suitable  grant  of  land.  These,  how- 
ever, ended  in  failure.  Nothing  further  was  done  to  promote 
the  work  until  1836,  when  the  Rev.  Joseph  Orton  visited  Port 
Phillip,  in  company  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Batman,  with  a  view 
of  initiating  further  work  among  the  aborigines.  It  was  not 
until  1840  that  an  earnest,  organized  attempt  was  made.  A 
block  of  land,  64,000  acres  in  extent,  was  appropriated  by  the 
Governor  for  the  use  of  the  mission.  Under  the  zealous 
superintendence  of  Mr.  Tuckfield,  portions  of  the  Scriptures, 
catechism,  and  hymn-book  were  translated  into  the  native 
dialect,  and  considerable  progress  was  made.  Unfortunately, 
however,  this  was  not  maintained,  and  in  1848  the  place  was 
abandoned. 

The  efforts  made  by  other  Churches  to  promote  the  con- 
dition of  the  blacks  do  not  seem  to  have  been  a  whit  better 
in  their  results.  As  the  years  passed,  owing  largely  to  the 
stream  of  immigration  and  the  advance  of  settlement,  the 
religious  denominations  found  their  hands  full  in  supplying 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE        169 

the  spiritual  needs  of  the  settlers.  Spasmodic  attempts  were 
made  from  time  to  time  to  segregate  the  blacks  and  bring 
them  under  the  restraints  of  religion  and  civilization.  The 
Murray  River  and  the  Gippsland  Missions  have  endured  for 
a  number  of  years;  while  in  New  South  Wales  that  '  Grand 
Old  Man,'  the  late  Rev.  J.  M.  Gribble,  began  a  good  work 
among  the  Riverina  natives  in  1879,  and  afterwards  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Cairns,  N.O. 

The  question  is  asked:  'Why  all  this  failure?'  The 
answer  is  not  an  easy  one.  The  native  is  a  nomad,  for  one 
thing.  Then  he  inevitably  follows  the  line  of  least  resist- 
ance regarding  work.  He  has  little  hunger  for  knowledge. 
Worship,  in  the  evangelical  sense,  is  unknown  to  him.  He 
is  keenly  susceptible  to  things  which  stir  the  passions. 
Furtiiermore,  his  language  is  split  up  into  dissimilar  dialects. 
Last,  but  not  least,  is  the  pernicious  example  of  evil-living 
whites.  These  are  some  of  the  things  which  make  the  work 
of  missions  exceptionally  hard. 

With  the  best  of  intentions,  the  older  missions  were  con- 
ducted on  the  wrong  plan.  To  confine  these  free-roving  and 
forest-loving  wild  people  in  barracks  is  fatal.  An  '  institu- 
tion '  could  have  no  attraction  to  the  savage.  This  cage-like 
existence,  with  its  compulsory  drilling  in  catechisms  and  other 
primers,  was  anything  but  a  hcavenlv  condition  to  the  lads 
in  whose  ears  were  the  perpetual  calls  of  the  wild.  Yet  this 
dwindling  race  is  amenable  to  Christian  influences.  Their 
primitive  beliefs  in  the  unseen  world  of  spirits  should  dispose 
them  to  receive  the  sublime  mysteries  of  the  Christian  faith. 
But  to  do  effectual  work  they  must  be  gathered  into  com- 
munities in  suitable  locations,  and  placed  under  the  gentle 
yet  firm  control  of  suitable  agents;  men  who,  as  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Brisbane  recently  said  at  the  Church  Congress, 
had,  in  addition  to  spiritual  enlightenment,  '  a  knowledge 
of  agriculture  and  mechanics.' 

Good  work  is  being  done  among  the  remnants  of  the  blacks 
in  the  mother  State  by  an  evangelistic  agency  called  '  The 


I70       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

New  South  Wales  Aborigines'  Mission ;  '  and  a  similar 
society  is  carrying  on  work  in  West  Australia;  but  the  best 
and  most  effectual  work  is  that  which  is  being  done  in  Queens- 
land. There  are  two  classes  of  this  work :  that  carried  on 
exclusively  by  the  Government,  and  that  carried  on  at  the 
several  mission  stations.  At  Taroon,  Barrambah,  and  the 
Torres  Strait  Islands  industrial  work  of  a  fairly  satisfactory 
nature  is  done  under  direct  Government  supervision.  The 
weakness  of  these  settlements  is  the  lack  of  religious  teaching. 
When  appearing  before  the  *  South  Australian  Aboriginals' 
Commission,'  which  took  evidence  in  Brisbane  in  July  1913 
on  the  condition  of  the  work  among  the  aborigines  of 
Queensland,  several  gentlemen  who  had  expert  knowledge 
gave  valuable  information.  Mr.  J.  H.  Stanley,  secretary  to 
the  Yarrabah  Mission  Committee,  said :  *  The  Yarrabah 
Mission,  under  the  Anglican  Church,  possessed  an  area  of 
130,000  acres  of  land.  This  area  was  splendidly  situated, 
being  surrounded  on  three  sides  by  the  sea,  and  on  the  fourth 
by  a  line  of  rugged  hills.  The  mission  desires  that  the  natives 
should  live  a  perfectly  natural  and  happy  life  under  the  best 
conditions.  A  settlement  has  been  created  as  a  centre,  and 
a  line  of  villages  was  formed.  The  Mission  had  allowed  the 
natives  to  choose  their  own  companions,  and  live  under  their 
own  king,  and  have  their  own  native  courts.  .  .  .  They  had 
their  own  farms  .  .  .  and  contributed  5  per  cent,  of  the 
produce  of  the  farms  to  the  support  of  the  mission.' 
Presbyterian  and  Moravian  mission  settlements  are  being 
administered  on  similar  lines  to  that  of  Yarrabah. 

The  annual  report  of  the  Chief  Protector  of  Aboriginals 
for  191 2  contains  the  following  statement  from  the  Rev.  N. 
Hey,  superintendent  of  the  Mapoon  Mission  :  *  The  number 
of  natives  living  in  houses  on  the  Mapoon  settlement  is  240. 
.  .  .  Besides  these  there  are  about  150  more  who  visit  the 
station  at  intervals  to  obtain  food,  medicine,  and  other  benefits, 
but  who  are  not  domesticated.  .  .  .  The  general  conduct  and 
behaviour  of  the  inmates,  both  juvenile  and  adult,  was  excel- 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE       171 

lent;  only  a  few  minor  cases  were  brought  before  the  native 
court,  and  these  were  satisfactorily  settled.  .  .  .  The  ^rea{ 
feature  of  the  Mapoon  Mission  is  the  native  farms  some  miles 
distant  from  the  head  station,  and  it  is  my  firm  conviction 
that  there  lies  the  ultimate  solution  of  the  aborijj^inal  proliiem, 
provided  the  mission  is  allowed  to  work  out  this  new  vista 
of  happiness  for  the  aboriginal  without  being  hindered  by 
outside  influences.  Fifteen  little  homesteads  have  already 
been  established,  and  they  arc  growing  at  about  the  rate  of 
three  a  year.*  These  mission  natives  are  all,  more  or  less, 
under  religious  influences. 

In  his  evidence  before  the  Aboriginals'  Commission 
already  referred  to,  the  Hon.  J.  G.  Appel  (Home  Secretary, 
Queensland  Government)  gave  interesting  items  in  relation 
to  the  control  of  the  natives  in  Queensland  :  '  The  aboriginals 
were  always  dealt  with  on  aboriginal  reserves.  These  con- 
sisted of  Government  settlements  controlled  by  the  depart- 
ment, areas  vested  in  religious  missions,  and  schools  where 
the  schoolmaster  acted  as  superintendent.  .  .  .  There  was  no 
conflict  between  the  Government  and  the  mission  authorities 
in  regard  to  methods.  He  confessed  that  up  to  a  certain  point 
the  missions'  policy  was  the  best.  At  Barrambah  and  Taroom 
the  Government  was  dealing  with  an  old  settled  district,  where 
the  natives  had  long  been  accustomed  to  hang  about  the 
towns,  certainly  not  for  their  betterment;  and  it  would  be 
impossible  to  keep  these  men  on  the  reserves.  Within  the 
mission  stations,  which  \vere  mostly  in  the  north,  conditions 
were  entirely  different.  There  the  aboriginals  were  in  their 
original  state.  The  mission  stations  took  the  aboriginals  and 
trained  them  up  to  the  point  at  which  the  Government  began. 
It  was  by  means  of  the  religious  instruction  given  on  the 
mission  stations  that  the  aboriginals  could  be  controlled.  The 
aboriginals  took  the  keenest  interest  in  the  religious  services, 
and  they  considered  it  to  be  one  of  the  greatest  punishments 
they  could  receive  to  be  disallowed  to  attend  any  of  the 
services'  (Brisbane  Courier,  July  4,  1913). 


172       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

It  is  significant,  and  no  less  sad,  after  accounting  for  all 
the  religious  agencies  at  work  among  the  natives,  to  find  that 
the  great  bulk  of  the  people  are  untouched.  The  total  native 
population  of  the  Commonwealth  is  a  little  under  90,000.  Of 
this  number  not  a  tenth  is  being  reached  by  the  Churches. 
The  Methodist  Church  of  Australia  is  not  represented  by  any 
agent  in  this  work.  Her  interest  in  the  aborigines  would 
appear  to  have  evaporated,  through  her  failure  during  the  first 
half  of  the  nineteenth  century.  While  her  zeal,  enterprise, 
and  daring  in  missioning  the  island  groups  of  the  Pacific  are 
beyond  all  praise,  and  constitute  her  chief  glory,  it  is  her 
reproach  that  she  has  not  cast  a  pitying  eye  nor  stretched  a 
helping  hand  towards  the.  poor  Australian  heathen.  A  mis- 
sionary Church  such  as  she  professes  to  be  and  undoubtedly 
is  will  not  atone  for  this  inexcusable  neglect,  save  by  seizing 
the  opportunities  now  offering,  and  taking  up  the  work  on 
approved  modern  lines.  Many  hearts  have  been  troubled 
over  this  neglect  during  the  past  few  years.  It  is  now 
regarded  as  a  matter  of  urgency  by  all  the  leading  denomina- 
tions, especially  in  connexion  with  the  Northern  Territory, 
where  the  tribes  are  still,  for  the  most  part,  in  their  primaeval 
condition. 

An  '  Interdenominational  Committee,'  sitting  in  Victoria 
recently,  mapped  out  the  territory,  giving  a  sphere  of 
operations  to  each  principal  denomination.  The  division  is 
recognized  by  all  as  a  fair  one.  The  Methodist  Church,  which 
has  for  years  been  ministering  to  the  white  population  at 
Port  Darwin,  and  along  the  railway  line  to  its  terminal  point 
at  Pine  Creek  in  the  interior,  has  received  for  its  sphere  a 
strip  of  country  100  miles  wide,  stretching  from  the  north 
coast  to  the  southern  boundary,  and  embracing  the  area  where 
it  is  at  present  working.  This  area  contains  many  tribes, 
who  are  for  the  most  part  in  their  original  state.  Both  the 
late  Prime  Minister,  the  Rt.  Hon.  Andrew  Fisher,  and  the 
present  Prime  Minister,  the  Rt.  Hon.  Joseph  Cook,  have 
expressed  themselves  sympathetically  towards  this  movement 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    ABORIGINE        173 

of  the  Churches.  Those  lakinf^  up  this  work  may  reckon  on 
the  practical  assistance  of  the  Commonweahh  Government, 
whichever  party  is  in  power,  if  they  are  wilHng  to  proceed  on 
approved  Hnes.  At  the  General  Conference  it  was  unani- 
mously resolved  to  '  accept  the  proposed  sphere  of  such 
mission  as  suggested  by  the  Interdenominational  Committee 
in  Victoria,'  The  Conference  also  authorized  the  Board  of 
Missions  'to  make  a  special  appeal  for  the  funds  necessary 
to  establish  and  carry  out  the  proposed  mission  among  the 
aborigines.' 

The  work  of  evangelizing  the  tribes  will  never  succeed 
along  the  old  lines.  The  greatest  wisdom,  care,  experience, 
and  tact,  with  infinite  patience,  must  characterize  the  work  if 
we  are  to  succeed.  The  people  will  not  be  dragooned;  but 
they  may  be  led.  They  cannot  be  Anglicized;  they  assuredly 
can  be  Christianized.  They  must  be  allowed  large  liberty 
within  their  reserves,  and  the  retention  of  all  their  customs 
that  are  not  degrading  or  superstitious.  Never  having 
worked,  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  term,  they  will  have  to 
be  taught  the  holiness  of  labour.  They  have  a  capacity  for 
spiritual  discernment,  and  readily  assimilate  the  simple 
elements  of  Christ's  teaching.  They  are  not,  and  never  have 
been,  cannibals  in  the  ordinary  sense.  Their  occasional 
eating  of  human  flesh  has  to  them  a  sacramental  aspect. 
Their  idea  is  that  they  become  possessed  of  the  virtues  of 
the  deceased  friend  whose  flesh  they  have  eaten.  They  are, 
bv  their  primitive  beliefs,  predisposed  to  receive  with  meek- 
ness the  engrafted  Word  that  is  able  to  save  their  souls.  The 
applied  benign  and  elevating  principles  of  Christianity  are 
able  to  save  our  aboriginal  brother  to  the  uttermost. 


CHAPTER    III 
THE   INDIAN    IN   FIJI 

By   CYRIL    BAVIN 

Indian  Mission,  Fiji  :  sometime  resident  in  India 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

An  intruder — Indenture  system — Origin — Terms — Housing — Women — 
Remedies — Free  Indians — Increase — Relation  with  Fijians — Suc- 
cess— Love  of  law-courts — Hanging — East  and  west — Loss  of 
religion — Caste — Methodist  Mission — Miss  Dudley — Converts — 
Evangelism — Women — Education — Opportunity — Medical  work — 
Criticism. 


cmaptI':r  III 

TllK    INDIAN    IN    FIJI 

The  advent  of  the  Indian  in  Fiji  marks  a  new  and  important 
era  in  the  history  of  the  Pacific.  He  comes  as  a  representative 
of  one  of  the  oldest  world  civilizations,  and  thrusts  himself 
upon  the  arena  of  South  Sea  Island  affairs,  social,  com- 
mercial, and  religious,  as  a  force  with  which  we  have  to 
reckon.  It  has  been  frequently  said  that  the  sternest  problem 
facing  the  Christian  Church  of  Australasia,  in  regard  to  this 
influx  of  heathenism  into  Christian  Fiji,  is  :  '  How  shall  we 
preserve  the  Christian  Fijian  from  the  contaminating  influence 
of  this  cynical  heathen  ?  '  We  say  it  is  rather  :  '  How  shall 
we  persuade  these  benighted  children  of  the  All-Father  to 
follow  Him  whose  Spirit  has  wrought  such  a  miraculous 
change  in  the  life  and  character  of  what  was  once  the  most 
degraded  and  cannibalistic  race  of  men  upon  the  face  of  the 
earth?'  In  order  that  this  problem  may  be  better  under- 
stood, this  article  will  first  give  an  account  of  the  conditions 
of  life  and  work  under  which  the  Indians  of  Fiji  live; 
secondly,  a  brief  resume  of  the  work  already  done  by  the 
Methodist  Missionary  Society  of  Australasia;  and  lastly, 
indicate  what  has  yet  to  be  done  if  the  Methodist  Church  is 
lo  remain  faithful  to  its  great  mission  in  the  Pacific. 

Of  the  total  number  of  Indians  who  have  immigrated  into 
Fiji  during  the  past  thirty-three  years,  at  least  99  per  cent, 
have  come  under  what  is  known  as  the  indenture  system.  This 
is  an  agreement  to  serve  as  labourers  for  five  years  upon 
various  plantations;  and  as  this  period  has  a  marked  etTect 
upon  the  Indian's  character  and  subsequent  life  as  a  '  free  ' 
Indian,  it  is  advisable  lo  set  fortii  tlit-  nature  of  this  system. 
N  177 


178       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Early  in  the  history  of  Fiji  as  a  British  colony  it  was  found 
that   the  supply   of   unskilled   agricultural    labour   was   both 
inadequate  and  precarious.    Consequently,  the  ever-energetic 
European  planter  turned  his  eyes  towards  the  seething  millions 
of  semi-starved  India,  from  whence  had  been  drawn  the  hardy 
sons  of  toil  who  had  built  up  the  prosperity  of  many  another 
British  Crown  colony.     The  native  Fijian  would  not  work; 
he  did  not  need  to  work.     The  conditions  of  his  existence 
called  for  no  strenuous  struggle  to  wring  from  a  bounteous 
Nature  the  bare  necessities  of  his  simple  life.    Sustained  work 
of  any  kind  is  repugnant  to  this  easy-going,  insouciant  child 
of  Nature.    Other  South  Sea  Islanders  were  available  in  such 
limited  numbers  that  it  was  impossible  to  look  to  them  for  a 
supply  of  the  labourers  demanded.     Hence  it  came  to  pass 
that  the  Governor,  Sir  Arthur  Gordon,   made  arrangements 
with  the  Home  and  Indian  Governments  for  the  introduction 
of  labour  from  India.     The  correspondence  which  took  place 
between   the   Government   of   India  and  the   Government  of 
Fiji  at  that  time  makes  interesting  reading.     One  argument 
used  by  the  latter  in  favour  of   Fiji  as  a  suitable  field  for 
Indian  immigrant  labour  was  as  follows  :    '  The  immigrant 
on  his  arrival  there  will  not,  as  some  may  suppose,  find  him- 
self thrown  among  savages ;  for,  owing  to  the  labours  of  the 
Wesleyan  missionaries  who  settled  there  some  forty  or  fifty 
years  ago,   schools  have  been   established   in  nearly  all  the 
native  towns  on  the  coast,  and  at  least  half  of  the  young  men 
and  women  of  the  coast  tribes  can  read  and  write  their  own 
language.' 

Eventually,  the  Leonidas,  the  first  immigrant  ship,  arrived 
at  Levuka  on  May  14,  1879,  with  463  souls  on  board. 
These  were  distributed  among  various  employers,  although 
the  present  system  of  indenture  did  not  come  into  vogue  until 
the  passing  of  Ordinance  No.  13  of  1882.  Since  that  date 
some  55,000  Indians  have  been  introduced  under  the  five 
years'  indenture  system,  and  they  continue  to  arrive  in  the 
colony  at  the  rate  of  about  3,000  per  annum. 


THE    INDIAN    IN    FIJI  179 

As  in  other  Crown  colonies,  so  in  Fiji,  these  industrious 
and  frugal  people  have  built  up  the  prosperity  of  the  country. 
In  the  opinion  of  those  best  fitted  to  judge,  a  withdrawal  of 
the  Indian  from  Fiji  would  spell  ruin  to  the  planting  industry 
and  the  country  generally.  The  greatest  care  is  therefore 
taken  to  guard  their  interests.  In  framing  laws  to  regulate 
recruiting  in  India,  the  transport  to  Fiji,  the  life  and  employ- 
ment while  there,  and  the  return  to  their  native  land  if  they 
desire,  the  Government  had  the  benefit  of  the  experience 
gained  in  the  West  Indies  and  Mauritius.  It  has  therefore 
been  able  to  avoid  many  of  the  errors  and  abuses  which  at 
first  accompanied  the  establishment  of  the  system  of  Indian 
indentured  immigration  to  those  colonies.  Briefly,  the 
system  is  carried  out  as  follows.  The  recruiting  is  done  by 
accredited  agents  of  the  Fiji  Government,  regulated  and 
supervised  by  European  and  native  officials  of  the  Indian 
Government.  The  cost  of  introduction  is  about  /,i6,  which 
includes  the  cost  of  recruiting,  return  fares  to  Fiji,  and  sundry 
expenses  incurred  in  landing  the  labourers  on  the  estates  to 
which  they  have  been  allotted.  On  arrival  in  the  colony  all 
immigrants  are  subjected  to  careful  medical  examination  by  a 
Government  medical  officer.  Any  '  unfit '  are  rejected  and 
returned  to  India.  The  '  fit  '  are  then  allotted  to  the  different 
planters  requiring  them,  or  to  the  various  sugar-mills. 

The  housing  and  general  treatment  of  the  Indian  under 
indenture  are  closely  and  efficiently  watched  in  the  interests 
of  the  immigrant,  watched  perhaps  more  carefully  than  the 
recruiting  system  in  India.  The  head  of  the  Immigration 
Department  in  Fiji  is  styled  the  Agent-General  of  Immigra- 
tion. In  order  that  he  may  be  in  a  position  adequately  to 
protect  and  represent  the  interests,  political,  social,  and  com- 
mercial, of  all  Indians  in  the  colony,  he  is  given  a  seat  in 
the  Legislative  and  Executive  Councils  of  the  Government. 
We  wish  that  we  could  add  '  religious  '  to  the  category  given 
above.  Resident  inspectors  are  stationed  in  all  the  large 
centres  of  employment  to  protect  the  welfare  of  the  Indian, 


i8o       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

having  power  and  authority  at  any  time  to  avail  themselves 
of  the  assistance  of  the  police  and  the  law  courts  if  necessary. 
The  result  of  this  close  supervision  is  that  abuses  are  com- 
paratively rare.  While  there  have  been  some  unfortunate 
instances  of  overseers  being  guilty  of  gross  breaches  of  the 
law  in  their  treatment  of  the  labour  committed  to  their 
care,  it  may  be  confidently  stated  that  such  occurrences  are 
becoming  rarer  every  year.  The  planter  of  to-day  has 
come  to  see  that  by  treating  his  labour  with  care  and  con- 
sideration he  materially  furthers,  not  only  their  interests, 
but  his  own,  for  both  are  coincident.  The  influence  and  work 
of  the  Methodist  Mission  is  one  factor  in  bringing  about  this 
result. 

The  cost  of  housing,  sanitation,  and  medical  attention  is 
borne  by  the  employer ;  but  the  standards  are  prescribed  by 
the  Governments  of  India  and  Fiji.  These  standards  are 
immeasurably  higher  than  those  under  which  the  masses  of 
India  live  and  multiply ;  in  fact,  they  compare  most  favourably 
with  those  obtaining  in  the  poorer  districts  of  many  civilized 
countries.  That  all  these  measures  on  behalf  of  the  inden- 
tured Indian  are,  generally  speaking,  effective,  the  vital 
statistics  amply  prove.  The  normal  death-rates  in  India, 
according  to  the  latest  Blue-books,  are  :  Bombay  50,  Madras 
35,  Calcutta  28  per  1,000  inhabitants.  The  mortality  rate  in 
Fiji  amongst  the  indentured  Indians  is  shown  by  the  report 
of  the  Agent-General  of  Immigration  for  1912  to  have  been 
22" I  per  mille.  The  corresponding  figure  for  these  immi- 
grants in  the  West  Indies  is  approximately  40,  while  that  of 
British  Guiana  is  28"8  per  mille.  These  figures  tell  their  own 
tale. 

Work  on  the  plantation  is  either  by  '  task  '  or  '  time,'  better 
known  beyond  the  tropics  as  '  piece  '  and  '  day  '  work.  The 
ordinary  rate  of  wages  for  men  is  one  shilling  per  day;  for 
women  ninepence  for  three-quarters  of  the  same  amount  of 
work.  A  '  task  '  is  specifically  laid  down  as  '  that  amount  of 
work  which  an  ordinary  experienced  workman  can  perform 


THE    INDIAN    IN    FIJI  i8i 

during  six  hours  continuous  work.'  New  arrivals  in  the 
colony  are  considered  '  inexperienced,'  and  are  entitled  to  full 
pay  for  a  smaller  task  than  that  given  to  '  experienced  ' 
workers.  Day  work  consists  of  nine  hours  daily  (Monday  to 
Friday  inclusive)  and  five  hours  on  Saturdav.  The  average 
number  daily  at  work  under  indenture  during  1912  was  8,500 
men  and  2,930  women.  The  average  daily  earnings  of  the 
former  were  I3'32  pence,  and  of  the  latter  8*36  pence.  The 
earnings  of  the  women  are  affected  by  the  cares  of  mother- 
hood ;  but  it  will  be  noticed  that  those  of  the  men  are  11  per 
cent,  in  excess  of  the  normal  legal  wage. 

The  life  of  the  '  lines  '  (the  name  given  to  the  dwellings 
of  indentured  Indians)  is  far  from  satisfactory  from  our  view- 
point; but  it  compares  very  favourably  with  the  life  of  those 
industrial  centres  in  the  home  lands  where  working  classes 
are  crowded  together  in  dingy  tenements.  It  is  a  matter  for 
surprise  and  thankfulness  that  the  life  of  the  '  lines  '  is  not 
worse,  considering  the  undue  proportion  of  India's  criminal 
classes  who  emigrate  to  Fiji.  Unfortunately,  99  per  cent, 
of  the  serious  crimes  in  Fiji  are  committed  by  Indians, 
and  the  law  courts  of  the  colony  are  kept  busy  on  their 
account.  Murder,  assault,  rape,  robbery,  and  forgery  are 
chief  amongst  the  list  of  so-called  '  serious  crimes.'  Offences 
against  indenture  laws  are  not  reckoned  in  this  categorv. 
The  latter  have  greatly  diminished  both  in  number  and 
degree  during  late  years.  Ten  years  ago  informations  were 
laid  in  respect  of  26  per  cent,  of  the  adult  indentured  popula- 
tion, as  against  9J  per  cent,  in  191 2,  and  many  of  the  latter 
w^ere  merely  for  breaches  of  the  sanitary  laws. 

It  has  been  strongly  argued  by  those  who  are  averse  to  the 
indenture  system,  that  the  frequency  and  brutality  of  murders 
of  women  by  their  husbands  or  paramours  are  due  to  the 
numerical  inequalitv  of  men  and  women  brought  out  from 
India.  Only  forty  women  accompany  every  100  men,  and 
the  scarcity  of  women  certainly  is  at  the  root  of  a  great  deal 
of  trouble  and  crime.     It  should  be  remembered,   however, 


i82       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

that  the  murder  of  an  unfaithful  wife  by  her  husband  is  con- 
doned by  Indians.  This  national  trait,  coupled  with  the  fact 
that  the  class  of  Indian  women  emigrating  to  Fiji  is  of  low 
character,  is  responsible  for  the  comparatively  high  rate  of 
capital  crime.  The  report  of  the  Committee  appointed  in 
1909  by  the  British  Government  to  inquire  into  emigration 
from  India  to  the  Crown  colonies,  shows  conclusively  that 
the  majority  of  women  emigrating  under  indenture  are  pro- 
fessional prostitutes;  and  the  experience  of  Fiji,  extending 
over  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century,  fully  corroborates  that 
finding.  The  remedy  is  plain,  but  almost  impossible  to 
effect.  If  a  better  class  of  women  could  be  induced  to 
emigrate,  the  condition  of  things  would  vastly  improve.  But 
no  better  class  would  emigrate  as  single  women ;  hence  the 
difficulty.  Some  have  argued  that  the  remedy  is  to  introduce 
an  equal  number  of  women  and  men ;  but  it  is  worth  con- 
sidering whether  to  increase  the  proportion  of  the  class  of 
women  now  coming  to  Fiji  by  60  per  cent,  would  not  be  to 
increase  the  number  of  murders  and  cognate  crimes  in  the 
colony  due  or  traceable  to  the  low  character  of  these  women. 
Preferable  by  far  would  it  be  to  insist  upon  a  better  class  of 
men,  accompanied  by  their  wives,  even  though  it  meant  a 
slight  increase  in  the  rate  of  wages. 

Perhaps  another  remedy  for  the  evils  existing  under  this 
head  lies  in  the  abolition  of  compulsory  work  for  married 
female  immigrants  who  have  children,  and  who  are  accom- 
panied by  their  husbands.  Such  a  proposal  would  not  only 
meet  with  the  approval  of  the  Government  and  the  mission- 
aries working  amongst  these  people,  but  would  be  favoured 
by  every  planter  who  has  the  welfare  of  his  indentured  labour 
at  heart.  The  planters  generally  recognize  that  in  nine  cases 
out  of  ten  the  troubles  which  arise  on  their  estates  have  as 
their  primary  cause  the  scarcity  of  women ;  and  they  are 
reasonable  enough  to  welcome  any  sane  proposition  which 
has  for  its  object  the  amelioration  of  the  indentured  woman's 
lot  in  life. 


THE    INDIAN     IN    FIJI  183 

Much  lias  been  said  antl  written  with  rej]^arcl  to  the  merits 
and  demerits  of  this  indenture  system.  Objection  has  been 
taken  by  orators  and  scribes  iiolding  '  White  Australia  ' 
views,  and  by  pererj^rinatinf^  South  Sea  Island  tourists,  pro- 
fessedly because  of  its  abuses;  but  if  their  underlvinf]^  feelings 
be  discovered,  it  may  be  found  that  it  is  because  they  regard 
the  presence  of  the  Indian  in  Fiji  as  a  menace  to  Australia. 
No  system  of  the  kind  can  be  perfect,  especially  where 
white  and  black  races,  with  their  widely  divergent  ethical 
codes,  come  into  such  close  contact ;  but  it  is  beyond  dispute 
that  the  system  does  more  good  than  harm  to  the  class  of 
Indians  who  have  emigrated  to  Fiji.  Abuses  there  have 
been,  but  they  are  yearly  becoming  less;  and  the  conditions 
of  life  and  work  amongst  this  section  of  the  Hindustani 
population  of  Fiji  are  steadily  being  improved,  as  the 
statistics  of  the  Immigration  Department  clearly  show.  As 
the  result  of  his  five  years'  training,  the  Indian  invariably 
improves  mentally,  physically,  and  morally.  He  is  trained 
usually  by  experts  how  best  to  apply  his  strength  in  carrying 
out  modern  methods  of  agriculture,  to  observe  the  laws  of 
sanitation,  to  care  for  his  children,  and  generally  to  become 
a  useful  member  of  society. 

Nevertheless,  the  system  is  not  without  its  faults.  It  does 
not  provide  for  the  education  of  the  children.  Employers 
provide  nurses  and  nurseries  for  the  infants,  but  the  older 
children  are  allowed  to  run  wild  in  the  '  lines.'  This  is  a 
disgrace,  and  constitutes  the  greatest  blot  upon  the  system. 
One  or  two  employers  have  recognized  this,  and  are  making 
efforts  to  educate  their  children ;  but  as  a  general  thing, 
nothing  is  being  done  either  by  Government  or  employers 
to  remedy  this  evil.  It  is  a  memorable  day  in  the  Indian's  life 
when  he  receives  his  free  paper.  He  is  now  at  liberty  to  go 
where  he  pleases,  engage  in  what  work  he  prefers,  or  return 
to  India  if  able  to  pay  his  passage  of  ^,'5.  If  he  remain  in  the 
country  for  another  five  years,  he  is  given  a  free  passage 
home.     By  far  the  larger  majority  elect  to  remain,  and  settle 


Fijians. 

Indians. 

114,748 

. 

S88 

105,800 

. 

7,468 

94.397 

. 

17,105 

87,000 

40,286 

87,000 

(about)    . 

50,748 

184       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

on  selected  blocks  of  land,  or  engage  in  their  ancestral  trade 
or  occupation. 

The  term  '  free  Indian  '  is  loosely  employed  to  denote  all 
Indians  not  under  indenture.  The  1912  Report  gives  the 
estimated  'free'  population  as  32,482.  Of  these,  12,801  are 
returned  as  *  Fiji-born  ' ;  so  that  we  have  a  little  India  growing 
up  whose  native  land  is  Fiji,  and  who  have  no  desire  to  leave. 
A  glance  at  the  statistics  will  convince  the  reader  that  within 
a  few  decades  Fiji  will  belong  to  the  Indian.  The  census 
returns  for  the  past  thirty  years  are  as  follows  : 

Year. 
1881 
1891 
1901 
191 1 
1913 

With  such  figures  before  us  it  takes  little  to  convince  the 
reader  that  in  another  thirty  years  we  shall  have  a  quarter  of 
a  million  Indians  in  Fiji.  What  will  this  mean  to  Australia? 
What  will  it  mean  to  the  Church  if  it  does  not  bestir  itself  ? 

Having  passed  through  his  term  of  apprenticeship,  this 
keen-witted  child  of  the  East  sets  to  work  to  '  use  '  the  good- 
natured,  lazy  kai  Viti  for  his  own  subtle  ends.  There  was  a 
time  when  he  looked  upon  the  Fijian  as  an  ignorant  dweller 
in  the  jungle;  hence  arose  the  term  Jangli,  commonly  applied 
by  Indians  to  Fijians.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Fijian  scorn- 
fully tolerated  the  miserably  weedy  kai  Idia  (Indian)  as  being 
an  object  of  his  sport,  albeit  a  remunerative  tenant  of  his 
lands.  This  has  all  passed  away  during  recent  years,  and 
mutual  respect  is  daily  increasing.  The  Fijian  is  beginning 
to  recognize  in  the  Indian  a  desirable  settler,  and  sometimes 
favours  him  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  European.  The 
Indian,  on  the  other  hand,  has  learned  that  it  is  to  his  advan- 
tage to  respect  the  Fijian,  and  frequently  avails  himself  of 
the  native's  hospitality,  and  whatever  else  he  can  get  out  of 
him. 


THE    INDIAN     IN    FIJI  185 

To  ensure  bona  fide  settlement,  and  to  prevent  rack-renting 
and  the  exploitation  of  his  poorer  and  less  sophisticated 
brother,  the  Government  has  enacted  that  no  Indian  may 
hold  more  than  5  acres  of  leasehold  land.  The  more  enter- 
prising, who  fain  would  become  zamindars  (landlords)  if 
they  could,  bitterly  complain  of  this;  but  the  Government 
has  thought  it  advisable  to  hold  them  in  check,  and  thereby 
encourage  closer  settlement.  This  constitutes  one  of  the  two 
great  grievances  which  the  Indian  settler  in  Fiji  has  against 
the  administration.  The  other  is  in  regard  to  the  Indian 
marriage  laws,  concerning  which  the  colony  has  lately 
taken  to  itself  an  unenviable  notoriety.  The  Indian  considers 
that  in  these  two  matters  he  is  the  subject  of  class  legislation, 
a  veritable  bete  noire  in  his  eyes. 

Having  secured  his  little  plot  of  land,  he  commences  in 
earnest  to  make  money.  Thrifty  almost  to  the  extent  of 
counting  out  the  number  of  grains  of  rice  allowed  for  the 
two  meals  a  day  on  which  he  subsists,  he  sets  to  work  build- 
ing a  little  bush  humpy.  In  this  he  and  his  wife  (if  he  has 
been  fortunate  enough  during  his  indenture  to  save  sufficient 
to  buy  one)  make  their  home  until  such  time  as  he  can  afford 
a  more  luxuriant  abode  of  old  corrugated  iron  and  rough 
timber.  He  sows  his  seed-bed  of  rice,  or  plants  his  little 
farm  with  sugar-cane,  corn,  or  bananas.  In  twelve  months 
he  has  a  crop,  the  proceeds  of  which  he  invests  in  a  cow,  or 
perhaps  two;  and  so  he  prospers,  until,  when  his  five  years 
have  come  to  an  end,  he  has  lost  all  desire  to  return  to  the 
land  he  left  ten  years  before.  Has  he  not  broken  his  caste? 
Is  not  his  mother  dead  ?  And  have  not  his  friends  forgotten 
him?  It  is  useless  going  now;  and  thus  Fiji  becomes  the 
land  of  his  adoption.  He  soon  forgets  to  call  it  pardes 
(foreign  land). 

All  over  Fiji  settlements  of  this  type  of  Indian  are  spring- 
ing up,  antl  they  are  picking  out  the  eyes  of  the  land.  Of 
the  total  '  free  '  Indian  population,  according  to  the  last 
census   returns,    over  40  per  cent,  are  returned   as   planters 


i86       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

and  husbandmen,  while  i6  per  cent,  are  domestic  servants, 
8  per  cent,  are  engaged  in  industrial  occupations,  3  per  cent. 
in  commercial ;  the  balance  are  mostly  children  returned  as 
not  employed.  Under  the  heading  of  '  Industrial  Occupa- 
tions, &c.,  of  Free  Indians,'  the  191 2  Report  reveals  the  fact 
that  over  2,000  licences  were  issued  that  year  to  Indian  store- 
keepers and  hawkers.  Almost  every  Fijian  village  has  its 
Indian  store.  Think  what  this  means  when  the  simple  Fijian 
villager  gets  into  debt  to  this  wily  trader,  and  what  evils 
eventuate  when  he  feels  the  sinewy  squeeze  of  this  avaricious 
and  persistent  dunner  ! 

While  all  that  is  said  of  the  industry  and  keen-wittedness 
of  the  Indian  is  true,  yet  among  the  '  free  '  population  it  is 
rather  by  the  latter  characteristic  than  the  former  that  they 
succeed.  The  fertility  of  the  soil,  the  ability  to  live  cheaply, 
and  the  congenial  climate,  all  conspire  to  make  the  '  free  ' 
Indian  a  much  more  easy-going  individual  than  his  prototype 
in  India.  He  is  not  so  conspicuous  as  the  Chinaman  for 
great  personal  exertion ;  and  while  land  is  easily  obtainable, 
and  the  labour  market  is  so  limited,  he  will  continue  to  live 
the  free-and-easy  life  which  is  his  wont.  Holiday-making, 
promiscuous  visiting,  eagerness  to  sit  and  gossip,  petty 
squabbling — all  these  are  becoming  pronounced  evils  in  the 
life  of  the  '  free  '  Indian.  But  they  will  disappear  with  the 
increase  of  population ;  when  he  finds  it  harder  to  live  and 
increasingly  difficult  to  find  work  or  land. 

The  Indian  is  essentially  litigious;  he  loves  the  law  courts. 
He  will  spent  his  last  farthing  on  a  useless  lawsuit  from 
which  he  cannot  possibly  gain  as  much  as  he  is  willing  to 
pay  the  solicitor  who  pleads  for  him.  He  glories  in  the 
notoriety,  and  it  provides  him  with  abundant  material  with 
which  to  entertain  his  friends.  He  will  spend  whole  days  in 
the  court  hearing  lawyers  wrangling  over  'points  of  law,' 
and  if  he  knows  the  parties  concerned  his  joy  is  intense.  It 
matters  little  to  him  if  the  case  be  in  English  and  he  under- 
stands not  a  word ;  for  he  watches  the  facial  expressions,  the 


THE    INDIAN    IN    FIJI  187 

gestures,  (he  movements  of  tlic  hands,  all  of  which  provide 
him  with  suflficient  clue  to  what  is  j2;oing  on.  After  the 
evenini^  meal,  sittinp^  cross-legged  on  a  wooden  bench,  or 
squ.'itting  on  his  haunches  outside  his  hut,  he  w'ill  discourse 
at  length  to  an  admiring  group  of  friends  upon  all  he  has 
heard  and  seen,  and  the  story  loses  not  in  the  telling. 

Unfortunately,  he  does  not  confine  himself  to  being  a 
spcclalor  in  the  law  courts.  All  too  frequently  he  is  in  the 
dock.  There  were  1,370  persons  (mostly  Indians)  brought 
before  (he  magistrates'  court  by  arrest,  warrant,  or  sum- 
mons for  offences  during  last  year;  but  only  forty-five  of 
these  (Indians)  were  sent  to  the  Supreme  Court  charged  with 
indictable  ofTences.  Twenty-seven  convictions  are  recorded, 
a  comparatively  low  figure.  There  is  a  marked  decrease  in 
the  criminal  statistics  of  the  last  two  years;  and  although 
this  cannot  be  directly  put  to  the  credit  of  missionary  activity, 
it  is  undoubtedly  attributable  to  the  new  ideals  and  healthier 
mental  attitude  of  the  Fiji-born  and  Fiji-naturalized  Indian. 

There  is  one  blot  remaining  on  the  Statute  Book,  and  it  is 
high  time  it  was  erased,  viz.  punishment  by  hanging  for 
murder.  It  is  now  300  years  since  Sir  Henry  Wotton  wrote  : 
'  Hanging  is  the  worst  use  to  which  a  man  can  be  put.'  And 
still  the  barbaric  custom  is  maintained.  If  these  words  were 
ever  true  of  any  one,  they  are  doubly  true  of  the  Indian.  It 
may  be  argued  in  other  countries  that  capital  punishment  by 
hanging  is  a  deterrent  to  crime;  but  such  an  argument  is 
both  frivolous  and  absurd  when  applied  to  an  Indian  infuriated 
by  the  faithlessness  of  his  wife.  If,  then,  our  only  justifica- 
tion for  tolerating  capital  punishment  is  taken  away,  wherein 
lies  our  excuse  for  perpetuating  a  practice  diametrically 
opposed  to  the  teachings  of  Christianity?  The  writer's 
experience  of  the  calm,  apathetic  indifference  to  the  coming 
execution  on  the  part  of  the  condemned  prisoners,  and  their 
testimonies  to  the  effect  that  the  thought  of  being  hung  would 
never  deter  them  from  crime,  has  led  him  to  view  this  practice 
as  one  of  the  grave  mistakes  being  perpetuated  in  Fiji. 


i88       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

This  is  one  of  the  many  things  that  puzzle  the  Indian's 
mind  when  he  contemplates  his  relations  with  the  British  Raj. 
He  cannot  understand  our  methods  of  justice.  Nor  is  he 
impressed  with  the  grandeur  of  our  character.  He  is  at  a  loss 
to  understand  the  practical,  materialistic  bent  of  the  Western 
mind,  differing  as  it  does  so  widely  from  the  dreamy  mysticism 
of  the  East.  The  disposition  and  temperament  of  the  two 
races  are  so  opposed  that  there  is  much  misunderstanding, 
one  day  producing  comedy,  the  next  tragedy.  The  Indian 
is  exceedingly  sceptical  of  our  motives,  invariably  judging 
us  by  his  own  code  of  ethics,  believing  that  self-interest  must 
lie  behind  our  every  action.  His  dealings  with  the  English- 
man, as  a  rule,  only  tend  to  confirm  him  in  his  ancient  belief 
that  we  are  an  irreligious  race  of  men,  given  over  to  money- 
making  and  sport,  with  little  real  interest  in  spiritual  things. 
With  that  sublime  inconsistency  so  characteristic  of  his  race, 
he  fails  to  recognize  that  what  he  calls  religion  is  even  more 
materialistic  in  its  effects  upon  himself  than  the  absence  of 
religion   which   he  so  heartily  condemns   in  the   Westerner. 

It  is  usually  thought  that  the  Indian  is  essentially  a  religious 
man;  that  his  very  eating  and  drinking,  his  washing  and 
working,  his  playing  and  praying,  all  are  strictly  regulated 
by  definitely  prescribed  rules  laid  down  by  his  religion.  This 
may  be  true  of  the  Hindu  in  India:  it  is  scarcely  true  of  the 
Hindu  in  Fiji.  Having  broken  his  caste  by  crossing  the 
ocean,  he  is  fast  losing  his  adherence  to  his  old  faith.  Never- 
theless, he  plays  at  belief,  and  treats  with  kindly  tolerance 
the  manv  upstart  priests  who  wander  from  village  to  village 
trading  upon  his  ingrained  respect  for  the  name  sadhu 
(religious  person).  Although  caste  is  to  a  great  extent 
ignored  in  Fiji,  it  still  leaves  an  indelible  mark  upon  the 
Hindu  character,  even  the  Fiji-born.  It  will  help  the  reader 
to  understand  our  difficulty  in  presenting  the  Gospel  of  Jesus 
Christ  to  these  people,  if  he  knows  what  caste  really  means. 

Caste  comes  from  the  Portuguese  casta,  meaning  a  breed, 
which  seems  to  be  a  correct  rendering  of   the   native  idea. 


THE    INDIAN    IN    FIJI  189 

The  institution  may  be  thus  described  :  '  That  the  human 
race  mifjht  be  muhiplicd,  Brahma  the  creator  caused  the 
Brahmins  to  proceed  from  his  mouth,  the  Kshatriyas  from 
his  arms,  the  Vaishyas  from  his  thighs,  and  the  Sudras  from 
his  feet.  To  the  Brahmins  he  assigned  the  duty  of  reading 
the  Vedas,  of  teaching  men,  of  sacrificing,  of  alluring  others 
to  sacrifice,  of  giving  alms  if  they  be  rich,  and  if  indigent  of 
receiving  gifts.  To  defend  the  people,  to  sacrifice,  to  give 
alms,  to  read  the  Vedas,  to  shun  the  allurements  of  sensual 
gratification,  these  in  a  few  words  are  the  duties  of  the 
Kshatriyas.  To  keep  herds  of  cattle,  to  bestow  largesses, 
to  sacrifice,  to  read  the  Vedas,  to  carry  on  trade,  to  lend  money 
at  interest,  to  cultivate  land,  are  prescribed  to  the  V^aishyas. 
One  principal  duty  the  Supreme  Ruler  assigned  to  the  Sudras, 
namely,  to  serve  the  before-mentioned  classes  without 
depreciating  their  worth.' 

When  we  think  of  it  there  is  nothing  remarkable  in  this 
distribution  of  labour.  Some  divisions  are  inevitable  when 
men  form  themselves  into  society.  Neither  is  it  in  the  code 
of  Manu  alone  that  this  division  of  labour  illustrated  from 
the  members  of  the  human  body  is  found.  The  well-known 
fable  of  the  Belly  and  the  Members  is  an  instance  in  point. 
If  the  language  of  St.  Paul  in  i  Cor,  xii.  12-30  be  examined 
closely,  a  striking  resemblance  will  be  found  to  the  language 
of  the  Vedas.  Is  it  not  possible  that  some  such  allegory  was 
present  to  the  mind  of  the  Hindu  writer,  in  which  the  priest 
whose  lips  are  to  keep  knowledge  would  naturally  spring 
from  the  head,  the  class  which  was  to  bear  the  sword  from 
the  arms,  the  mercantile  and  agricultural  body,  who  are  the 
strength  of  the  community,  from  the  loins,  and  the  servile 
classes  from  the  feet  of  the  Creator  ?  Perhaps  this  institution 
was,  in  its  beginnings,  only  a  figurative  way  of  saying : 
*  God  hath  set  the  members  every  one  of  them  in  the  body 
(politic)  as  it  hath  pleased  Him.'  It  is  possible  that  the 
so-called  caste  system  was  originally  far  from  being  a  curse; 
but  with  the  growth  of  the  system,  the  natural  propensity  of 


I90       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

erring  human-kind  to  '  all  seek  their  own  '  led  to  the  vicious 
and  prevailing  idea  in  the  Hindu  mind  that  each  division 
constitutes  a  distinct  species,  thus  directly  negativing  the 
Christian  belief  that  '  God  hath  made  of  one  blood  all  men.' 

An  educated  Indian  recently  retorted  in  answer  to  this 
charge  :  '  And  do  not  many  of  your  so-called  Christians 
equally  disregard  this  belief,  and  the  claims  of  their  fellow 
men  ?  '  The  answer  is  :  '  Unfortunately  they  do,  but  Christi- 
anity does  not.'  Hinduism  openly  denies  it  as  a  part  of  its 
religion.  It  is  positively  impious  in  its  eyes  to  assert  that 
all  men  are  fellow  creatures;  it  is  an  offence  against  God  for 
a  Hindu  to  love  his  enemy,  or  even  to  love  his  neighbour  as 
himself.  How  different,  then,  must  be  the  work  of  evangeliz- 
ing these  people  from  that  of  winning  the  simple-minded, 
uncivilized  South  Sea  Islanders  !  Yet  as  a  mission  we  have 
been  attempting  it  much  along  the  same  lines  as  those 
employed  among  the  natives.  This  is  unscientific,  resulting 
in  the  expenditure  of  much  noble  effort  and  hard  work  for 
that  which,  in  one  sense,  is  not  bread. 

From  the  foregoing  the  reader  has  probably  a  fair  idea  of 
the  class  of  people  amongst  whom  the  missionary  society  is 
working  in  the  Indian  Mission  in  Fiji.  Let  us  now  turn  to 
the  work  itself.  How  have  we  addressed  ourselves  to  the 
task  ?  What  has  been  accomplished  ?  What  has  yet  to  be 
done?  It  was  in  1891,  twenty-two  years  after  immigration 
from  India  commenced,  that  the  Fiji  District  Synod  sought 
to  induce  the  New  South  Wales  Conference  to  undertake  the 
evangelization  of  the  Indian  in  Fiji.  Unfortunately,  the  voice 
of  the  visionary  who  predicted  that  in  twenty  years'  time 
there  would  be  a  population  of  50,000  Indians  in  Fiji  was 
either  unheard  or  unheeded.  Had  the  Church  grappled  with 
the  problem  there  and  then,  the  position  would  have  been 
infinitely  stronger  than  it  is  to-day.  Instead  of  adopting  a 
vigorous  policy,  the  Church  satisfied  its  conscience  by  send- 
ing one  Indian  catechist  to  meet  the  spiritual  needs  of  10,000 
widely  scattered  heathen   people  !     His  appointment   proved 


THE    INDIAN    IN    FIJI  191 

worse  than  failure    Six  years  elapsed  before  anything  further 
of  a  definite  character  was  done. 

It  was  not  until  1897  that  Miss  Dudley,  the  pioneer 
European  missionary  to  the  Indians  in  Fiji,  was  sent  out. 
The  Methodist  Church  should  be  proud  to  possess  such 
women.  Her  long  career  of  noble,  self-sacrificing  labour  is 
worthy  of  a  place  among  the  records  of  the  missionaries  whose 
names  are  held  in  sacred  reverence  by  all  lovers  of  missionary 
heroics.  For  years  Miss  Dudley  laboured  single-handed  in 
Suva,  facing  and  surmounting  difficulties  innumerable. 
When  the  present  writer  was  appointed  to  the  work  in  1901, 
he  found  a  splendid  company  of  Christian  young  men 
gathered  round  Miss  Dudley,  the  fruit  of  her  toil.  Since  that 
date,  nine  ministerial  and  seven  sisters'  appointments  have 
been  made.  Five  ministers  and  six  sisters  are  now  on  the 
field.  The  staff  has  been  pitiably  inadequate,  considering 
the  stupendous  nature  of  the  task  set.  Men  and  women  have 
been  sent  to  solitary  stations  where  they  have  had  to  come  to 
grips  with  hoary-headed  Hinduism  and  bigoted  Moham- 
medanism, long  before  they  were  fitted  for  the  fight.  These 
brave  souls  struggled  against  fearful  odds  in  their  attempt  to 
spread  the  gospel.  But  they  have  not  been  without  fruit  of 
their  labour. 

There  has  been  much  forced  attention  to  secondary  things. 
During  the  earlier  history  of  the  mission,  it  was  a  common 
thing  to  see  the  missionary  with  sleeves  rolled  up,  hammer 
in  hand,  doing  the  lion's  share  of  the  manual  toil  in  erecting 
school  or  mission  house.  Had  these  things  been  done  by 
others,  thus  leaving  the  missionary  free  to  do  his  work, 
greater  efficiency  would  have  resulted.  Notwithstanding  this, 
good  progress  has  been  made.  The  advance  has  been  neces- 
sarily slow,  for  the  barriers  of  prejudice  are  exceedingly 
strong.  In  some  quarters  these  have  been  completely  broken 
down;  in  others  partially  so.  Of  the  ninety-six  members  on 
the  Church  roll,  over  sixty  were  won  from  heathenism  as  the 
direct  result  of  the  work  of  the  mission.     These  are  in  no 


192       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

sense  '  Rice-Christians,'  as  very  few  of  them  have  entered 
our  employ.  From  amongst  the  converts,  three  have  become 
catechists,  five  have  been  appointed  teachers  in  the  mission 
schools,  and  six  lads  have  entered  the  training  institution. 
Thirty-eight  children  have  been  gathered  into  the  orphanages, 
all  of  whom  are  either  orphans  or  have  been  signed  over  by 
their  parents.  When  we  reflect  upon  the  history  of  those 
mission  fields  where  faithful  servants  of  God  spent  half  a 
life-time  in  strenuous  toil  before  winning  a  convert,  we  are 
gratified  at  even  these  small  results,  and  take  courage, 
believing  that  His  Word  '  hath  still  its  ancient  power.'  These 
statistics  may  be  numerically  small ;  but  they  represent  a  body 
of  clean-living,  honest  souls  who  are  leaven  leavening  the 
whole  lump. 

The  means  adopted  for  the  spread  of  the  gospel  have  been 
evangelistic,  educational,  and  medical.  From  the  commence- 
ment, the  importance  of  preaching  amongst  the  people  in  the 
*  lines  '  and  villages  has  received  due  emphasis.  There  have 
been  many  conversions  directly  resulting  from  this  work. 
Where  once  the  gospel  message  was  treated  with  contumely 
and  scorn,  it  is  with  marked  deference  and  even  friendliness 
that  the  preacher  is  now  received.  Recently  a  missionary 
was  doing  his  usual  monthly  itinerary  of  the  indentured 
Indian  '  lines  '  on  the  Upper  Rewa  River.  On  arrival  at  one 
plantation  he  found  that  his  usual  congregation  was  engaged 
in  the  revels  of  an  imitation  nautch  dance.  Seeing  that  his 
chances  of  holding  a  service  were  small,  he  elbowed  his  way 
into  the  middle  of  the  crowd,  and  asked  permission  to  sing 
a  bhajan  (hymn).  Instead  of  being  violently  ejected,  as 
would  certainly  have  been  the  reply  a  few  years  ago,  consent 
was  willingly  given ;  and  the  frenzied  crowd  halted  in  its 
mad  amusement  while  this  emissary  of  the  Cross  of  Christ 
sang,  to  the  accompaniment  of  heathen  tom-tom  and  guitar, 
the  old  refrain  :  Yishu  Masih  mero  pran  bachaiya  (Jesus 
Christ,  the  Saviour  of  my  soul).  Not  until  the  preacher  had 
spent   fifteen   minutes    in    expounding   the    meaning    of    the 


THE    INDIAN    IN    FIJI  193 

bhajan,  followino^  it  wiili  the  story  of  the  Prodif^al  Son,  did 
they  return  to  their  merry-making.  Thus  the  seed  is  sown, 
and  who  knows  how,  when,  or  where  it  may  c^erminate  and 
bring  forth  fruit  ? 

Nearly  thirty  preaching-places  have  been  established  where 
regular  evangelistic  work  is  being  done.  In  eleven  of  these 
centres  school-churches  have  been  built  at  a  total  cost  of 
;^'i,350.  Five  of  these  are  in  connexion  with  the  central 
stations,  while  six  are  situated  in  '  free  '  Indian  villages. 
Attached  to  each  of  these  latter  is  a  catechist's  cottage,  where 
the  representative  of  our  mission  resides.  It  is  our  hope,  and 
one  object  of  this  plan  of  work,  that  these  men  should  become, 
not  only  the  village  teachers,  but  the  villagers'  friends  and 
advisers,  to  whom  they  may  look  for  help  in  all  the  concerns 
of  their  life,  and  who  will  exercise  a  healthy  moral  influence 
over  the  whole  community.  Our  gospel  has  been  preached 
with  no  uncertain  sound,  but  it  must  be  accompanied  by 
practical  demonstrations  of  Christian  love  if  it  is  to  appeal 
to  the  heart  and  mind  of  the  Indian. 

There  is  one  work  of  grave  importance  as  yet  almost 
untouched,  viz.  that  of  carrying  the  light  to  the  dark  and 
degraded  minds  of  the  Indian  women  of  Fiji.  Some  work 
in  this  connexion  has  been  done  by  consecrated  missionary 
sisters;  but  the  attempt  has  been  altogether  inadequate  to  the 
great  need,  owing  chiefly  to  the  fact  that  the  exigencies  of  the 
work  demand  a  large  proportion  of  the  missionary  sisters' 
time  being  spent  in  the  schools.  If  we  are  to  address  our- 
selves in  earnest  to  this  needy  work,  it  will  mean  the 
establishment  of  an  army  of  itinerant  lady  missionaries 
accompanied  by  reliable  Indian  biblewomen. 

It  is  a  trite  saying  that  the  hope  of  Indian  missions  is  in 
influencing  the  minds  of  the  rising  generations.  *  Give  us 
the  children  between  the  ages  of  five  and  twelve,'  say  some, 
'  and  they  will  never  be  Hindu  or  Mohammedan  again.'  This 
is  undoubtedly  true;  but  will  they  be  Christlw '.■'  That  is 
the  moot-point ;  and  herein  lies  one  of  our  gravest  difficulties, 
o 


194       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

We  have  a  unique  opportunity  to  control  the  secular  education 
of  by  far  the  larger  proportion  of  the  Indian  population  of  this 
island  of  Viti  Levu,  if  we  make  an  immediate  and  adequate 
forward  move.  The  Government's  new  Educational  Bill,  at 
present  under  consideration,  provides  for  assisting  vernacular 
schools;  and  from  the  state  of  the  colony's  finances  it  is  quite 
evident  that  it  would  prefer  to  assist  a  school  rather  than  to 
found  one.  If  the  education  of  the  Indians  of  Fiji  is  to  wait 
until  there  are  Government  schools  in  all  centres  of  Indian 
population,  then  it  seems  probable  that  the  present  generation 
will  have  to  be  content  to  view  it  as  one  of  their  hopes  for 
posterity. 

There  is  a  movement  to  make  the  employer  provide  educa- 
tion for  the  children  of  his  indentured  labour,  which  is  a 
good  and  reasonable  thing ;  but  why  should  he  be  forced  to 
shoulder  his  responsibility  in  this  matter,  while  the  Govern- 
ment shirks  its  own  ?  Why  should  the  children  of  indentured 
people  have  the  privilege  of  education  while  those  of  the 
'free'  Indian  are  left  without?  The  great  need  of  the 
country  is  a  vigorous  policy  for  the  education  of  Indians, 
under  Government  control.  A  small  poll-tax  on  all  Indians 
would  easily  raise  sufficient  to  pay  the  interest  on  capital  out- 
lay, as  well  as  current  expenses.  The  employer  would  then 
shoulder  his  responsibility  by  paying  his  labourers'  taxes; 
but  he  should  not  have  any  responsibility  either  in  the  matter 
of  teacher  or  school-building. 

Since  the  commencement  of  this  mission,  school  work  has 
been  carried  on  somewhat  in  a  desultory  manner.  Not  until 
recently  has  there  been  any  definite  and  organized  effort  to 
avail  ourselves  of  this  splendid  opportunity  to  disseminate 
Christian  ideas  and  sow  the  seeds  of  Christian  truth  in  the 
minds  of  Fiji's  coming  population.  A  careful  endeavour  is 
being  made  to  lay  a  solid  foundation  upon  which  to  build 
our  educational  work.  We  have  discarded  the  use  of  such 
hieroglyphics  as  the  Devanagri  and  Arabic  characters,  deem- 
ing it  altogether  illogical  to  make  use  of  such  orthographical 


THE    INDIAN    IN    FIJI  195 

monstrosities  in  i^iving  an  educational  system  to  a  race  of  men 
born  in  the  twentieth  century.  If  parents  so  desire,  their 
children  may  be  taught  either  or  both  of  these  characters, 
which  will  ultimately  prove  an  inestimable  boon  to  Fiji  when 
it  is  universally  understood  and  read. 

Three  boarding-schools  for  Indian  children  have  been 
established,  in  which,  together  with  the  orphanage,  over  fifty 
children  are  in  residence.  This  constitutes  an  excellent  sphere 
of  work,  as  the  influence  brought  to  bear  upon  the  children 
out  of  school  hours  tends  to  lead  them  towards  the  end  we 
have  in  view.  Owing  to  the  generosity  of  friends  in 
Australia  and  New  Zealand,  we  have  been  able  to  take  a 
number  of  children  from  the  unwholesome  atmosphere  of  the 
'  lines  '  and  place  them  in  these  institutions,  the  sole  con- 
dition being  that  the  indentured  parent  must  sign  his  child 
over  to  our  guardianship  for  a  term  of  five  years.  Much 
might  be  said  of  the  extraordinary  opportunity  which  is 
ours  just  at  this  stage  in  the  country's  development  to 
follow  the  example  of  our  Fijian  Mission  in  securing  the 
education  of  almost  the  entire  population  under  its  control ; 
but  sufficient  has  been  indicated  to  convince  the  thoughtful 
reader.  Whether  it  is  a  right  policy  on  the  part  of  the  State 
to  permit  this  Church  control  of  secular  education,  is  a  matter 
for  discussion  outside  the  scope  of  this  article. 

It  is  universally  acknowledged  that  '  medical  missions  are 
a  noble  feature  of  modern  missions.  They  break  down 
barriers;  they  attract  reluctant  and  suspicious  populations; 
they  open  whole  regions  .  .  .  for  they  give  a  practical  demon- 
stration of  the  spirit  of  Christianity.'  For  years  we  have  been 
praying  the  New  South  Wales  Conference  to  sanction  an 
appeal  for  a  hospital  in  connexion  with  our  work  among  the 
Indians  in  Fiji;  but  nothing  has  been  done.  We  have  two 
dispensaries  at  work,  and  a  nurse  in  charge  of  one;  but  our 
staff  being  limited,  we  have  not  been  able  to  make  this  neces- 
sary work  the  integrant  part  of  our  mission  it  should  be. 
Medical  attention  is  provided  by  the  employers  for  all  inden- 


196       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

tured  Indians;  but  the  'free'  Indian  population  is  sadly 
neglected.  The  Government  has  provided  wards  in  connexion 
with  the  General  Colonial  Hospital  in  Suva,  capable  of  accom- 
modating about  lOO  Indians  or  less.  These  are  expected  to 
meet  the  needs  of  32,482  people  scattered  over  7,435  square 
miles,  which,  to  say  the  least,  is  a  physical  impossibility.  It 
is  true  that  '  free  '  Indians  may  be  admitted  to  the  plantation 
hospitals,  provided  there  are  beds  unoccupied  and  to  spare ; 
but  the  fee  of  two  shillings  per  day  demanded  places  this 
privilege  beyond  the  reach  of  four-fifths  of  the  '  free ' 
population.  Unfortunately,  we  have  the  greatest  difiiculty  in 
persuading  Indians  to  go  to  these  hospitals,  preferring  as 
they  do  to  remain  in  their  own  villages  if  we  give  them 
medicine.  Their  unbounded  confidence  in  the  simplest 
remedies  is,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  the  secret  of  their  cure. 
Undoubtedly  this  department  of  the  work  is  of  great  value. 
It  is,  as  the  Report  of  the  Edinburgh  Conference  says, 
'  everywhere  understood  as  a  practical  interpretation  of  the 
Gospel  of  Love ;  it  is  an  invaluable  agency  w^herever  there 
is  deep-rooted  suspicion  or  malignant  fanaticism  to  be 
overcome,'  such  as  in  Fiji. 

Through  the  medium  of  these  three  agencies  we  have 
endeavoured  to  solve  the  great  problem  laid  down  in  the 
opening  paragraph  of  this  article;  and  the  work  done  forms 
no  inconsiderable  part  of  the  glorious  achievement  of  our 
Church  during  its  first  century  in  the  Pacific.  It  has  pleased 
many  ignorant  and  some  prejudiced  persons  to  express  the 
opinion  that  our  efforts  towards  the  great  end  in  view  have 
signally  failed,  and  that  our  native  converts  are  at  once  incon- 
siderable in  numbers  and  despicable  both  in  station  and  in 
morals.  The  persons  who  disseminate  this  opinion  are  com- 
monly Europeans  who  have  resided  in  Fiji  perhaps  for  a 
very  brief  period;  and  who,  being  without  the  desire,  have 
consequently  not  taken  the  opportunity  of  acquainting 
themselves  with  the  actual  state  of  the  mission.  European 
residents  in  aeneral  exhibit  too  little  concern  for  the  souls  of 


THE    INDIAN    fN    FIJI  197 

the  natives;  and  with  sorrow  be  it  said  tliat  only  too  often 
is  the  spread  of  the  fjfospel  hindered  by  the  pernicious  habits 
which  the  natives  all  too  fref[uently  contract  from  European 
intercourse.  Nevertheless,  there  are  those  who  recoj^nize 
what  is  being  done,  and  who  believe  that  the  Indian  Mission 
in  Fiji  is  not  only  carrying  the  Light  of  the  Gospel  of  Jesus 
Christ  to  these  wanderers  in  a  far-o(T  land,  but  is  taking  an 
important  part  in  promoting  the  moral  and  material  interests 
of  the  Indian  in  Fiji. 


CHAPTER    IV 

THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA 

I3y    EDWARD    YOUNGMAN 

Melboirne  ;  Missionary  to  the  Chinese,  Port  Darwin  ;  formerly  Missionary 

in  China 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Proximity— Chinese — Character  —  From  Canton^Gold  rush  — China- 
town— Fruit-growing — Other  Asiatics —  Mateiialistic — Missions — 
Chinese  evangelists — Youngman — China — Other  missions — Hos- 
tihty  of  whites — Half-castes — Lessening  numbers — White  Australia 
— Yellow  peril — Japan  and  Russia — Conscription — Prospects. 


CHAPTER    IV 

THL-    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA 

Thk  Asiatic  is  bound  up  with  the  liistory  of  Austraha.  His 
presence  has  created  many  conllictinj^  thoug:hts  and  given 
colour  to  legislation.  The  close  proximity  of  the  Australian 
continent  to  Eastern  Asia  accounts  for  this.  There  was  a 
time,  it  is  thought,  when  a  comparatively  narrow  passage 
existed  between  this  land  and  the  East,  a  passage  widened 
by  convulsions  through  the  ages.  Be  that  as  it  may,  the 
breadth  of  sea  between  the  most  northern  point  of  Australia 
and  the  most  southern  point  of  Eastern  Asia  is  inconsiderable, 
and  can  be  crossed  in  a  few  days.  This  brings  the  two  con- 
tinents within  easy  hail.  It  was  to  be  expected  that  there 
would  be  more  or  less  coming  and  going  between  the 
Australian  and  the  Asiatic.  Such  has  been  the  case  almost 
from  the  first.  Soon  after  the  settlement  of  Port  Jackson 
there  was  communication  with  people  living  on  the  other  side 
of  the  equator,  and  ultimately  with  those  on  the  mainland 
of  Asia.  Thus  there  grew  up  an  intimacy  which,  at  times, 
caused  more  than  embarrassment. 

As  far  as  the  Indian  and  other  Asiatics  are  concerned,  there 
has  not  been  any  such  influx  as  to  cause  serious  alarm. 
Afghans  have  come  to  make  what  they  could  by  hawking 
Indian  and  other  products.  So,  also,  a  few  Syrians  and  other 
representative  types.  But  their  coming,  while  regarded  in 
some  quarters  with  suspicion,  has  not  created  a  problem.  The 
Afghans  generally  made  their  way  to  the  great  drv  spaces 
of  our  hinterland,  where  they  found  congenial  and  remunera- 
tive occupation  in  carrying  goods.     It  was  no  unusual  sight 

in  the  back  country  to  see  a  string  of  camels  in  charge  of 

20 1 


202       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

these  Indian  visitors  carrying  anything  from  bales  of  wool 
to  sacks  of  flour  or  household  furniture.  In  times  of  drought, 
the  camel  has  served  as  the  common  carrier.  With  the  exten- 
sion of  electrical  power  and  railway  construction,  the  swarthy 
Asiatic  is  finding  his  occupation  slipping  from  him.  He  and 
his  camel  are  becoming  vanishing  quantities.  It  is  only  a 
matter  of  time  when  the  turbaned  head  and  dark-skinned  face 
of  the  Indian  pedlar  or  carrier  will  cease  to  be  a  picturesque 
object  on  the  Australian  landscape  or  the  streets  of  country 
towns.  In  the  larger  centres  of  population,  he  long  ago 
discovered  he  had  no  chance. 

When  we  speak  of  the  Asiatic  in  Australia  the  mind  at 
once  singles  out  the  Chinese  and  the  Japanese.  Their 
countries  are  but  a  short  distance  from  Australia.  Unitedly 
they  contain  a  population,  overwhelming  in  numbers,  pos- 
sessing characteristic  features  that  cause  serious  alarm.  We 
have  had  dealings  with  the  Chinese  for  many  years;  we  made 
the  acquaintance  of  the  Japanese  but  yesterday.  The  Chinese 
represent  a  race  whose  history  probably  goes  farther  back 
than  that  of  any  other,  and  whose  numbers  are  larger  by 
100,000,000  than  that  of  the  second  strongest  nation  in  the 
world  !  That  fact,  though  appalling,  is  not  the  most  signifi- 
cant. The  Chinese  have  proved  themselves  to  be  a  strong, 
virile  people ;  living  through  the  centuries  when  other  races 
came  and  went.  They  stand  to-day  a  problem  and  a  wonder 
in  the  eyes  of  the  world.  Every  civilized  nation  is  looking 
anxiously  towards  the  East,  wondering  what  part  it  is  going 
to  play  in  the  history  of  the  human  race. 

Country  and  people  were  comparatively  unknown  until  the 
other  day.  Under  those  Oriental  skies,  for  ages  strangers 
to  the  world,  they  were  working  out  their  own  destiny  in 
their  own  fashion,  crystallizing  a  national  character  such  as 
no  other  nation  ever  succeeded  in  doing.  The  Chinaman, 
in  the  opinion  of  a  great  traveller  and  observer,  is  the  nearest 
approach  to  the  Anglo-Saxon.  This  view  is  fully  appreciated 
by  those  who  know  the  Asiatic  best.     He  sticks  at  nothing 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        203 

when  once  his  mind  is  made  up.  His  perseverance  is  un- 
tiring. His  ploddin<:j  industry  and  patient  determination  are 
not  to  be  excelled;  while  his  outlook  and  mental  t,^rasp  are 
equalled  by  his  success  along  the  lines  of  industrial  and 
intellectual  life.  He  is  a  cute,  sharp  business  man,  made 
such  by  the  exigencies  of  the  situation.  He  has  had  to 
subsist  by  the  sharpening  of  his  wits,  which  he  has  learned, 
through  many  centuries,  how  hcst  to  use.  But  when  that  is 
said,  it  does  not  mean  that  the  Chinese  business  man  is 
nothing  but  a  '  sharper,'  without  scruples  either  as  to  honesty 
or  conscience.  There  are  exceptions  to  every  rule;  but  the 
average  man  of  business  in  China  is  a  dependable  man. 
European  merchants  know  that  well;  for  the  universal  testi- 
mony is  that  when  once  a  Chinese  dealer  has  given  his  word, 
it  is  the  word  of  honour,  and  will  be  stood  by  at  all  costs. 

These  are  the  men  with  whom  Australians  have  had  to  do 
on  their  own  soil  for  many  years,  and  w-ith  whom  perhaps 
they  will  yet  have  more  to  do.  The  European  and  the  Asiatic 
have  come  together  in  Australia  under  interesting  circum- 
stances. When  gold  was  discovered  in  the  year  1851,  the 
welcome  news  soon  found  its  way  to  South  China.  A  human 
tide  set  in  towards  the  land  lying  under  the  Southern  Cross. 
The  Chinese,  with  inflamed  imagination  and  the  hunger  for 
gold  gnawing  at  their  heart-strings,  left  their  homes  in  ship- 
loads to  try  their  fortunes  in  the  New  Gold  Hills,  which  is 
their  name  for  Australia.  It  is  remarkable  that  practically 
all  the  Chinese  who  came  to  Australia  are  from  the  province 
of  Kwang  Tung,  of  which  Canton  is  the  chief  city.  A  repre- 
sentative of  the  other  provinces  is  hard  to  find.  The  Chinese 
are  clannish,  and  maybe  this  is  the  explanation.  The  many 
distinct  dialects  in  the  eighteen  provinces  into  which  China 
is  divided  have  had  much  to  do  in  keeping  the  people  distinct ; 
and  the  empire  being  so  extensive,  those  living  in  one  section 
have  had  little  or  nothing  to  do  with  those  living  in  another. 
The  barrier  of  dialect  was  almost  impregnable.  While  there 
are  varieties  of  speech  even  in  a  province,  still  those  of  one 


204       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

part  can  understand  what  is  said  by  those  of  another.  This 
is  a  strong  bond  of  union.  At  the  same  time,  one  of 
the  characteristic  features  of  the  Chinese  in  Australia  is  that 
men  from  one  part  of  the  Kwang  Tung  province  are,  as  a 
rule,  to  be  found  in  one  State,  while  those  of  another  part  are 
in  the  majority  in  another  State.  This  is  not  hard  to  under- 
stand. For  instance,  the  great  bulk  of  the  Chinese  in  Victoria 
have  come  from  a  part  of  the  province  named  lying  to  the 
south-west  of  Canton,  known  as  the  Four-City  district;  while 
the  majority  of  the  men  in  New  South  Wales  and  Queensland 
hail  from  a  place  called  the  Fragrant  Hills ;  and  others  to 
the  east  of  Canton,  and  each  of  them  separated  by  many 
miles. 

When  a  European  asks  a  Chinaman  where  he  comes  from,  the 
answer  invariably  is  '  Canton.'  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  man 
may  never  have  been  in  that  city.  What  he  means  is  that 
he  has  come  from  the  province  of  which  Canton  is  the  chief 
centre,  the  name  of  which  is  familiar  to  every  European.  The 
majority  of  these  new,  strange-featured  immigrants  were  from 
the  agricultural  classes,  with  here  and  there  a  business  man 
in  a  small  way  and  a  sprinkling  of  adventurers.  The  farming- 
classes  are  amongst  the  most  hard-working  and  the  poorest 
in  China.  Existence  is  mostly  one  of  hand  to  mouth.  It  can 
be  understood,  therefore,  with  what  intense  desire  a  man 
would  leave  his  wretched  surroundings  and  go  to  an  adjacent 
land,  with  the  possibility  of  making  his  fortune  and  returning 
to  live  in  comparative  comfort.  Leaving  wife  and  children 
behind,  the  men  came  to  Australia  in  a  rushing  stream,  all 
eager  for  gold.  In  Victoria  alone,  in  the  'sixties,  there  were 
not  less  than  40,000  Chinese.  In  New  South  Wales  the 
number  was  considerably  less,  while  Queensland  had  less 
still,  and  South  Australia  least  of  all.  Later  a  few  hundreds 
found  their  way  to  Tasmania;  and  later  still  a  fairly  large 
contingent  went  to  West  Australia,  where  most  of  them 
settled  in  and  around  the  metropolis.  The  gold-fields  were 
the  magnetic  places. 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        205 

On  almost  evcrv  field  there  would  he  a  '  Chinatown,*  a 
place  out  of  the  main  (('iilrc,  where  the  Chinese  lived.  A 
typical  '  camp,'  as  it  was  called,  consisted  of  a  narrow  street, 
on  each  side  of  which  were  ranj^ed  the  buildings  the  Chinese 
love  so  well,  wooden  shanties  for  the  most  part,  servinj^  the 
purpose  of  shops,  boarding-houses,  gaming  places,  and  private 
residences.  There  would  also  be  a  temple,  or  joss-house,  in 
which  the  deities  of  China  were  represented  and  worshipped. 
Indeed,  every  camp  was  a  bit  of  China,  with  flaring  sign- 
boards on  which  were  engraved  the  peculiar  hieroglyphics  of 
the  language;  altogether  presenting  a  sight,  and  emitting 
sounds,  in  striking  contrast  to  European  modes  of  life.  The 
opium-den  was  in  evidence  and  well  patronized;  while,  next 
to  fossicking  for  gold,  the  crowd  loved  to  gather  round  the 
gaming-table  and  stake  all  upon  the  tools  of  chance.  Weird 
scenes  of  ceremony  and  custom  were  to  be  seen  in  those 
Chinese  camps  both  day  and  night  when  the  stream  of  life 
was  in  the  flood.  The  European  visitor  was  taken  to  China- 
town to  enjoy  one  of  the  best  forms  of  entertainment  to  be 
had  in  those  times. 

For  the  most  part,  the  Chinese  did  not  work  virgin  ground 
so  much  as  treat  that  which  Europeans  had  forsaken.  Out 
of  this  the  second-comer  often  did  well.  Having  selected  his 
place,  he  went  to  work  in  his  methodical,  if  clumsy  fashion, 
fixing  his  cradle  in  a  likely  spot;  then,  shovelling  the  gritty 
dirt  into  it,  he  would  rock  the  crazy  thing  with  the  left  hand, 
while  with  the  right  he  poured  in  water  wuth  a  ladle  probably 
made  of  a  fruit-can.  He  would  then  look  with  hungry  eyes 
for  any  speck  of  gold  in  the  bottom  of  the  cradle,  or  in  the 
dish  which  was  often  used.  It  was  a  drab  sort  of  life  for  the 
voluntary  exile,  and  the  only  thing  that  kept  him  going  was 
the  hope  of  returning  to  the  ancestral  home  with  enough 
money  to  make  the  later  days  of  life  easier.  A  remittance 
was  often  sent  to  China  to  help  the  family,  whose  bread- 
winner was  under  other  skies.  Maybe  the  wanderer  would 
pay  a  visit  to  the  homeland,  refresh  himself  amongst  his  kith 


2o6       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

and  kin,  and  return  to  the  New  Gold  Hills  to  replenish  the 
exhausted  purse. 

A  considerable  number  of  Chinese,  however,  sought  to  make 
their  fortunes  in  ways  other  than  by  digging  for  gold.  In  the 
capitals  of  the  various  States  many  engaged  in  business 
pursuits,  carrying  on  trade  with  Europeans  and  their  own 
countrymen.  Others,  again,  set  up  furniture-making  estab- 
lishments, turning  out  articles  which  European  dealers  were 
glad  to  get.  Little  Bourke  Street  in  Melbourne,  and  Lower 
George  Street  in  Sydney,  are  remembered  as  the  great  busi- 
ness centres  and  resorts  of  Chinese — places  with  character- 
istics of  their  own,  and  redolent  with  Oriental  flavour.  But 
the  agricultural  instinct  enticed  many  to  engage  in  market- 
gardening.  Throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  Australia, 
where  there  was  sufficient  European  population  to  warrant 
it,  the  Chinese  gardener  was  to  be  seen.  In  nearly  every 
town  one  of  the  well-known  sights  was  the  Chinese  vegetable 
hawker,  with  his  two  baskets  suspended  on  the  bamboo  stick 
resting  on  his  shoulders,  and  going  at  jog-trot.  That  man 
did  much  for  many  a  household,  rendering  a  service  to 
Australians  which  has  been  most  grudgingly  recognized. 

During  later  years  the  Chinese  discovered  that  money  was  to 
be  made  under  the  tropical  skies  of  Queensland  by  growing 
and  exporting  fruit  to  the  south.  Thousands  embarked  upon 
the  new  business,  and  went  to  work  with  diligence  and  success. 
Miles  of  rich  scrub  on  the  river  banks  were  transformed  into 
banana  and  pine-apple  farms,  with  other  fruits  in  addition. 
If  these  pioneers  have  done  nothing  else,  they  have  demon- 
strated to  the  European  what  this  country  can  produce,  and 
they  have  led  the  way  to  agricultural  evolution  which  pro- 
mises much.  These  are  the  ways  in  which  our  Oriental 
visitors  have  been  at  work  during  their  years  of  residence 
amongst  us.  Not  the  least  they  have  done  is  to  give 
Australians  an  object  lesson  as  to  what  can  be  done  under 
anything  but  encouraging  conditions.  The  Northern  Terri- 
tory,  that  great  patch   of   country   lying   to   the   north   and 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        207 

nurlh-west  of  the  continent,  now  under  the  administration  of 
the  Commonwealth  Government,  has  a  population  the  ^reat 
bulk  (jf  which  is  C'hinese.  About  the  year  1885  a  railway 
line,  150  miles  in  length,  was  commenced  from  Port  Darwin 
towards  the  south.  This  was  to  be  the  first  section  of  an 
overland  line  from  sea  to  sea,  a  distance  of  2,000  miles. 
Built  by  Chinese  labour,  it  was  opened  in  1889. 

The  Chinese  were  brought  from  their  own  land  in  great 
numbers  for  this  purpose,  until  fully  4,000  of  them  were  in 
the  Territory.  The  European  population  was  a  mere  handful, 
the  proportion  of  Chinese  being  about  five  to  one.  As  far 
as  labour  generally  was  concerned,  the  newcomers  had  every- 
thing in  their  hands.  They  were  the  domestic  servants,  the 
hewers  of  w-ood  and  drawers  of  water,  gardeners,  and  almost 
everything  else.  They  had  a  great  and  prosperous  time,  and 
they  made  the  most  of  it.  On  the  completion  of  the  railway 
many  returned,  others  went  in  quest  of  gold,  while  others 
made  their  wiiy  south.  At  Port  Darwin  there  were  also 
representatives  of  other  races,  such  as  Javanese,  Malays,  and 
Japanese.  The  Japanese  were  inconsiderable.  The  Japanese 
have  not  shown  any  great  desire  to  emigrate  to  these  shores. 
More  are  to  be  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Thursday 
Island,  at  the  extreme  north  of  Queensland,  or  on  the  west 
coast  of  the  continent,  in  connexion  with  the  pearling  industry. 
A  few  have  gone  into  business  as  shopkeepers,  while  others 
have  found  a  congenial  and  lucrative  sphere  in  establishing 
laundries,  more  especially  in  the  northern  State.  Both 
Chinese  and  Japanese  are  sought  after  as  cooks  in  hotels 
and  other  places. 

The  presence  in  Australia  of  70,000  Chinese  set  the 
Churches  thinking  seriously,  arousing  some  of  them  to  action. 
It  was  a  distinct  challenge  to  Christianity  to  do  what  it  could 
for  the  moral  and  spiritual  interests  of  these  heathen  visitors; 
and,  to  the  honour  of  all,  the  challenge  was  responded  to. 
An  opportunity  had  come  to  influence  the  heathen,  and 
through   them,  the  millions  of  China.     It   would  have  been 


2o8       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

criminal  not  to  take  full  advantage  of  such  an  opportunity. 
The  question  was,  how  to  set  about  the  task.  The  language, 
like  a  wall  of  rock,  stood  in  the  way.  How  to  get  over  it 
was  a  puzzle.  From  the  first  an  effort  was  made  by  the 
Methodist  Church  to  reach  the  Chinese;  but  the  results  were 
not  always  satisfactory.  The  men  from  China  had  but  one 
object  in  view  :  to  make  money.  They  had  a  religion  with 
which  they  were  quite  content.  It  was  the  religion  of  their 
fathers  for  centuries.  To  give  that  up  and  to  espouse  another, 
and  that  of  a  foreigner,  was  more  than  the  Chinaman  was 
prepared  to  consider.  Did  not  every  Chinese  camp  contain 
a  miniature  of  one  of  the  thousands  of  heathen  temples  across 
the  seas,  and  was  not  that  enough  ? 

The  mind  of  the  Chinaman  is  grossly  materialized,  and 
he  worships,  not  to  satisfy  the  craving  of  his  spiritual  nature, 
but  to  be  on  good  terms  with  the  gods  with  a  view  to  material 
benefit.  A  disappointed  worshipper  has  been  known  to  take 
an  idol  from  its  pedestal,  give  it  a  generous  castigation,  and 
set  it  up  again  in  the  hope  of  better  things.  To  evangelize 
the  Chinese  is  no  light  task.  His  mind  must  be  appealed 
to,  his  soul  stirred,  his  ancestral  forms  of  thought  and  worship 
put  on  one  side.  With  this  in  mind,  one  can  see  the  difficul- 
ties in  the  path  of  the  Christian  evangelist.  But  God  knows 
nothing  of  difficulties,  and  has  His  way  of  easily  getting  over 
ours.  A  Methodist  minister  in  Victoria,  the  Rev.  W.  Hill 
(afterwards  murdered  by  a  prisoner  whom  he  was  visiting  in 
jail),  made  the  acquaintance  of  a  young,  intelligent  Chinese, 
took  him  to  his  home,  taught  him  what  English  he  could, 
and  made  the  way  of  salvation  so  plain  that  the  young  man 
was  converted.  That  was  a  glad  day  both  for  the  convert 
and  for  hundreds  of  his  countrymen.  At  last  the  way  was 
clear  for  aggressive  Christian  effort ;  that  young  Chinese 
disciple  was  sent  to  work  amongst  his  fellows  on  the  gold- 
fields,  the  first  herald  of  the  cross  to  the  heathen  amongst 
us,  the  first  link  connecting  the  Christian  Church  of  Australia 
with  the  Church  in  China.     Having  been  fully  proved  and 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        209 

his  work  appraised,  tliat  first  convert  was  ordained  to  the 
Christian  ministry.  He  was  widely  known  and  beloved  as 
the  Rev.  James  Moy  Ling.  For  fifty  years  he  laboured  faith- 
fully and  with  success,  until  he  was  called  to  look  into  the 
face  of  that  God  whom  he  had  learned  to  love  in  the 
foreigner's   land. 

As  the  mission  grew,  another  young  man  of  choice  spirit 
and  fine  intellectual  parts  came  under  the  power  of  grace  and 
entered  the  ministry.  Me  was  the  Rev.  Leong  On  Tong,  a 
name  still  treasured,  and  whose  work  for  years  was  richly 
blessed.  In  1884  he  returned  to  China  to  continue  Christian 
service,  and  at  a  ripe  old  age  passed  away.  Still  later,  a 
third  young  man  of  promise,  in  the  person  of  the  Rev.  Joseph 
Tear  Tack,  was  called  to  the  ministry.  He  rendered  valuable 
service  in  Victoria  for  years,  was  appointed  to  Tingha, 
Emmaville  (N.S.W.),  and  Port  Darwin,  and  finally  was  sent 
to  begin  a  mission  at  Cairns  in  North  Queensland,  where, 
after  nine  months'  work,  he  died.  Most  of  the  mission  work 
was  in  X'ictoria.  At  one  time  there  were  seven  stations,  with 
preaching  places  attached,  manned  either  by  a  Chinese 
minister  or  a  catechist.  At  Little  Bourke  Street,  Melbourne, 
a  fine  brick  church,  with  a  suite  of  rooms,  was  erected,  at  a 
cost  of  /,""2,ooo,  in  the  centre  of  a  large  Chinese  population. 
The  mission  Is  still  carried  on;  also  one  at  Castlemaine,  where 
a  brick  church  was  erected  many  years  ago.  The  other 
stations  were  at  Haddon  (near  Ballarat),  Creswick,  Talbot, 
DunoUy,  and  Bendigo. 

At  each  place  a  church  with  residence  was  provided  and 
paid  for  by  the  sympathetic  help  of  local  Europeans.  These 
little  churches  became  well  known  to  the  Chinese,  and  as  a 
rule  they  were  well  attended.  So  important  was  the  work 
that  it  was  thought  advisable  to  set  apart  a  young  European 
minister  to  superintend  it.  The  Rev.  Edward  Youngman,  a 
probationer,  was  sent  to  Canton  to  be  qualified  for  the  respon- 
sible position.  He  resided  in  China  for  nearly  two  years, 
learning  the  language,  and  otherwise  preparing  himself.  He 
p 


2IO       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

began  his  work  in  Victoria  in  1880,  having  charge  of  the 
mission  for  five  years,  and  subsequently  for  two  years  in 
North  Queensland.  Hundreds  of  Chinese  were  won  from 
heathenism  in  connexion  with  the  mission,  the  greater  number 
returning  to  their  homeland  to  act  as  Christian  leaven  in  the 
heathen  meal,  thus  helping  on  the  work  of  evangelization  in 
that  great  missionary  field.  Of  late  years,  mainly  on  account 
of  the  decrease  in  the  Chinese  population,  the  mission  work 
has  been  curtailed,  only  two  agents  being  employed  where 
formerly  there  were  nine. 

The  Methodist  Church  has  certainly  made  an  honest  effort 
to  reach  the  Asiatic  in  Australia,  and  has  interpreted  in  this 
way  the  missionary  spirit  which  has  characterized  it.  The 
pity  of  it  is,  however,  that  a  broader  policy  was  not  adopted 
and  developed.  What  was  needed  was  to  extend  the  work 
to  China  in  the  districts  from  which  the  men  in  Australia 
came,  and  to  which  so  many  returned.  It  would  have  been 
a  great  gain  to  the  men  converted  here  to  have  gone  home 
connected  with  work  carried  on  by  the  Australasian  Mis- 
sionary Society,  to  say  nothing  of  having  a  direct  practical 
interest,  and  taking  part  in  the  Christianizing  of  the  East. 
We  have  missed  a  great  opportunity  in  not  entering  upon 
the  larger  sphere.  Perhaps  the  future  will  reveal  the  duty 
of  correcting  the  mistake,  thus  giving  to  Methodism  in 
the  southern  world  the  joy  of  service  amongst  the  coming 
nations  on  the  northern  side  of  the  equator.  We  must  not 
close  our  eyes  to  the  far-reaching  nature  of  this  work, 
especially  when  the  condition  of  modern  China  is  remembered. 
Things  there  are  not  now  what  they  were. 

Almost  everything  that  was  so  closely  bound  up  with  the 
old  life,  which  so  long  stood  as  the  missionary's  greatest 
hindrance,  is  now  unceremoniously  being  put  into  the  melting- 
pot.  What  is  coming  out  of  the  pot  is  causing  much  specula- 
tion. It  is  plain,  however,  that  the  missionary  is  at  last 
coming  to  his  own;  and  that  the  Christianity  he  has  taught 
with  churches,  schools,  hospitals,  pure  homes,  and  a  whole- 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        211 

some  atmosphere  is  to  have  its  belated  chance.  Kvery  door 
so  long-  barred  has  been  flunij^  wide  open,  and  the  prospect 
of  success  is  so  glorious  as  to  gladden  the  eyes  and  make 
every  Christian  long  to  have  part  in  bringing  about  such  a 
spiritual  evolution  as  probably  the  world  has  not  yet  seen. 
The  fact  of  being  next-door  neighbour  to  the  Chinese  should 
influence  Australians,  Cjuitc  aj)art  from  other  considerations. 
Forgetting  for  the  moment  the  imperial  cause  of  world-wide 
missions  and  the  duty  to  do  all  that  is  possible,  this  particular 
obligation  to  evangelize  our  northern  fellow  creatures  includes 
the  interpretation  of  the  spirit  of  Christ,  and  also  makes  doubly 
sure  our  sense  of  safety.  The  Christian  bond  is  the  strongest 
of  all  bonds.     It  is  the  golden  link  that  is  unbreakable. 

The  Anglican  and  Presbyterian  Churches  also  recognized 
their  obligations,  and  still  have  missions  for  the  Chinese. 
In  Sydney  and  Melbourne  substantial  buildings  were  erected, 
and  on  several  of  the  gold-fields  in  Victoria  agents  were 
employed,  a  general  understanding  being  arrived  at  that  no 
two  denominations  should  be  represented  at  the  same  place 
unless  the  number  of  Chinese  justified  it.  Little  or  nothing- 
is  being  done  in  New  South  Wales  outside  Sydney;  while  in 
Queensland,  except  for  a  spasmodic  effort,  an  inviting  field 
has  been  practically  neglected.  Through  individual  Churches 
in  the  different  States  taking  up  mission  work,  and  by  the 
formation  of  classes  for  Chinese  for  the  teaching  of  English 
and  for  Christian  instruction,  the  radius  for  doing  good  has 
been  extended. 

The  Asiatic  in  Australia  has  not  had  a  good  time.  From 
the  first  he  was  regarded  with  feelings  of  aversion,  if  not 
hatred;  and  he  was  treated  accordingly  by  '  lewd  fellows  of 
the  baser  sort.'  John  Chinaman  has  been  the  butt  and  sport 
of  boys  and  men.  The  treatment  meted  out  has  not  favourably 
impressed  him,  nor  reflected  honour  upon  the  European,  lie 
has  so  often  been  the  victim  of  malice  and  all  uncharitableness 
as  to  make  him  wonder  what  sort  of  people  he  had  come 
amongst.     lie  coukl  not  but  help  being  puzzU-d  at  llif  j)eculiar 


212       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

interpretations  of  the  Cliristian  principles  to  which  he  was 
accustomed  to  listen  from  the  lips  of  the  missionary.  This 
was  anything  but  helpful  from  the  religious  standpoint. 
Indeed,  it  often  drove  men  from  Christian  influence  and 
embittered  their  souls.  The  wonder  is  that  the  Chinese  did 
not  make  reprisals  on  their  assailants.  Their  restraint  spoke 
well  for  their  peaceable  disposition  and  law-abiding  qualities. 
Considering  the  number  of  Chinese  living  in  groups  and 
under  conditions  peculiar  to  the  race,  they  gave  little  trouble 
to  the  police.  Now  and  then  there  were  serious  disturbances, 
such  as  that  at  Lambing  Flat  gold-field  in  New  South  Wales 
in  1862.  European  diggers  attempted  to  drive  the  Chinese 
from  the  field,  and  military  forces  had  to  be  sent  on  two 
occasions  to  protect  the  Orientals  from  savage  brutality. 
Outbreaks  of  a  less  serious  nature  occurred  in  other  places, 
v;here  it  was  thought  the  Asiatics  impinged  upon  the  rights 
of  Europeans.  Against  this  treatment,  kindliness  was  often 
shown  to  the  stranger;  who,  being  naturally  sensitive,  was 
prepared  to  make  the  best  of  the  situation.  But  the  question 
arises  :  '  Why  any  hostility  ?  '  That  is  more  easily  asked 
than  answered.  There  was  the  thought  that  the  Chinese 
had  no  right  to  come  to  Australia,  and  that  an  amalgam 
with  them  was  not  only  undesirable,  but  impossible;  that  the 
habits  of  the  Chinese  were  so  repugnant  as  to  make  their 
presence  an  eyesore  and  a  menace ;  that  their  economic  way 
of  living  was  at  variance  with  the  ideals  of  the  European 
wage-earner;  that  what  money  they  saved  they  sent  to  China ; 
that  their  presence  in  Australia  was  detrimental  to  the  instincts 
closely  bound  up  with  British  traditions  and  ambitions;  and 
last,  but  not  least,  that  these  men  from  the  East  had  left  their 
wives  behind  them,  thus  leading  to  a  condition  of  morals  of 
the  worst  kind. 

As  time  went  on,  a  number  of  Chinese  succeeded  in  per- 
suading European  women  to  marry  them.  Thus  a  good 
many  half-castes  came  into  the  community.  A  half-caste 
occupies  an  unenviable  position,  and  is  to  be  pitied.     As  a 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        213 

rule,  these  half-caste  children  are  naturally  brij^du  and  clever, 
and  some  of  them  have  done  well  in  the  community. 
Europeans,  though  of  different  race  and  speech,  may  unite 
and  coalesce;  but  European  and  Asiatic  blood,  when  mingled, 
has  not  given  satisfactory  results.  Whatever  the  future  may 
do,  there  is  now^  a  natural  disinclination  to  have  an  amalgam 
of  the  two  distinct  breeds.  '  East  is  East,  and  West  is  West.' 
In  the  early  days  of  Chinese  emigration  to  Australia,  when 
the  flood-gates  were  opened  and  a  rushing  torrent  came 
through,  great  concern  was  created,  and  attempts  were  made 
to  stem  the  tide.  It  was  feared  that  if  restrictions  were  not 
imposed,  Australia  would  be  overrun  with  these  undesirable 
Asiatics.  A  poll-tax,  therefore,  of  ;^io  was  first  enacted;  this 
was  afterwards  increased  to  /^^o,  and  later  still  raised  to  a 
higher  amount. 

Under  the  regime  of  the  Commonwealth  an  educational  test 
has  been  created,  making  it  impossible  for  Asiatics  to  land 
unless  they  can  pass  an  examination  in  some  European 
language.  The  captain  of  any  vessel  bringing  an  Asiatic 
to  Australia  and  allowing  him  to  land  is  made  to  forfeit  the 
sum  of  ;^ioo.  Apart  from  these  stringent  provisions,  the 
number  of  Chinese  was  gradually  lessening.  As  the  alluvial 
gold-fields  were  worked  out,  the  men  went  home  in  thousands, 
for  there  was  no  purpose  to  be  served  by  remaining.  If  many 
returned  to  China  with  full  purses,  many  more  went  back 
with  hardly  anything ;  and  this  fact,  no  doubt,  had  a  deterrent 
effect.  To-day  the  number  of  Chinese  in  Australia  is  com- 
paratively small,  probably  not  more  than  a  third  the  number 
of  forty  years  ago.  The  proportion  is  becoming  less  each 
year.  In  many  districts  where  formerly  the  Asiatic  face  was 
a  familiar  object,  it  is  now  almost  a  curiosity. 

The  sentiment  of  a  '  W^hite  Australia,'  that  is,  keeping  the 
continent  free  from  the  taint  of  foreign  blood  and  preserving 
the  British  stock  inlacf,  is  one  that  undoubtedly  finds  favour 
with  the  majority;  hence  the  legislation  enacted.  This  legisla- 
tion swept  the  Kanakas  from  the  sugar-cane  fields  of  Queens- 


214       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

land  to  their  island  homes  in  the  Pacific.  It  was  felt  at  the 
time  that  if  the  Chinese,  Japanese,  and  some  others  could 
have  been  extradited  also,  it  would  have  been  a  blessing. 
The  black,  untutored  man  from  the  islands  could  be  dealt 
with,  and  there  was  no  one  to  protest ;  but  the  men  from  the 
East  could  not  be  treated  in  that  summary  fashion.  Inter- 
national treaties  had  to  be  borne  in  mind,  and  care  taken 
as  to  w^hat  was  done.  As  far  as  the  Chinese  problem  was 
concerned,  we  made  it  for  ourselves.  If  at  the  first  the  Asiatic 
had  not  been  allowed  to  go  near  a  gold-field,  there  would 
have  been  no  trouble  on  his  account,  and  no  complaint  could 
have  been  made.  It  seems  a  pity  the  cry  of  a  '  White 
Australia  '  was  raised.  The  British  race  has  been  known  to 
have  a  wide  outlook  and  large  sympathies,  and  to  be  the 
exponent  of  a  world-wide  brotherhood,  holding  out  a  welcome 
hand  to  all.  To  slam  and  bolt  the  door  because  the  skin  colour 
and  the  accent  of  speech  are  different  from  our  own  is  a  new 
thing  in  our  history.  How  it  looks  in  the  eyes  of  those  on 
the  other  side  of  the  door  is  a  matter  upon  which  we  may 
hear  something  later.  The  pendulum  of  self-consciousness 
may  swing  too  far  and  dislocate  vital  things. 

The  experience  of  some  other  countries  having  alien 
elements  mingled  with  their  own  has,  no  doubt,  much  to  do 
in  creating  and  keeping  alive  the  sentiment  of  purity  of  race: 
but  when  the  subject  is  dispassionately  considered,  it  is  seen 
that  the  condition  of  things  in  Australia  is  totally  unlike  that, 
say,  of  America,  where  the  negro  emphasis  is  so  pronounced. 
As  far  as  the  black  man  of  the  Pacific  was  concerned,  his 
presence  was  temporary.  Me  was  engaged  to  do  certain  work 
for  a  certain  period;  and  it  was  impossible  for  him  to  remain 
a  permanent  factor  in  our  land,  or  become  assimilated  with 
the  European.  He  belonged,  also,  to  a  dying  race,  so  that  it 
was  but  a  question  of  time  when  he  would  cease  to  be.  As 
far  as  the  Asiatic  is  concerned,  he  is  a  visitor,  here  for  a 
purpose;  and  when  that  purpose  is  served,  he  vanishes  for 
ever.    Not  one  of  these  aliens  wishes  to  die  in  Australia;  and 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        215 

when  one  does  die  in  the  loreii^ner's  land,  his  b(jiies  arc 
packed  and  shipped  to  the  homeland,  to  find  sepulclire  on 
the  hill-sides  near  the  dust  of  his  forefathers.  It  is  right  to 
keep  ourselves  free  from  any  race  that  would  taint  our  blood, 
contaminate  our  morals,  lower  our  ideals,  or  make  us  less 
self-respecting-.  The  question,  however,  arises  :  '  Have  we 
not  gone  too  far  in  our  anxiety  to  keep  ourselves  to  ourselves, 
thus  conveying  a  false  impression  to  the  minds  of  those  whose 
memories  are  proverbially  retentive?  '  The  future  alone  will 
give  the  answer. 

'  The  yellow  peril  '  is  a  coined  phrase,  frequently  heard 
from  public  speakers  or  from  writers  in  the  press.  It  is  used 
to  express  the  danger  that  may  arise  from  the  new-born 
Eastern  nations.  Many  fear  that  when  China  and  Japan  end 
their  own  quarrels  and  join  forces  they  will  not  be  content 
to  remain  where  they  are,  but  will  live  up  to  their  possibilities, 
and  show  the  world  what  can  be  done  in  the  way  of  aggres- 
sion. Having  been  asleep  so  long,  like  Rip  Van  Winkle,  but 
now  wide-awake,  they  will  make  up  for  lost  time  and  surprise 
the  world.  Once  let  this  thought  soak  into  the  mind,  it  will 
be  hard  to  dislodge  it.  The  possibilities  of  a  combination 
of  the  forces  of  nearly  500,000,000  in  the  far  East  stagger  the 
imagination.  In  point  of  mere  numbers,  they  could  throw 
into  the  field  an  overwhelming  army,  such  as  would  dwarf 
into  insignificance  the  greatest  Iiuropean  power,  a  combina- 
tion of  armies,  or  of  all  the  luiropcan  forces  combined.  They 
could  as  easily  alter  the  geography  of  the  Western  world  as 
the  Goths  and  Huns  altered  it  many  centuries  ago,  thus  giving 
a  new  turn  to  the  history  of  mankind.  The  thoughts  of  some 
have  even  gone  lo  this  length.  There  is  no  closing  our  eyes 
to  the  fact  that  the  display  given  bv  Japan  alone  during  recent 
years  has  made  the  world  stare  with  astonishment,  and  think 
along  new  and  unexpected  lines. 

Quite  recently  Japan  was  a  mere  cypher  in  political  caK  ula- 
tions,  not  the  slightest  notice  being  taken  of  her  opinions  or 
doings.    She  is  now  one  of  the  great  Powers  to  be  reckoned 


2i6       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

with.  Her  conflict  with  China  over  Korea,  and  the  ease  with 
which  she  conquered  her  too-confident  foe ;  her  defeat  of 
Russia  when,  flushed  with  new  honours,  she  faced  the 
seasoned,  valiant  forces  of  the  Russian  Tsar,  and  deah  with 
them  as  a  mother  castigates  her  unruly  bairns,  were  evidences 
of  a  transformation  which  captured  the  imagination  of  the 
world  and  provoked  the  exclamation  :  '  What  next  ?  '  That 
is  the  question  many  are  asking  to-day.  If  Japan,  with  a 
population  of  under  50,000,000,  could  do  such  wonders,  what 
could  not  China  do  with  an  almost  unthinkable  number? 
And  when  the  thought  of  an  alliance  with  Japan  is  added, 
and  the  two  Powers  united  in  one  great  purpose,  it  is  enough 
to  take  away  one's  breath.  There  is  the  fact  also  that  China 
is  getting  ready,  as  did  Japan,  to  play  a  new  part  in  the 
drama  of  human  life.  It  is  simply  a  question  of  time,  not 
far  away,  when  she  will  have  shaken  herself  free  from  her 
old  ways,  espoused  Western  learning  and  modes  of  life,  and 
girded  herself  for  any  conflict  to  protect  or  advance  her 
interests. 

The  happenings  of  to-day  in  that  great  empire  all  point  in 
this  direction.  If  things  at  present  are  in  a  state  of  flux, 
there  will  undoubtedly  emerge  a  new  nation,  strong  in  its 
sense  of  a  giant's  power,  sensitive  to  anything  affecting  its 
honour  or  self-respect,  and  with  its  mind  made  up  to  defend 
national  rights  at  all  costs  and  at  all  points.  There  is  much 
speculation  as  to  whether  the  Eastern  people  will  be  content 
to  confine  themselves  to  the  East ;  or  whether,  following  the 
example  of  the  Western  nations,  they  will  annex  other  terri- 
tories. The  fear  exists  that  Austraha,  because  of  her 
geographical  situation  and  her  sparseness  of  population, 
may  tempt  the  Asiatic  to  cross  the  narrow  sea,  overcome 
a  weak  enemy,  and  dictate  his  own  terms.  The  thought 
of  '  the  yellow  peril  '  sits  like  a  hideous  nightmare  on 
the  minds  of  thousands,  and  it  stubbornly  refuses  to  be 
shaken  off. 

In   order   to   prepare   for   such   contingencies   Australia   is 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        217 

fretting  ready  by  building  a  navy  to  patrol  and  protect  her 
shores,  and  by  drilling  an  army  to  defend  her  interests.  The 
principle  of  conscription  is  in  full  operation,  and  all  youths 
are  compelled  to  attend  compulsory  drill.  The  penalty  for 
non-compliance  is  fine  and  imprisonment.  This  is  a  new- 
thing  in  Australia,  or  in  any  British  community.  Australia 
thus  has  the  distinction  of  being  the  first  people  under  the 
Union  Jack  to  make  military  service  compulsory.  Whether 
this  is  also  an  '  honour  '  is  a  point  on  which  there  is  divided 
opinion.  Numbers  of  Australians  view  the  new  law  with 
anything  but  satisfaction.  Some  have  resisted  the  compul- 
sory clauses,  preferring  to  suffer  the  penalties.  But  the  law- 
remains,  and  w^hile  it  does  remain  there  is  evident  determina- 
tion to  see  its  provisions  carried  out.  Australia  has  been 
turned  into  a  vast  parade-ground,  with  cadet  and  adult  corps 
everywhere.  There  is  evidence  of  a  militarism  which  marks 
a  revolution  in  our  experience.  The  cries  of  the  drill-instructor 
are  the  highest  notes  heard  in  the  land.  A  rifle  is  placed  in 
the  hands  of  every  male  below  a  certain  age.  The  military 
spirit  is  everywhere.  Australians  are  being  taught  to  march 
to  new  music.  The  Federal  Government  has  launched  a  naval 
and  military  policy,  the  development  of  which  involves  the 
expenditure  of  millions. 

This  means  increased  taxation  and  a  drain  upon  resources 
previously  available  for  other  purposes.  The  effect  is  being 
felt  in  many  directions;  the  future  only  can  tell  the  wisdom 
or  otherwise  of  this  departure.  All  recognize  the  obligation 
to  help  the  Motherland,  and  to  share  with  her  the  respon- 
sibilities of  empire;  but  there  is  divided  opinion  as  to  whether 
we  have  gone  too  far  by  turning  the  land  into  a  military 
college  with  provisions  for  coercion.  The  fear  in  many  minds 
is  that  the  two  Asiatic  Powers  not  far  from  our  shores  may 
make  common  cause,  and  come  down  upon  us.  This  is  the 
argument  used  to  justify  the  warlike  preparations  on  land  and 
sea.  But  is  there  much  in  the  argument?  Things  that 
are  possible  may   never  take  place.     When   the  question   is 


2i8       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

thoroughly  considered,  there  is  reason  to  think  there  will  be 
no  invasion. 

As  for  Japan,  she  spent  her  money  on  her  late  wars;  and 
being  a  poor  country,  it  will  take  her  many  years  to  get 
anything  like  a  full  exchequer.  Her  hands  will  be  more  than 
full  in  attending  to  matters  within  the  conquered  territories ; 
and  Australia  has  nothing  in  common  with  Japanese  ideals 
and  life.  For  a  Power  like  Japan  to  insist  on  occupying  the 
Northern  Territory,  a  huge,  undeveloped,  empty  space,  where 
little  is  done,  is  unthinkable.  In  China  it  will  take  long 
for  that  great  land  to  be  reduced  to  order,  to  master  the  new 
learning,  and  to  fit  herself  for  aggressive  action.  The  national 
temperament  in  China  is  not  military.  The  people  are  peace- 
fully inclined ;  they  want  to  be  let  alone  politically  to  work 
out  their  own  salvation  in  their  own  way.  And  if  China  or 
Japan,  singly  or  together,  came  to  Australia  and  succeeded 
in  taking  possession,  would  the  matter  rest  there  ?  Would 
not  the  English-speaking  world  come  to  our  rescue  and  sweep 
the  invaders  into  the  sea  ?  If  the  Orientals  know  anything, 
they  know  that  full  well;  and  therein  lies  our  safeguard.  To 
pick  a  quarrel  with  Australia  would  be  to  quarrel  with  half 
the  world.  What  would  that  mean  to  those  who  began  the 
conflict? 

The  new  life  in  the  East  will  be  used  for  purposes  other 
than  making  raids  on  outside  countries,  unless  driven  to  it. 
Japan  and  China  have  their  hands  full  looking  after  internal 
affairs,  if  they  wish  to  take  a  place  amongst  the  great  Powers 
of  the  world.  They  will  take  care  to  protect  themselves  and 
look  after  their  own  interests.  In  the  past  they  could  not  do 
that,  and  they  suffered  accordingly.  They  were  coerced  in 
a  manner  that  goaded  them  to  desperation,  ending  in  attempts 
to  drive  the  encroaching  foreigner  from  their  midst.  They 
have  been  bullied,  insulted,  and  kicked,  like  a  football !  But 
that  is  now  ended;  the  child  is  growing  into  the  man  of 
robust  mind  and  self-respecting  spirit.  Our  business  is  to 
help  him  in  every  possible  way,  especially  along  the  lines 


THE    ASIATIC    IN    AUSTRALIA        219 

that  make  for  rij4hteousne.ss.  Our  safety  lies,  not  in  ships  of 
war,  or  the  rifle,  or  pohtical  treaties;  but  in  those  thin^rs  that 
touch  the  soul  and  brin<4'  out  peace  and  -goodwill .  When  once 
the  Christian  spirit  enters  the  national  life  and  dominates 
it,  we  are  farthest  removed  from  war.  The  Gospel  of  Jesus 
Christ  will  bind  the  nations  in  f^olden  chains,  taking  out  the 
beast  spirit,  and  placint;-  in  the  breast  the  heart  of  love. 


PART    III 
HISTORICAL 


CHAPTER    I 

NEW   SOUTH    WALES 

Bv  JAMES   COLWELL,    F.R.Hist.S. 

Sydney 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

A  study  of  origins — Stages — An  appeal — The  Rocks — The  first  Society 
— Scott — Hosking — Eagar — Bowden — Morals — Church  and  State 
— Early  chaplains  —  Marsden — The  Imperial  vision — Leigh — 
Lawry — Developments — Sydney  asylum — Erskine — A  night  of 
gloom — Orton — McKenny — Boyce  —  First  Conference  —  Young — 
Activity — New  churches — Jubilee — Visitors — Separate  Conferences 
— Methodist  Conference — Funds — Foreign  and  Home  Missions — 
Education  ^  Commemorations  —  Book  Room — The  Methodist — 
Printing  Concern — Sunday  schools — The  future? 


CHAPTER    I 

NF,\V    SOUTH    WALES 

The  Methodism  of  Ausiralia  supplies  an  interesting  chapter 

in  the  study  of  origins.     To  understand  the  position  of  the 

Church  in  New  South  Wales  a  glance  at  these  origins,  even 

though  it  he  hut  hrief,  is  necessary.     When  contrasted  with 

Victoria   and    New    Zealand,    for   example,    the    New    South 

Wales  type  shows  an  element  of  conservatism  not  apparent 

elsewhere.     Its  position  numerically  has  sometimes  provoked 

unfavourable  criticism.     But  it  will  be  seen  as  this  chapter 

proceeds,  that  the  genesis  of  Methodism  in  New  South  Wales 

was  surrounded  by  the  greatest  difficulties.     The  wonder  is 

not  that  it  grew^  so  slowly,  but  that  it  grew  at  all  !     It  is  a 

tribute  to  its  vigour  and  power  of  adaptation.     Planted  in  a 

convict  settlement,   it  was  only  tolerated  by  the  leniency  of 

the  Governor  at  a  time  when  it  would  have  been  easy  to  come 

into  open   conflict   with   the   Anglican   chaplains,   who   were 

supreme  in  religious  matters,  but  who  also,  at  that  stage,  were 

tolerant  and  sympathetic.     In  Victoria  and  South  Australia, 

Methodism  was  not  so  handicapped.    The  gold  discoveries  in 

Victoria  drew  the  young,  the  vigorous,  and  the  enterprising 

in    large    numbers,    amongst    whom    were    many    Cornish 

Methodists,  who  brought  their  traditions  and  their  religious 

convictions  with  them,  and  infused  a  stream  of  warm,  rich 

blood  into  an  otherwise  sluggish  current.     The  pulse  beats 

stronger  to-day  because  of  that  mixture.     As  Dr.   Burgess 

points    out    elsewhere.    South    Australia    was    founded    and 

planned  by  Christian  statesmen.     These  facts  influenced  the 

Methodism   of   the  various   States  to  an   extent   not   always 

realized.    New  South  Wales  was  the  Mother  State  from  which 

223 


224       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  Methodism  of  every  other  State  struck  root,  and  from 
which,  in  the  early  stages,  it  was  administered.  The  foreign 
mission  work  is  still  administered  by  the  New  South  Wales 
Conference,  assisted  by  a  committee  representing  all  the 
States. 

One  other  preliminary  remark  may  be  made.  It  will  assist 
to  a  better  understanding  if  the  natural  divisions  into  which 
the  work  falls  are  followed.  From  the  initial  year  1812  to  the 
year  1855,  when  self-government  was  first  granted,  covers 
six  stages.  From  1855  to  the  present  there  have  been  four 
Conferences:  (i)  the  Australasian  Conference;  (2)  the  New 
South  Wales  and  Queensland  Conference ;  (3)  the  New  South 
Wales  Conference,  and  now  (4)  the  Methodist  Conference, 
representing  the  united  church  after  the  consummation  of 
Methodist  Union. 

The  first  stage  opens  with  a  plea  marked  by  true  eloquence 
and  pathos  :  '  Send  a  faithful  servant  of  the  Lord  to  us ; 
surely  there  are  many  willing,  yea,  desirous  to  succour  the 
disciples  of  our  common  Lord,  to  proclaim  His  salvation  to 
perishing  sinners,  even  in  this  distant  land.  Find  out  one 
such,  and  send  him  among  us.  Deny  us  not ;  our  hearts,  our 
expectations  are  turned  to  you.  Our  hope  is  from  you: 
disappoint  us  not.  We  call  upon  you  in  our  own  behalf; 
leave  us  not  forsaken  in  this  benighted  land.  We  call  upon 
you  in  behalf  of  our  children  ;  let  not  them  be  left  to  perish 
for  lack  of  instruction.  We  call  upon  you  in  behalf  of  those 
who  have  neither  opportunity  nor  inclination  to  speak  for 
themselves,  perishing,  dying  sinners ;  leave  them  not  in  their 
blood.  We  call  upon  you  in  the  name  of  the  outcasts  of 
society,  sent  and  daily  sending  thither.  Administer  to  them 
that  Word  of  Life,  which  may  make  their  exile  a  blessing. 
Send  us  that  gospel  which  you  have  received  from  the  Lord 
to  preach  to  every  creature.  Send  among  us  one  of  your- 
selves, and  we,  and  a  seed  of  the  Lord,  shall  rise  to  bless  you.' 
From   whence   came   this  Macedonian   cry?     In   the  early 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  225 

part  of  the  year  1812,  probably  in  the  month  of  February,  a 
little  company  gathered  in  the  house  of  Thomas  Bowden,  in 
the  locality  known  as  the  Rocks,  above  the  King's  wharf. 
The  house  looked  down  on  the  blue  waters  of  Sydney  Cove, 
with  the  Tank  Stream  sluggishly  discharging  its  tiny  stream 
of  fresh  water  into  the  bay  where  Phillip  cast  anchor  January 
26,  1788,  and  founded  the  colony  of  New  South  Wales.  On 
the  opposite  side  of  the  bay  was  the  Governor's  residence 
with  the  attendant  signs  of  official  life.  The  house  stood  in 
the  midst  of  a  strange  company  :  convicts,  ticket-of-leave 
men,  soldiers  and  officials,  with  here  and  there  a  free  man 
drawn  mysteriously  to  make  his  home  in  this  land  of  exile. 
This  company  had  gathered  for  fellowship  and  prayer ;  and 
having  formed  itself  into  a  society,  authorized  two  of  its 
number,  Thomas  Bowden  and  John  Hosking,  to  write  to  the 
Wesleyan  Missionary  Committee  asking  for  the  appointment 
of  a  missionary.  The  words  quoted  are  part  of  that  appeal. 
Thus  the  year  181 2  is  memorable  ;  for  it  was  on  March  6,  181 2, 
that  Methodism  was  founded  in  the  South  Pacific. 

Let  us  take  a  glance  at  this  society,  that  we  may  see  what 
manner  of  men  stood  at  the  springs  of  the  church.  The  first 
to  arrive  in  the  settlement  was  James  Scott,  a  sergeant  in 
Captain  Campbell's  company — the  108th — which  did  service 
in  New  South  Wales  between  July  i  and  September 
30,  1788.  Scott  had  been  a  soldier  in  the  West  Indies, 
where  he  was  converted  and  joined  the  Wesleyan  Church. 
While  in  New  South  Wales  with  his  company,  he  so 
distinguished  himself  by  his  probity  that  he  merited  the 
good  opinion  of  the  Governor;  who,  on  his  retirement  from 
the  army,  appointed  him  clerk  in  the  commissariat  depart- 
ment, where  he  again  won  promotion.  On  the  arrival  of  the 
first  missionary,  Scott  opened  his  house  for  week-night 
services.  Buying  property  in  Prince's  Street,  he  sold  one 
house  to  the  Missionary  Society  for  £300,  retaining  the  other 
for  his  own  use.  Scott's  patriotism  was  of  the  best  type. 
Q 


226       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

First,  a  soldier  of  the  King,  he  developed  into  a  valiant  soldier 
of  the  Cross.  He  laid  the  foundation-stone  of  the  first  chapel 
in  Sydney,  built  at  a  cost  of  500  guineas,  himself  bearing  the 
whole  expense.  This  chapel  he  presented  to  the  Missionary 
Society  for  its  exclusive  use.  Here  '  Daddy  Scott,'  as  he  v^^as 
affectionately  termed  in  later  life,  worshipped  for  many  years. 
Returning  from  a  preaching  appointment,  Sunday,  Decem- 
ber 9,  1832,  he  was  thrown  from  his  horse  and  died  in  three 
hours.  He  was  buried  by  the  Rev.  Joseph  Orton,  who  had 
recently  arrived  in  the  colony. 

John  Hosking  comes  next  in  point  of  time.  Hosking 
arrived  in  the  settlement  as  a  free  man  in  or  about  the  year 
1809,  to  take  charge  of  the  Girls'  Orphan  School.  He  had 
been  master  of  a  Wesleyan  day  school  in  England.  Soon 
after  his  arrival  he  joined  with  Messrs.  Davies,  Crook,  and 
Wilson  in  an  effort  to  form  a  church  on  the  Congregational 
plan.  These  agents  of  the  London  Missionary  Society,  driven 
from  their  stations  in  Tahiti  and  the  Marquesas,  found  a 
domicile  in  New  South  Wales.  Their  first  meeting,  held  in 
Crook's  schoolhouse  at  the  corner  of  Bligh  and  Hunter 
streets,  August  27,  1810,  was  opened  by  Hosking  with  singing 
and  prayer.  But  the  proposal  was  frowned  down  by  Samuel 
Marsden,  the  chaplain,  who  objected  to  Crook  administering 
holy  communion.  Crook  had  been  a  lay  agent  only,  and 
Marsden  resented  this  assumption  of  the  ministerial  office. 
Hosking  was  not  an  enthusiastic  Methodist,  and  the  part  he 
played  in  subsequent  years  was  unimportant.  It  is  worthy 
of  note,  however,  that  his  son  became  the  first  mayor  of 
Sydney. 

Edward  Eagar,  an  Irishman  by  birth,  and  a  solicitor 
by  profession,  had  committed  embezzlement,  a  crime  which 
then  carried  the  death  penalty.  Extenuating  circumstances 
coming  to  light,  the  sentence  was  commuted  to  transportation, 
and  Eagar  soon  found  himself  on  the  way  to  Botany  Bay. 
During  his  imprisonment  in  Ireland  he  was  visited  by 
Methodists,  through  whose  guidance  he  obtained  peace  with 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES 


2  2  7 


God.  On  arrival  in  this  land  he  subsequently  found  his  way 
to  Windsor;  where,  on  the  expiration  of  his  sentence,  he 
taught  school  during  the  week,  read  the  liturgy,  preached 
on  the  Sabbath  and  joined  the  Sydney  Methodists  in  fellow- 
ship as  opportunity  offered.  Eagar  afterwards  entered  into 
business  in  O'Connell  Street,  Sydney,  with  success;  and 
being  sent  to  England  in  1821  to  plead  the  cause  of  the 
emancipists,  who  suffered  certain  disabilities,  he  did  not 
return.  But  Methodism  will  always  owe  a  debt  to  Edward 
Eagar,  for  he  helped  the  struggling  mission  financially  and 
in  other  ways,  in  the  days  of  its  infancy,  and  when  it  most 
needed  help. 

Thomas  Bowden,  the  moving  spirit  in  this  company, 
arrived  in  the  settlement  January  28,  1812.  A  west  country 
man  by  birth,  he  had  been  master  of  Great  Queen  Street 
charity  schools.  He  was  also  a  class-leader  in  the  London 
East  circuit.  Bowden 's  fixity  of  character  came  from  his 
progenitors,  for  he  could  trace  his  connexion  with  Bishop 
Lavington,  Methodism's  abusive  critic,  with  James  Turner 
of  pious  memory,  and  with  Shrapnel,  an  ancestor  of  the 
inventor  of  the  famous  Shrapnel  shell.  Bowden  organized, 
and  remained  in  charge  of,  the  Boys'  Orphan  School  for  some 
years ;  when  he  retired  into  private  life,  and  died  at  the 
residence  of  his  son-in-law  at  Singleton,  September  1834,  at 
the  age  of  fifty-six. 

These  four  pioneers  were  joined  later  by  others  of  like  mind, 
Messrs.  Lees,  Norman,  Forbes,  Hynes,  Josephson,  Har- 
graves,  Hughes  and  Hunt  being  amongst  the  number.  By  far 
the  most  picturesque  figure  in  this  group  was  John  Lees,  the 
Castlereagh  farmer.  Lees  was  a  brand  plucked  from  the 
burning.  Forgiven  greatly,  he  greatly  loved.  Arriving  as 
a  private  in  the  notorious  New  South  Wales  corps,  he  was 
contaminated  by  the  corrupt  lives  of  those  in  command.  On 
his  retirement  from  the  army  he  could  claim  a  grant  of  land 
or  return  to  Jingland.  He  selected  land  at  Castlereagh,  where 
he  made  his  home,  and  where  he  also  erected  a  small  chapel 


228       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  rough  slabs  at  his  own  expense,  if  not  with  his  own  hands. 
This  chapel  Lees  presented  to  the  mission.  The  gift  was  but 
the  precursor  of  many  other  generous  deeds  in  which  he  took 
great  delight — a  joy  shared  by  his  good  wife,  Mary.  When 
on  his  way  to  Bathurst  in  1832,  the  Rev.  Joseph  Orton  turned 
aside  to  visit  Lees.  He  found  his  body  crippled  with  rheu- 
matism, his  mind  clouded  by  doubt.  The  little  chapel  did 
duty  as  a  village  school,  where  an  inefficient  master  sought 
to  impart  to  a  few  unruly  boys  the  rudiments  of  knowledge. 
Lees'  grave  may  be  seen  in  the  Castlereagh  cemetery. 

These,  then,  were  the  men  who  laid  the  foundations  of  the 
church  in  Australasia.  Bowden  and  Hosking  in  Sydney, 
and  Eagar  in  Windsor,  gathered  whom  they  could  into  class- 
meetings,  the  first  class-meeting  being  held  at  Sydney, 
March  6,  1812,  and  the  first  lovefeast  of  the  three  united 
societies  on  April  3,  1812.  It  was  at  one  of  these  gatherings 
that  the  society  authorized  Bowden  and  Hosking  to  write 
the  appeal  for  a  missionary.  Scott  and  Lees,  out  of  their 
generosity,  provided  Methodist  chapels.  Bowden  pressed  for 
the  appointment  of  a  missionary.  Their  united  efforts  gave 
Methodism  a  name  and  a  place  in  the  southern  world. 

The  soul  of  this  infant  society  was  moved  with  divine  pity. 

What  saw  they  in  the  land  of  their  adoption  ?    They  saw,  to 

use  their  own  words,  a  population  numbering  20,000,  more 

than  half  in  Sydney,  which  sat  in  darkness  and  the  shadow 

of  death.    They  saw  sin  with  its  mournful  handmaid,  misery, 

overflowing  the  land  as  a  deluge.    They  saw  the  higher  ranks 

of  those  who  were  formerly  convicts,  occupied  in  amassing 

wealth,  often  by  unholy  means,  or  in  rioting  and  sensuality. 

They  saw  the  lower  orders,  '  the  filth  and  offscouring  of  the 

earth,'    indulging    in    vicious    inclinations   without   a   blush. 

Drunkenness,  adultery.  Sabbath  desecration  and  blasphemy, 

ran  riot ;  and  all  ties  of  moral  order  and  decency  were  not 

simply  relaxed,    they   were  wellnigh  extinct.     Some   of   the 

military  authorities  openly  flaunted  their  depravity  and  lived 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  229 

in  concubinage,  selecting  the  most  prepossessing  females 
from  amongst  the  convicts  as  they  arrived.  They  saw  New 
South  Wales  made  the  dumping  ground  for  the  refuse  oi' 
British  jails,  thrown  there  lo  develop  an  atmosphere  which 
bid  fair  to  outrival  that  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah.  They  saw 
this  and  much  more,  and  the  sight  wrung  their  hearts  with 
pity,  which  found  voice  in  their  appeal  for  a  missionary. 

But  did  no  other  eye  see,  and  no  other  heart  pity?  What 
of  the  system  whose  primary  aim  was  to  rehabilitate  and 
reform  the  fallen?  And  what  of  the  Imperial  authorities  and 
their  responsibility  in  providing  spiritual  oversight?  What 
of  the  Anglican  Church  and  its  opportunities  through  its 
official  connexion  with  the  State?  The  State,  as  such,  did 
little;  for  it  thought  that  little  could  be  done.  Viscount 
Sydney,  then  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies,  ridiculed 
any  attempt  to  reform  criminals  by  the  power  of  the  gospel, 
and  his  attitude  represented  that  of  many  other  statesmen 
and  not  a  few  clerics  in  high  office.  The  Governor  was  too 
fully  occupied  with  more  pressing  needs.  Phillip's  ingenuity 
was  so  severely  taxed  in  feeding  the  bodies  of  his  many 
dependents  that  he  could  spare  little  time  to  feed  their  souls. 
His  successors,  Hunter  and  King,  did  what  they  could.  But 
Hunter  was  a  sailor,  and  the  smell  of  the  sea  held  him  fast. 
Acting  under  instructions.  King  set  apart  land  for  church 
and  school  purposes.  But  primitive  bush,  covered  with  giant 
gum-trees,  could  not  yield  much  in  the  absence  of  labour  to 
make  it  productive.  Macquarie,  the  next  Governor,  was 
friendly  and  sympathetic,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  he 
and  Marsden,  the  second  chaplain,  did  not  always  agree. 
And  the  '  system  '  so-called,  in  the  light  of  modern  methods, 
must  be  termed  barbaric.  The  gallows  and  the  whip  were 
the  primary  instruments  of  reform,  and  the  sound  of  the 
lash  was  heard  throughout  the  land,  crushing  as  it  fell 
the  aspirations  of  the  hopeful  or  torturing  the  seasoned 
criminal  into  maddened  rage.  Thus  Kngland  blundered  as 
she  blunders  still.     But  it  is  a  tribute  to  her  wonderful  power 


230       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

that  in  spite  of  her  blunders,  she  succeeds  in  her  work  of 
colonization. 

It  is  impossible  here  to  withhold  the  tribute  due  to  the 
early  chaplains.  Richard  Johnson,  who  accompanied  the  first 
fleet,  and  who  preached  the  first  sermon  on  January  27,  1788, 
was  a  good  man,  the  possessor  of  a  meek  and  patient  spirit, 
which  was  sorely  tried  during  his  twelve  years'  residence. 
For  seven  years  he  preached  under  the  shade  of  a  friendly 
gum-tree  until  his  wattle-and-daub  church,  built  largely  by 
his  own  effort  and  entirely  at  his  own  expense,  though  the 
amount  was  afterwards  refunded,  was  erected.  The  convicts 
showed  their  appreciation  of  his  labours  by  putting  a  fire- 
stick  into  the  church,  and  it  soon  disappeared.  But  he  per- 
severed and  finally  triumphed ;  living  the  life  of  a  true 
missionary,  who  by  pen  and  voice  and  godly  example 
exemplified  the  spirit  of  his  Master.  Samuel  Marsden,  the 
second  chaplain,  was  cast  in  sturdier  mould.  The  son  of 
Methodist  parents  at  Horsforth  near  Leeds,  he  prepared  for 
holy  orders  at  Cambridge.  Strong  and  self-reliant,  Marsden 
possessed  a  sturdy  independence  which  soon  made  itself  felt. 
What  he  thought,  he  expressed ;  what  he  expressed  that  he 
adhered  to;  and  the  critics  were  soon  busy.  Sydney  Smith 
described  him  as  '  a  little,  merry,  bustling  clergyman,  largely 
concerned  in  the  sale  of  rum  and  brisk  at  a  bargain  for  barley.' 
Such  a  sneer  is  cheap,  and  devoid  of  clear  vision.  While 
Sydney  Smith  sat  in  his  chair,  coining  phrases  and  seeking 
admiration  for  his  witticisms,  Marsden  was  doing  the  spade- 
work  of  empire  building,  working  with  his  coat  off.  Which 
is  the  easier  and  which  of  greater  value,  the  reader  may 
decide. 

The  transgressors  on  their  way  to  the  courts  of  justice,  with 
visions  of  Marsden  as  the  administrator,  were  said  to  have 
prayed  :  '  Lord,  have  mercy  on  us,  for  his  reverence  has 
none  !  '  Perhaps  not.  But  there  are  times  when  the  iron 
hand  is  necessary,  and  when  a  flabby,  timid  justice  brings 
chaos  instead  of  order.     In  his  administration  of  justice,  his 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  231 

efforts  in  agricultural  and  pastoral  development,  and  his  work 
as  a  clergyman,  Marsden  influenced  life  at  many  points.  He 
was  the  friend  of  every  o-ood  cause,  and  to  his  sheltering 
influence  early  Methodism  owes  a  lasting  debt.  Cowper  and 
Cartwright,  two  other  Anglican  chaplains,  did  excellent  work, 
though  on  different  lines  to  that  of  Marsden.  Great  assistance 
to  the  cause  of  religion  was  also  rendered  by  agents  of  the 
London  Missionary  Society;  who,  forced  to  leave  their 
stations  in  the  South  Sea  Islands,  settled  in  New  South 
Wales.  But  notwithstanding  this,  the  early  Methodists 
wanted  a  missionary  connected  with  their  own  Church. 

Their  appeal  fell  on  sympathetic  ears.  Already  Methodism 
had  caught  the  Imperial  vision.  Wesley's  utterance  :  '  The 
world  is  my  parish,'  was  the  expression  of  that  Imperial 
thought.  But  Wesley  could  not  give  effect  to  this  vision 
because  of  the  crying  needs  at  his  own  door.  He  was  too  busy 
saving  England  from  the  prospect  of  revolution  to  give  much 
heed  to  other  lands.  Thomas  Coke  also  had  this  world-wide 
vision  ;  for  in  the  spirit  of  Xavier  he  was  continually  crying  : 
'  Wider,  further  !  '  He  imbued  his  associates  with  the  same 
passion,  so  that  when  this  appeal  reached  the  Conference  of 
1814,  assembled  at  Bristol,  it  touched  a  responsive  chord. 
Samuel  Leigh  had  been  set  down  for  Montreal ;  but  the 
strained  feeling  then  existing  made  it  inadvisable  to  send 
him  there.  He  was  forthwith  dispatched  to  New  South 
Wales.  Thus  early,  Methodism  set  herself  to  noble  music; 
and  having  resolved  on  the  conquest  of  America,  Canada, 
and  India,  turned  to  take  possession  of  a  new  world. 

The  landing  of  Leigh  in  Sydney  on  August  10,  1815,  intro- 
duces the  second  stage.  Leigh  was  a  Staffordshire  man,  born 
at  Milton  in  1785.  Attendance  at  village  services  conducted 
by  the  Wesleyans  led  to  his  conversion.  Commencing  as  a 
lay  preacher  in  connexion  with  the  Independent  church  at 
Hanley,  he  afterwards  attended  a  theological  school  conducted 
by  Dr.  Bogue ;  where,  owing  to  diversity  of  views  in  matters 


232       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  theology  he  remained  a  short  time  only.  He  then  joined 
the  Wesleyan  church  at  Portsmouth  and  became  assistant 
to  the  Rev.  Joseph  Sutcliffe,  M.A.  Here  Dr.  Coke,  on  his 
way  to  Ceylon,  met  him ;  and  the  interview  fired  his  heart. 
Previously  he  had  laboured  successfully  in  the  Shaftesbury 
Circuit  for  two  years.  In  surrendering  him  to  mission  work, 
his  mother  said :  '  Always  obey  those  who  are  over  you, 
and  you  wull  generally  be  right.  The  will  of  the  Lord  be 
done  !  '  Appearing  before  the  Lord  Mayor  of  London  on 
September  30,  18 14,  and  being  ordained  on  October  3,  the 
same  year,  he  left  Portsmouth  on  February  28  on  board 
the  Hebe  to  join  the  East  and  West  Indian  fleets.  Though 
protected  by  the  government,  Leigh  was  not  dependent  on 
it  for  financial  support.  During  the  voyage  he  preached 
regularly,  taught  the  children,  instructed  the  sailors,  and  so 
commended  himself  by  his  exemplary  conduct  that  the 
captain  declared  that  no  other  voyage  during  his  thirty  years 
had  yielded  him  so  much  satisfaction. 

Leigh  immediately  gave  attention  to  official  claims,  calling 
on  Governor  Macquarie  the  next  morning  accompanied  by 
Edward  Eagar.  Having  explained  his  mission  to  the 
Governor,  Macquarie  replied  :  '  If  those  be  your  objects  they 
are  certainly  of  the  first  importance,  and  if  you  will  endeavour 
to  compass  them  by  the  means  you  have  now  specified,  1 
cannot  but  wish  you  all  the  success  you  can  reasonably  expect 
or  desire.'  He  was  also  most  warmly  welcomed  by  the 
chaplains,  ^lessrs.  Marsden,  Cowper,  Cartwright  and  Fulton, 
upon  whom  he  made  an  official  call.  The  society  next 
claimed  his  attention.  He  found  that  Satan  had  entered, 
scattering  the  feeble  few.  But  they  were  soon  gathered,  and 
the  church  was  organized  with  stewards,  leaders  and  a 
Quarterly  Meeting,  Eagar  being  the  first  circuit  steward. 
The  house  in  which  they  met,  and  for  which  they  paid  ^15 
per  annum,  was  often  filled,  though  it  could  accommodate 
200  persons.  Services  were  held  on  the  Sabbath  at  6  a.m. 
and  6  p.m.;  for  Leigh  thought  it  impolitic  to  clash  with  the 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  233 

Anglican  services,  a  practice  which  the  missionaries  who 
came  immediately  after  did  not  see  fit  to  adopt.  The  Sunday 
school  was  also  re-organized  and  made  eflicient. 

Having  thus  set  the  machinery  of  the  church  in  smooth 
running  order,  Leigh  turned  his  attention  to  the  country, 
making  his  first  visit  to  Castlereagh,  the  home  of  John  Lees 
the  farmer,  where  he  was  received  with  great  warmth.  He 
found  the  family  engaged  in  prayer;  and  feeling  ran  so  high 
that  John  Lees  exclaimed  :  '  We  have  seen  strange  things 
to-day  !  '  Parramatta,  the  second  place  of  importance  in  the 
colony  with  a  Governor's  residence,  was  next  visited. 
Welcomed  by  Marsden,  Leigh  preached,  first  in  a  cottage, 
and  afterwards  in  the  government  schoolroom.  Conversions 
followed,  the  most  memorable  being  that  of  James  Watsford, 
whose  son  John  became  a  successful  evangelist  and 
missionary,  and  the  associate  of  John  Hunt  in  Fiji.  He  was 
the  first  Australian-born  native  to  enter  the  ministry. 
Windsor,  on  the  Hawkesbury  River,  where  the  Governor  had 
another  residence,  received  the  next  call.  In  an  out-house 
Leigh  preached  to  those  who  would  listen ;  then  following 
the  course  of  the  famous  river  he  reached  Ebenezer  Mount, 
calling  at  Wilberforce  on  his  return.  At  Ebenezer  a  few 
free  emigrants  had  settled,  building  a  church,  employing  Mr. 
J.  Youl  as  schoolmaster,  and  founding  a  society  for 
'  Promoting  Christian  Knowledge  and  the  Education  of 
Youth.'  To  these  settlers  Leigh  preached  with  great  accept- 
ance. Richmond,  Castlereagh  and  Liverpool  were  also 
included  in  this  itinerary.  '  My  circuit,'  he  reported  on  his 
return  to  Sydney,  '  extends  150  miles,  which  distance  I  travel 
in  ten  days.  I  preach  at  fifteen  places;  and  in  every  place 
there  appears  to  be  a  desire  to  hear  the  word  of  God.  All 
that  I  can  do  is  to  preach  once  in  three  weeks  at  each  place.' 
Leigh's  hardships  were  many,  and  his  dangers  not  a  few. 
But  he  met  them  all  like  a  good  soldier,  for  he  was  a  true 
missionary.  His  love  was  always  at  white  heat,  burning  with 
a  fierceness  which  eventually  consumed  him.     The  record  of 


234       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

his  journeys  reads  like  a  romance.  '  I  have  gone,'  he  once 
wrote,  '  through  rough  troops  of  savages  in  safety.  Blessed 
be  the  name  of  the  Lord  !  ' 

His  earnest  appeals  to  the  missionary  committee  for 
assistance  were  answered  by  the  appointment  of  another 
missionary,  Walter  Lawry,  who  reached  Sydney,  May  2, 
1818.  A  Cornishman  by  birth,  Lawry  entered  the  ministry  in 
181 7,  and  was  immediately  appointed  to  New  South  Wales. 
Working  for  two  years  with  Leigh,  he  afterwards  took  charge 
of  Parramatta  when  it  became  a  circuit,  where  he  remained 
until  his  appointment  to  Tonga  in  1822.  He  organized  the 
first  society,  instituted  the  first  Sunday  school,  and  erected 
the  first  chapel.  Lawry  was  all  that  Leigh  could  desire  in  a 
colleague ;  and  what  Lawry  thought  of  Leigh  may  be  gathered 
from  the  following  :  '  In  commencing  this  mission,'  he  wrote, 
*  he  has  not  only  been  alone,  like  a  sparrow  upon  the  house- 
top, but  has  endured  calumny  and  opposition  from  those 
from  whom  he  expected  assistance.  His  patient  soul  endured 
all  in  quietness,  and  the  effect  of  his  labours  will  be  seen 
after  many  days.'  Lawry 's  character  may  be  judged  from 
this  one  remark  :  '  We  are  agreed  to  live  on  two  meals  a 
day,  if  we  may  have  another  missionary  and  a  printing-press.' 

The  developments  during  these  four  years  were  so  hopeful 
that  Leigh  might  well  express  his  gratitude  as  he  recorded 
them.  The  few  members  had  increased  to  eighty-three;  the 
Sunday  school  scholars  had  risen  to  a  hundred ;  the  Sabbath 
services  were  now  held  at  nine  in  the  morning  and  seven  in 
the  evening,  when  from  two  to  three  hundred  people  attended  ; 
and  meetings  for  fellowship  and  prayer  were  held  nearly 
every  night  in  the  week.  But  in  the  matter  of  church  building 
the  progress  was  still  more  cheering.  Prince's  Street  chapel 
in  Sydney,  built  of  stone,  and  measuring  21  by  30  feet,  was 
opened  on  March  17,  1819,  when  Leigh  preached  in  the 
cottage  in  the  morning  and  Lawry  in  the  new  chapel  in  the 
evening.  This  chapel,  given  by  Sergeant  James  Scott,  was 
the   first   chapel   built   in    Sydney,    and   its   deed   eventually 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  235 

became  the  model  deed  of  church  property  in  New  South 
Wales.  The  foundation-stone  of  a  chapel  in  Macquarie 
Street  was  next  laid  by  Leigh  on  January  i,  1829.  The  site 
was  given  by  the  Governor  and  Mr.  Thomas  Wylde,  and  the 
chapel,  built  of  stone,  was  50  feet  by  30.  It  was  not  ready 
for  service  until  1821,  when  on  July  i  the  Revs.  Benjamin 
Carvosso  and  Ralph  Mansfield  preached  to  large  congrega- 
tions. September  13,  1818,  was  the  day  chosen  by  Leigh  to 
lay  the  foundation-stone  of  a  chapel  at  \\Mndsor.  This  brick 
building,  32  feet  by  16,  was  opened  the  following  year,  and 
created  no  small  stir  in  the  community.  Samuel  Marsden 
generously  gave  the  site.  But  to  Castlereagh  belongs  the 
honour  of  possessing  the  first  Methodist  chapel  in  the  southern 
hemisphere.  John  Lees,  the  converted  soldier,  erected  this 
weather-board  building,  measuring  28  feet  by  14.  Leigh 
opened  it  on  October  7,  181 7,  his  text  being  :  '  The  Lord  hath 
done  great  things  for  us;  whereof  we  are  glad.'  There  was  no 
mistaking  this  structure  as  a  place  of  worship,  for  Lees  had 
the  words  *  Methodist  Chapel  '  painted  on  the  door,  and 
underneath  he  placed  this  passage  :  '  Prepare  to  meet  thy 
God.'  An  unknown  because  unnamed  friend  also  built  a 
wooden  chapel  at  Nepean  River  at  his  own  expense. 

Encouraged  by  these  developments,  Leigh  pushed  further 
afield.  Having  received  a  pleading  letter  from  a  godly  soldier 
stationed  at  Newcastle,  he  paid  two  visits  to  this  penal  settle- 
ment. During  his  second  visit  he  preached  to  a  congregation 
of  800  persons  who  were  without  ministerial  oversight.  The 
indifferent  state  of  Leigh's  health  led  Marsden  to  suggest  a 
trip  to  New  Zealand.  '  I  am  sending  over  a  ship,'  said 
Marsden,  '  with  stores  for  my  lay  settlers.  I  will  give  you  a 
free  passage,  and  make  such  arrangements  as  shall  secure 
every  comfort  at  sea,  and  your  personal  comfort  while  you 
remain  in  New  Zealand.'  The  trip  was  made;  and  to  that 
trip  the  origin  of  Methodism  in  New  Zealand  is  due;  for 
Leigh  afterwards  became  the  pioneer  missionary  to  that  land. 
At  the  same  time   Lawry  was  pleading  for  Tonga  and  the 


236       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

islands  of  the  sea.  He  would  go  to  Tonga  and  Leigh  to  New 
Zealand,  if  the  missionary  committee  would  agree,  and  would 
also  send  more  missionaries  to  New  South  Wales.  '  The 
Derwent,'  Leigh  told  the  committee,  '  was  a  place  where  the 
gospel  is  much  wanted.'  By  the  Derwent  he  meant  Van 
Dieman's  Land. 

Some  present-day  movements  from  which  New  South 
Wales  has  greatly  benefited  must  be  traced  to  Leigh's  in- 
fluence. Two  of  his  church  members,  a  soldier  and  an 
emancipist,  in  their  work  as  district  visitors,  were  so  deeply 
impressed  by  the  condition  of  the  poor  that  they  laid  the 
matter  before  the  society,  with  the  result  that  a  committee 
was  formed,  the  Rev.  William  Cartwright,  one  of  the 
chaplains,  offering  to  become  a  member.  A  society,  to 
be  known  as  the  New  South  Wales  Society  for  Promoting 
Christian  Knowledge  and  Benevolence,  was  formed,  with 
John  Hosking  as  treasurer,  the  books  being  open  to  inspec- 
tion at  Mr.  Eagar's  store  in  O'Connell  Street.  By  the 
generosity  of  Mr.  Jones,  '  a  wealthy  merchant,'  and  Governor 
Macquarie,  a  generous  friend,  this  movement  developed  into 
an  institution  capable  of  accommodating  fifty  individuals,  and 
known  as  the  Sydney  i\sylum  for  the  Poor.  It  eventually 
became  the  property  of  the  Government.  Much  has  recently 
been  written  of  this  institution  and  its  beneficent  work,  and 
much  was  said  of  those  who  laboured  in  its  interests.  But 
no  mention  was  made  of  the  men  who  conceived  the  idea, 
and  who  helped  to  lay  the  foundations  of  the  Sydney 
Benevolent  Institution. 

These  visitors,  while  on  their  rounds,  made  other  dis- 
coveries. Accompanied  by  a  military  officer,  Leigh  made  a 
canvass  of  Sydney  to  find  that  there  was  but  one  Bible  to 
every  ten  families.  This  fact  being  placed  before  Lady 
Macquarie,  she  was  so  deeply  moved  that  the  outcome  was  a 
public  meeting  in  the  Court  Room,  Sydney,  on  March  7, 
1820,  when  a  branch  of  the  Bible  Society  was  formed.  Leigh 
and   the   Governor's   aide-de-camp   were   the   collectors,   and 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  237 

Thomas  Bowden  was  the  secretary,  an  office  filled  with  the 
highest  satisfaction,  so  the  Sydney  Gazette  thought.  The 
Tract  Society  was  also  formed  in  1823,  though  its  origin  must 
be  traced  to  Leigh's  time,  for  he  had  employed  five  soldiers 
and  three  reformed  convicts  to  distribute  tracts.  With  such 
fidelity  did  they  do  their  work  that  the  utility  of  the  society 
soon  became  apparent.  Leigh  gratefully  records  that  he  was 
much  indebted  to  the  following  gentlemen  for  the  assistance 
they  had  given  in  the  work  of  the  mission  :  Thomas  Moore 
of  Liverpool,  J.  Forbes,  James  Scott  and  Edward  Eagar  of 
Sydney ;  and  Messrs  Knight,  Harper,  Hughes,  White,  and 
John  Lees. 

Leigh's  departure  introduces  the  third  stage  in  the  history 
of  the  mission.  This  stage  was  a  night  of  gloom,  when  the 
mission  was  nearly  wrecked  through  mismanagement  and 
misunderstanding.  To  continue  the  work  so  well  begun  and 
so  full  of  promise,  the  Revs.  Benjamin  Carvosso,  Ralph 
Mansfield,  William  Walker,  William  Horton,  and  George 
Erskine  were  appointed  to  the  mission.  Carvosso  was  a  son 
of  that  eminent  man  William  Carvosso,  the  Cornish  revivalist, 
many  of  whose  qualities  the  son  possessed  in  a  marked 
degree.  Reaching  Sydney  May  18,  1820,  he  spent  ten 
successful  years  in  the  mission,  going  first  to  Windsor,  then 
to  Sydney  and  Hobart  Town.  Mansfield,  who  arrived  Sep- 
tember 24,  1820,  and  who  spent  his  time  in  New  South  Wales, 
retired  from  the  ministry,  though  not  from  the  church, 
becoming  editor  of  the  New  South  ]\'ales  Magazine  and 
the  Sydney  Gazette.  He  also  kept  a  large  book  store,  and 
inaugurated  the  Sydney  gas  works.  An  eloquent  preacher 
and  possessing  a  literary  gift,  his  retirement  was  a  loss  to  the 
mission.  George  Erskine  sailed  with  Coke  to  commence  a 
mission  in  Ceylon.  His  health  giving  way,  he  was  appointed 
to  New  South  Wales,  landing  on  November  4,  1822.  He 
was  the  first  General  Superintendent  of  the  mission.  After 
a  trying  and  most  disappointing  term  of  service  he  retired 


238       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

to  Erskineville,  where  he  built  a  home,  and  died  in  the  year 
1834  i^  the  presence  of  the  Rev.  Joseph  Orton,  who  succeeded 
him.  William  Walker  was  appointed  missionary  to  the 
aborigines.  He  was  a  most  excellent  preacher  and  a  man  of 
parts;  but  unfortunately  he  found  it  necessary  to  resign, 
though  he  resided  in  New  South  Wales  for  many  years. 
William  Horton's  thoughts  were  first  turned  to  Australia  by 
Samuel  Leigh,  who  visited  Louth,  Horton's  birth-place. 
Accompanying  Leigh  to  Australia  he  was  stationed  at 
Hobart,  Windsor,  and  Sydney.  He  returned  to  England  in 
February  1829,  travelled  in  several  English  circuits  till  1852, 
when  he  became  a  supernumerary  and  died  in  1867. 

The  missionary  committee  now  thought  that  the  time  had 
arrived  for  the  formation  of  New  South  Whales  and  Polynesia 
into  a  mission  district  with  an  official  head.  The  Conference 
of  1825  appointed  George  Erskine,  who  had  acted  as  General 
Superintendent  since  182 1,  as  the  first  chairman.  The  first 
District  Meeting  was  held  in  Prince's  Street  Chapel,  with 
William  Horton  as  financial  secretary  and  Ralph  Mansfield 
as  corresponding  secretary.  These  positions  involved  much 
work  and  responsibility.  The  members  of  the  District  Meet- 
ing soon  set  to  work.  They  instituted  services  and  admin- 
istered sacraments  during  the  hours  of  worship  in  the  Anglican 
church.  Leigh  was  so  strongly  opposed  to  this  departure 
that  he  felt  it  necessary  to  report  the  matter  to  the  missionary 
committee.  The  committee  censured  the  missionaries  who 
had  deviated  from  their  instructions  by  the  introduction  of  the 
sacrament  and  service  during  church  hours. 

The  missionaries  next  proceeded  to  increase  their  allow- 
ances and  to  raise  their  salaries  without  consulting  the 
missionary  committee.  Their  excuse  for  this  irregularity  was 
found,  they  said,  in  the  dearness  of  provisions.  Against  this 
the  committee  most  strongly  protested.  If  persisted  in,  said 
the  secretary,  we  are  ruined.  But  the  protest  went  unheeded. 
A  vessel  was  chartered  at  a  cost  of  ;^250  for  the  purpose  of 
taking  a  missionary  to  Tonga  with  an  outfit  and  a  full  year's 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  239 

supplies;  the  sum  of  /^i,otX)  was  borrowed  with  which  to  pay 
the  debt  on  Macquarie  Street  Chapel,  and  the  missionary 
committee  was  made  responsible  for  that  amount,  without 
its  knowledge  or  consent.  Charges  of  one  kind  and  another 
were  piled  up  at  such  an  alarming  rate,  that  the  bills  drawn 
for  six  months  expenditure  came  to  ;^"2,6o6,  or  at  the  rate  of 
;{^5,2i2  per  annum.  The  committee  eventually  ended  the 
financial  difficulty  by  dishonouring  the  bills,  thus  making 
those  who  had  borrowed  the  money  personally  responsible 
for  its  repayment.  The  financial  irregularity,  however,  was 
not  the  only  one,  nor  was  it  the  most  serious.  The  mission- 
aries, on  their  own  responsibility,  accepted  Mr.  Weiss  as  a 
candidate  for  the  ministry.  He  was  a  married  man  whom 
they  appointed  to  Tonga,  a  district  over  which  they  had  no 
legal  control,  as  it  was  then  under  the  jurisdiction  of  New- 
Zealand.  On  arrival  at  Tonga,  Mr.  Weiss  was  induced  by 
the  resident  missionaries  not  to  land,  and  he  returned  to 
Sydney.  The  District  Meeting  also  accepted  another  candi- 
date. He  too  was  married,  was  twenty-nine  years  of  age, 
and  had  three  children  !  But  most  serious  of  all,  he  did  not 
believe  in  the  doctrine  of  the  Eternal  Sonship.  Now,  the 
Conference  had  recently  made  clear  two  important  points.  It 
had  decided  not  to  accept  candidates  who  were  married,  and  it 
insisted  that  no  candidate  should  be  received  who  denied  '  the 
Divine  and  Eternal  Sonship  of  Christ.'  The  gathering  storm 
now  burst.  The  District  Meeting  was  severely  censured,  and 
Erskine,  Mansfield,  and  Horton  were  recalled.  Erskine  was 
too  ill  to  set  sail,  Manstield  had  no  mind  to  obey,  and  Horton 
returned  before  the  time  named  by  the  committee  for  his 
recall.  When  he  stated  his  case  he  was  expelled,  and  re- 
admitted at  the  same  Conference.  This  finalized  matters,  but 
at  what  a  cost  !  The  mission,  once  so  promising,  was  now  a 
byword.  It  w-as  the  only  mission,  said  the  secretary,  Richard 
Watson,  that  had  been  a  disgrace  to  them  ! 

The   atmosphere   developed  by   these   cross  purposes   was 
not  conducive  to  growth,  either  spiritual  or  material,  and  the 


240       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

record  of  work  accomplished  is  insignificant.  A  few  move- 
ments must,  however,  be  noted.  Mr.  Carvosso  made  an 
attempt  to  establish  a  Floating  Chapel.  Subscriptions  were 
sought,  rules  drawn  up,  a  committee  of  management 
appointed,  and  the  Rev.  George  Erskine  preached  an  official 
sermon  from  the  words  :  '  Prepare  to  meet  thy  God.'  But 
the  committee  had  nothing  to  manage,  and  the  preparation 
was  confined  to  that  advocated  by  Mr.  Erskine.  A  more 
important  and  a  more  permanent  movement  was  the  inaugura- 
tion of  a  branch  missionary  society,  in  which  Samuel  Leigh 
was  the  moving  spirit.  This  first  missionary  meeting  was 
held  in  Macquarie  Street  Chapel,  October  i,  182 1.  It  was  a 
memorable  meeting  :  memorable  for  its  attendance  of  '  gentle- 
men of  distinction  '  and  for  the  liberality  shown.  John  Lees 
made  a  remarkable  speech,  which  greatly  affected  the 
audience.  An  attempt  appears  also  to  have  been  made  to 
form  the  four  Sabbath  schools  in  Sydney  into  a  Sunday- 
school  union.  In  the  year  1825  this  union  recommended  the 
District  Meeting  to  establish  a  day  school,  as  the  children  who 
attended  the  free  day  school  during  the  week  were  required 
to  attend  the  Anglican  Sabbath  schools.  To  Mansfield, 
Carvosso,  and  Lawry  belongs  the  honour  of  publishing 
and  editing  The  Australian  Magazine,  which  appeared  in 
1821.  It  was  the  first  magazine  published  in  Australia. 
Parramatta  Chapel  was  also  erected  during  this  period,  the 
opening  ceremony  taking  place  on  Good  Friday,  1821. 
Macquarie  gave  the  land.  Part  of  the  original  chapel  stands 
to-day. 

This,  then,  was  the  record;  and  it  appeared  to  the  mission- 
ary committee  to  be  so  utterly  inadequate  to  the  number  of 
men  employed  and  the  large  amount  of  money  expended  that 
the  committee  threatened  to  abandon  the  mission.  Earnest 
laymen,  however,  remained  loyal,  hoping  for  the  dawn  of  a 
brighter  day  :  Robert  Howe,  George  Allen,  John  Stephens, 
James  Cobb,  Thomas  Hyndes,  William  Chapman,  John 
Ennis,  Reuben  Uther,  George  Smith,  John  Weiss,  Lancelot 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  241 

Iredale,  Edward  Smith  Hall,  and  John  Street,  in  addition 
to  the  laymen  previously  referred  to,  continued  to  do  what 
opportunity  permitted,  and  they  were  there  to  welcome  the 
Rev.  Joseph  Orton  when  he  took  charge  of  the  Australian 
district  as  its  second  Superintendent. 

With  Joseph  Orton's  name  must  be  associated  the  fourth 
period.  Orion  arrived  in  Sydney,  December  183 1,  having 
spent  some  years  in  Jamaica  as  a  missionary,  where  he  was 
imprisoned  for  six  months  for  preaching  to  the  slaves  after 
sunset.  In  selecting  Mr.  Orton  for  the  office  of  Super- 
intendent the  committee  made  a  wise  choice.  '  My  duty  to 
the  cause  of  God  and  to  the  committee  is  paramount,'  he 
wrote,  'to  any  mere  private  feelings  of  kindness  or  apparent 
charity.'  And  Nathaniel  Turner  bears  testimony  to  the 
wisdom  of  Mr.  Orton,  shown  during  the  disclosures  made  in 
character  and  discipline.  Loyalty,  purity,  duty,  were  his 
watchwords.  In  the  pursuit  of  these  ideals,  notwithstanding 
his  pity  and  tenderness,  he  was  called  upon  to  suffer. 
But  as  he  who  pursues  right  with  steady  purpose  will  not 
suffer  long,  so  Joseph  Orton  came  to  his  own,  and  his  memory 
to-day  is  blessed. 

Mr.  Orton's  first  official  duty  was  to  meet  the  missionaries 
at  the  District  Meeting  held  in  Prince's  Street  Chapel,  January 
19,  when  George  Erskine,  Nathaniel  Turner,  William  Simp- 
son and  John  A.  Manton  were  present,  the  two  latter  having 
recently  arrived  in  the  colony.  The  questions  which  had 
previously  caused  friction  demanded  prior  attention.  As 
Mr.  Erskine  was  unable  to  make  the  trip  to  England,  the 
District  Meeting  recommended  that  he  be  made  a  super- 
numerary. The  selection  of  candidates  for  the  ministry 
received  consideration.  Matthew  Lassetter,  a  married  man 
with  four  children,  and  Thomas  Wellard  were  recommended 
to  the  committee  as  suitable  candidates  ;  but  the  committee  did 
not  sustain  the  recommendations.  John  Learh,  who  was 
employed  as  a   hired  local   preacher  at   the  rate  of  ;^50  per 


242       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

annum,  was  also  recommended,  and  also  rejected.  The 
question  of  allowances  was  handled  with  great  care.  Increases 
were  suggested,  but  the  missionaries  safeguarded  themselves 
by  adding,  '  They  will  not  presume  to  make  any  additional 
charge  until  they  receive  the  sanction  of  the  committee.' 
The  sanction  was  received,  and  the  suppliants  were  granted 
practically  all  that  their  predecessors  took  without  asking. 
Discipline  was  also  administered  without  fear  or  partiality, 
and  the  spiritual  temple  was  cleansed.  Of  the  conduct  of 
one,  formerly  a  missionary,  the  District  Meeting  felt  it 
'  incumbent  to  express  their  most  decided  disapprobation  .  .  . 
in  thus  secularizing  and  abandoning  the  important  work  of 
the  ministry.'  His  conduct  had  wrought  much  harm  in  the 
locality  where  he  was  stationed. 

This  fearless  loyalty  to  duty  soon  wrought  a  change,  and 
the  mission  which  had  been  pronounced  a  disgrace  once  more 
inspired  hope.  The  membership  had  not  largely  increased 
owing  to  removals  and  the  cutting  off  of  several  '  merely 
nominal  members.'  But  they  had  the  happy  assurance  of 
*  an  increase  of  piety,  unity,  and  stability  throughout  the 
societies,'  and  they  had  even  more  than  that.  While  con- 
ducting a  love-feast  in  Prince's  Street  Chapel,  Mr.  Orton 
felt  the  presence  of  God  to  be  so  overpowering  that  he  could 
not  proceed.  He  called  for  penitents,  and  they  came;  the 
meeting  continued  until  past  midnight,  and  there  was  a 
'  most  powerful  manifestation  of  the  presence  of  God.'  There 
was  much  affection  among  the  preachers,  and  '  many  refresh- 
ing seasons  from  the  presence  of  the  Master  of  Assemblies.' 
Sunday-school  work  advanced,  and  on  Whit  Monday,  1834, 
the  Sunday-school  Union  was  reorganized,  Mr.  George  Allen 
being  the  prime  mover.  The  Stranger's  Friend  Society  was 
formed,  and  the  Tract  Society  revived.  Methodism,  which, 
said  Mr.  Orton,  had  received  such  a  stab,  was  rising  in  public 
estimation,  the  congregations  had  greatly  improved,  and 
there  was  perfect  harmony  among  the  members. 

Advance  was  shown  along  other  lines.     Mr.  Orton  found 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  243 

that  scarcely  any  of  the  properties  were  secured  according 
to  Conference  plan.    A  special  Act  of  Parliament  was  sought, 
making    the    titles    valid.      The    society    at    Hobart    Town 
appealed   for  a  division   of   the   district  with   Van    Dieman's 
Land  as  a  separate   and   independent   district,   and   in    1835 
the  committee  authorized  the  separation.       Mr.  Orton  also 
pleaded  the  cause  of  the  neglected  aborigine,  in  addition  to 
paying  visits  to  Bathurst  and  the  Hunter  River.     He  set  out 
for   Bathurst   on   his   first   visit   Monday,   October   29,    1832, 
where    he    met    Captain   and    Mrs.    Raine,    Mr.    Lane,    Mr. 
William  Tom,  Mr.  John  Glasson,  and  Mr.  George  Hawke. 
Two  other  visits  were  made,  and  on  each  occasion  he  visited 
and  preached  in  several  homes.     At  West  Maitland  Method- 
ism had  been  introduced  bv  Jeremiah  Ledsam,   Vincent   G. 
Williams,  George  Denshire  and  James  Bicknell  in  the  year 
1837.     ^^r.   Orton   visited  this  district,   accompanied  by   his 
friend   Lancelot    Iredale,    preaching    at    Morpeth  and    West 
Maitland. 

On  relinquishing  his  charge  as  chairman  of  the  Sydney 
District,  Mr.  Orton  said  :  '  When  I  arrived  I  was  aware  that 
I  was  entering  a  scene  .  .  .  which  would  be  extremely  diffi- 
cult. .  .  .  After  labouring  more  than  four  years  I  had  the 
gratification  to  see  the  society  trebled,  and  with  great  reluct- 
ance left  a  most  loving  people.'  In  retiring  from  his  position 
as  General  Superintendent  he  wrote:  'In  giving  up  my 
charge,  the  breaking  up  of  the  connexion,  which  had  so  long 
and  happily  subsisted  among  us,  was  one  of  the  severest 
trials  which  I  have  been  called  to  endure.'  He  set  sail  on 
March  2,  1842,  making  the  last  entry  in  his  journal  April  4. 
When  rounding  Cape  Horn  he  passed  within  the  veil,  his 
farewell  being  :  '  All  is  well ;  all  is  well  I  '  At  a  memorial 
service  held  at  Geelong,  December  18,  1842,  Mr.  Dredge 
gave  expression  to  the  general  feeling  when  he  said  :  '  There 
can  be  little  question  that  to  his  judicious,  prompt,  and 
indefatigable  labours,  and  to  those  of  his  coadjutors  under 
his  direction,  is  to  be  attributed  much  of  the  stability  which 


244       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  cause  has  assumed,  as  well  as  the  widespreading  prosperity 
which  still  crowns  these  missions.' 

The  Rev.  John  McKenny,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Orton,  was 
cast  in  similar  mould  to  his  predecessor.  He,  too,  had  passed 
through  the  fierce  fires  of  persecution.  Born  at  Coleraine  in 
1788,  he  was  selected  by  Dr.  Coke  (in  1813  as  one  of  his 
famous  band  to  carry  the  gospel  to  India  and  South  Africa. 
While  at  Cape  Town  the  colonial  government  refused  to 
allow  him  to  preach  in  public.  But  in  hiding-places  under- 
ground he  spoke  to  a  chosen  band  of  converts.  The  year 
1 8 16  saw  him  in  Ceylon,  where  he  laboured  for  twenty  years, 
eventually  reaching  the  New  South  Wales  Mission  in  1835. 
His  companions  on  the  journey  were  the  Revs.  William  A. 
Brookes,  John  Spinney,  Daniel  Draper,  Matthew  Wilson, 
and  Frederick  Lewis.  Draper's  work  is  referred  to  elsewhere. 
Lewis,  full  of  Welsh  fervour  and  zeal,  left  a  great  record 
behind  him  as  a  soul  winner  during  his  short  stay.  The  other 
missionaries  also  did  good  work. 

McKenny's  superintendency  was  marked  by  steady  pro- 
gress and  consolidation.  Under  his  guidance  the  District 
Meeting  gave  attention  to  the  renovation  of  the  properties. 
Prince's  Street  Chapel  was  lengthened  and  repaired,  and 
extensive  additions  were  made  to  Macquarie  Street  Chapel 
in  1837.  The  model  deed  was  also  registered  in  the  Supreme 
Court,  and  efforts  were  made  to  secure  a  Church  Act  placing 
the  Methodist  Church  on  the  same  equality  as  other  denomi- 
nations in  whose  favour  an  alteration  had  already  been  made. 
The  procedure  at  marriage  ceremonies  was  also  defined.  The 
fee  was  fixed  at  ten  shillings,  and  the  ceremony  was  to  be 
performed  in  the  chapel.  James  Dredge,  associated  with  the 
protection  of  the  aborigines  in  Victoria,  was  accepted  for  the 
ministry  by  the  District  Meeting  of  1840 ;  Francis  Glass, 
Thomas  McClelland,  and  William  Lightbody  also  appeared 
as  candidates.  But  the  candidate  whose  name  was  to  become 
a  household  word  was  John  Watsford  of  Parramatta,  the  first 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  245 

native-born  youth  to  enter  the  ministry.  Watsford  was 
recommended  by  the  District  Meeting  of  1841. 

As  an  Irishman  McKonny  was  sensitive  to  any  encroach- 
ment on  rehgfious  Hberty.  '  Shall  Australia  be  a  Protestant 
or  a  Popish  colony  ?  '  was  the  question  put  to  the  mis- 
sionary committee  in  1838.  The  Government,  throuj^h  the 
Church  Act,  offered  the  sum  of  ;^i50  towards  the  outfit  and 
passage  of  clerijymen  belon^inj::;-  to  the  Ang^lican,  Roman 
Catholic,  or  Presbyterian  Churches,  and  advantage  was  being 
taken  of  this  provision.  '  Within  the  last  six  months  no  less 
a  number  than  twelve  Romish  priests  have  arrived.'  As  the 
Methodist  chapels  were  not  placed  under  the  Church  Act, 
Mr.  McKenny  was  helpless  unless  the  missionary  committee 
afforded  relief.  '  If  ever  country  had  claim  upon  missionarv 
enterprise  it  is  New  South  Wales.  We  want  men.'  This 
was  the  cry  of  the  District  Meeting  of  1839.  Not  less  than 
ten  men  were  required,  as  there  existed  a  '  feeling  of  goodwill 
towards  the  Wesleyans  throughout  the  colony.'  Fortunately 
men  were  forthcoming,  and  James  Watkin,  William  Scho- 
field,  Samuel  Wilkinson,  Henry  H.  G'aud,  F.  Sweetman, 
and  Jonathan  Innes  arrived.  The  names  of  Watkin,  Wilkin- 
son, Schofield,  and  Gaud  are  intimately  associated  with  New 
South  Wales  Methodism,  in  an  association  of  the  most 
honourable  and  happy  character. 

The  outstanding  feature  of  Mr.  McKenny's  regime  was  the 
building  of  the  Centenary  Chapel  in  York  Street,  Svdney. 
As  Macquarie  Street  Chapel  was  not  central,  it  was  sold  to 
Mr.  Lancelot  Iredale  for  ;^3.f^oo.  The  site  is  now  owned 
bv  Dr.  Russell  Nolan,  son  of  that  saintly  minister,  the  Rev. 
James  A.  Nolan.  And  Prince's  Street  Chapel  being  too 
small,  a  site  was  purchased  from  Mr.  William  Hutchinson, 
plans  being  prepared  gratuitously  by  Mr.  Joseph  Atwood. 
Great  difficulty  was  experienced  with  the  builders  through 
advances  in  material  and  wages.  The  foundation-stones  were 
laid  February  26,  1840,  and  the  official  sermon  was  preached 
bv  the  Rev.  Walter  Lawrv,  then  on  a  visit  to  the  colony. 


246       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

The  press  spoke  of  the  chapel  as  one  of  those  few  buildings 
which  the  Wesleyans  particularly  and  the  citizens  generally 
had  reason  to  be  proud.  The  same  authority  stated  that  there 
were  ten  chapels  in  the  city  and  suburbs,  all  well  attended. 
The  population  was  then  50,000,  and  the  Sydney  circuit 
included  Sydney,  Toxteth,  Waverley,  Newtown,  Botany, 
Ashfield,  Lane  Cove,  Pyrmont,  and  Balmain,  with  seven 
missionaries  in  the  entire  colony.  The  Centenary  festivities 
were  observed  Monday,  October  14,  1839.  Special  sermons 
were  preached,  and  a  great  gathering  of  school  children  took 
place. 

Methodism  was  now  making  rapid  progress.  Many  chapels 
were  built  and  other  preaching-places  opened.  The  Hunter 
River,  Bathurst,  and  Goulburn  districts  and  many  places 
near  Sydney  were  claiming  and  receiving  attention.  The 
missionaries  were  loyally  supported  by  the  laymen,  who,  in 
the  country,  were  the  pioneers  of  Methodism,  and  many  names 
now  honourably  known  came  into  prominence  at  this  stage. 

Mr.  McKenny  was  followed  by  the  Rev.  William  Binning- 
ton  Boyce,  who  was  General  Superintendent  of  the  Aus- 
tralasian mission  for  ten  years.  Mr.  Bovce,  who  was  a 
remarkable  man,  loomed  large  in  the  public  affairs  of  the 
colony,  being  one  of  the  sixteen  original  members  of  Sydney 
University  Senate,  incorporated  in  1850.  He  had  been  in- 
timately associated  with  the  Rev.  William  Shaw  in  South 
Africa.  His  piety  was  like  a  fruitful  vine,  twined  round  an 
intellect  like  an  English  oak.  '  Much  of  his  work  is  now 
buried,  but  it  is  the  burial  of  the  foundations  on  which  fabrics 
of  strength  and  use  will  long  endure.'  Large  of  heart  and 
generous  in  judgement,  his  reading  took  a  vast  range.  He 
knew  how  to  take  occasion  by  the  hand,  and  no  better  man, 
as  statesman,  philosopher  or  friend,  could  have  been  selected 
to  prepare  the  way  for  self-government  in  the  formation  of  an 
Australian  Conference.  On  his  return  to  England  he  was  one 
of  the  Foreign  Mission  secretaries  for  eighteen  years.     But 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  247 

Australia  attracted  him,  and  he  eventually  returned  to  Sydney, 
dying  on  March  8,  1889,  at  the  age  of  eighty-four. 

Much  of  the  work  that  Mr.  Boyce  did  was  of  a  tech- 
nical and  detailed  nature,  rendered  necessary  through  rapid 
developments  and  the  immediate  prospect  of  self-government. 
He  gave  constant  attention  to  the  selection  of  new  sites, 
properly  securing  those  already  obtained.  He  also  defined 
the  position  of  Methodism  as  a  Church,  and  fought  strenu- 
ously for  her  standing-place  in  educational  matters  in  con- 
nexion with  which  a  struggle  was  then  proceeding.  He  also 
looked  for  candidates  for  the  ministry,  and  he  did  not  look 
in  vain.  John  G.  Millard,  William  C.  Currey,  James  Somer- 
ville,  John  Pemell,  Joseph  Fillingham,  Joseph  Waterhouse, 
George  Pickering,  and  John  Bowes  were  amongst  the  number 
received.  Only  those  familiar  with  the  work  of  Methodism 
know  the  valuable  service  rendered  by  these  faithful  men, 
grand  in  their  simplicity,  their  purity,  and  singleness  of  aim. 

The  gold  discovery,  though  it  meant  prosperity  for  the 
colony,  with  an  increase  of  population,  temporarily  interfered 
with  church  work,  bringing  dissipation  and  excitement, 
against  which  some  of  the  missionaries  pathetically  pro- 
tested. But  the  work  extended  and  prospered.  The  Sydney 
circuit  developed  into  three  circuits,  again  to  be  subdivided. 
New  chapels  were  built  at  the  Haymarket,  Balmain,  Surry 
Hills,  Chippendale,  Toxteth,  Canterbury,  and  Newtown  ;  and 
preaching  services  were  regularly  held  at  Waverley,  Lane 
Cove,  and  Camden.  Places  in  the  country  were  also  calling 
for  missionaries,  while  those  already  established  were  showing 
vigorous  growth. 

On  the  arrival  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Young,  June  11,  1853, 
Mr.  Boyce  was  able  to  state  that  the  time  was  ripe  for  self- 
government,  though  some  thought  the  movement  premature. 
After  visiting  the  chief  towns  and  making  a  tour  of  the  island 
missions,  Mr.  Young  returned  with  a  favourable  report.  At 
the  Conference  of  1854,  held  at  Birmingham,  the  plan  for 
forming  the  Australasian  and   Polynesian   missions  into  an 


248       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

affiliated  Conference  was  adopted.  The  first  Conference  met 
in  York  Street  Chapel,  Thursday,  January  i8,  1855,  with  Mr. 
Boyce  as  president,  and  John  A.  Manton  as  secretary.  The 
president  and  senior  ministers  met  the  probationers  at  five 
o'clock  each  morning  for  conversation  and  friendly  counsel, 
and  they  were  examined  in  theology  at  6  a.m.  The  president 
gave  the  charge,  which  was  faithful  and  characteristic.  The 
Conference  founded  Horton  College;  it  discussed  the  plan  of 
the  affiliated  Conference,  suggesting  three  or  more  annual 
Conferences ;  it  considered  the  question  of  making  provision 
for  supernumerary  ministers  and  their  widows ;  it  outlined  the 
basis  of  the  Church  Sustentation  and  Extension  Society,  and 
it  discussed  a  plan  of  missionary  management  in  the  form  of 
a  general  committee  of  ministers  and  laymen  from  each 
district,  acting  under  Conference  control.  It  also  nominated 
laymen  suitable  for  election  to  the  Conference  committees. 
This  programme  shows  how  the  Conference  anticipated  the 
developments  of  to-day. 

The  names  of  those  intimately  associated  with  the  work 
in  New  South  Wales  at  this  stage  should  be  remembered.  In 
addition  to  those  who  entered  the  ministry  during  Mr.  Boyce's 
superintendency  these  are  prominent :  Nathaniel  Turner, 
missionary  to  New  Zealand  and  Tonga ;  William  Schofield, 
famous  for  his  work  at  Macquarie  Harbour  amongst  the 
convicts,  and  the  donor  of  a  large  sum  to  found  a  church 
Loan  Fund;  James  Watkin,  who  wrote  that  immortal 
appeal,  Pity  Ponr  Fiji;  John  A.  Manton,  Head  of  Horton 
and  Newington  colleges ;  Stephen  Rabone,  remembered 
for  his  fine  missionary  spirit;  Daniel  Draper,  who  went 
down  in  The  London  preaching  Christ  to  his  fellow  pas- 
sengers; Samuel  Wilkinson,  memorable  as  a  faithful  pastor, 
and  the  first  minister  appointed  to  Melbourne;  John  Wats- 
ford,  remarkable  as  missionary,  evangelist,  and  home  mission 
secretary;  Benjamin  Chapman,  the  faithful  pastor  and  foreign 
mission  secretary;  Joseph  Oram,  saintly  and  beloved; 
William  Curnow,  prince  of  preachers  and  well  known  as  a 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  249 

journalist;  William  Iselynark,  peerless  as  preacher,  lecturer, 
and  administrator;  and  John  Gale,  versatile  and  larp^e- 
hearted.  Of  these  John  Gale  is  the  sole  survivor.  He  is  still 
livinjT^  at  Oueanbeyan,  havinp^  played  no  unimportant  part  in 
the  selection  of  the  Federal  area.  Amongst  the  laymen  widely 
known  and  widely  honoured  associated  with  that  Conference, 
thoug'h  not  members  of  it,  as  laymen  were  not  then  admitted, 
were  George  Allen,  William  Love,  J.  Caldwell,  T.  Cowlishaw, 
J.  Byrnes,  T,  P.  Reeve,  J.  R.  Andrews,  E.  Dawson,  J,  Fal- 
kiner,  J.  Neale.  G.  Somervillc  and  others.  T.  P.  Reeve  was 
the  last  survivor  of  this  historic  group,  and  he  passed  away 
quite  recently,  full  of  honour  and  of  years. 

Having   written    at    length   on   early   developments,   spacr 
will  not  permit  of  detail  from  1855  to  1912.     The  outstanding 
features  only  can  be  dealt  with.     The  fear  expressed  that  the 
granting  of  self-government  was  premature  found  no  fulfil- 
ment in  fact.     At  no  period  in   its  history  has  the  Church 
shown  greater  activity  in  spiritual  or  material  concerns  than 
during  the  existence  of  the  Australian  Conference,  extending 
from  1855  to  1873.     For  men  of  large  vision  were  at  the  helm 
who  agreed  with  the  Rev.  William  Hessel,  when  he  said  he 
believed  that  *  Methodism  was  the  greatest  foe  that  Satan  had 
in  this  world,  and  that  he  had  held  many  coimcils  to  devise 
means  to  weaken  its  power  and  injure  its  usefulness.     Many 
people,  both  inside  and  out,  could  find  fault  with  it,  but  they 
could    not    point    out   any   system    that    had    done   so   well.' 
Holding  such  views,  their  exponents  were  bound  to  show  a 
record  of  something  attempted,  something  done.    They  had  a 
glimpse  of  the  future,  and  in   the  making  of  a  nation   they 
resolved   to   bear   their   part.      Wc   may   therefore   trace    the 
origin  of  the  Home  Mission  Society  with  its  loan  funds,  the 
Book  Depot,  the  church  paper  The  Christian  Advocate.  New- 
ington  College,  and  the  Theological  Institution  to  this  period. 
Nor  did  this  activity  cease  then,  for  the  same  vigour  and 
persistence  of  attack   continued   from    1873    to    i8go.     Then 
came  a  period  less  aggressive— a  time  of  consolidation. 


250       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

It  was  soon  felt  that  one  District  Synod  for  the  whole  of 
New  South  Wales  and  Queensland  was  cumbersome  and 
unwieldy.  The  year  1863,  therefore,  saw  a  proposal  success- 
fully carried  through  for  the  formation  of  five  districts : 
Sydney,  Bathurst,  Maitland,  Goulburn,  and  Queensland. 
The  four  New  South  Wales  Districts  have  grown  into  ten, 
and  Queensland  has  a  Conference  with  six  District  Synods. 
Large  church  schemes  were  planned  in  Sydney  and  the 
rising  towns  in  the  country.  Referring  to  this  progress 
The  Advocate  said :  *  A  new  era  of  church  building 
in  this  colony  has  already  commenced.  .  .  .  The  necessity 
is  very  great  and  pressing,  but  it  is  as  important  to  avoid 
rashness  and  precipitation  as  it  is  to  escape  from  lethargy 
and  inactivity.  .  .  .  Everything  we  do  should  be  well  done 
with  an  enlightened  regard  to  the  necessities  of  the  future.' 
The  necessities  of  the  future !  That  was  the  dominant 
note. 

In  1859  churches  were  erected  at  West  Maitland  and 
Newtown,  to  be  followed  next  year  by  Balmain  and 
Bathurst.  But  the  year  1864  eclipsed  all  others  in  the  number 
of  buildings,  for  churches  were  erected  at  Glebe  Road, 
Sydney ;  Mudge,  St.  Leonards — now  North  Sydney ;  Ash- 
field,  Moruya,  and  Morpeth.  Wagga  followed  the  next  year, 
to  be  succeeded  by  W^esley  Church,  Sydney,  in  1867. 
Goulburn  built  its  church  in  1870,  and  Tamworth  and  William 
Street,  Sydney,  in  1871.  The  name  of  Joseph  Oram  will 
always  be  associated  with  the  fine  church  at  Bathurst ;  and 
the  same  may  be  said  of  William  Curnow  at  Goulburn,  James 
E.  Carruthers  at  Tamworth,  and  William  Clarke  at  William 
Street.  '  Californian  '  Taylor  laid  the  foundation-stone  of  the 
church  at  St.  Leonards.  Wesley  Church,  Sydney  '  is  a  chef- 
d'oeuvre  of  the  Methodist  architecture  in  the  colony,  and  is 
an  ornament  to  the  city,'  said  the  press  at  that  time.  The 
names  of  the  Revs.  William  Hessel,  Thomas  Angwin, 
Stephen  Rabone,  John  Eggleston,  John  Watsford,  James 
Bickford,    George    Hurst,    William    Schofield,    Joseph    H. 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  251 

Fletcher,  Henry  H.  Gaud,  William  Kelynack,  Richard 
Sellers,  and  Benjamin  Chapman,  and  Messrs.  George  Allen, 
Ebenezer  Vickery,  J.  T.  T.ane,  J.  Caldwell,  Joseph  Wearne, 
H.  Kellett,  Reuben  Hall,  William  Henson,  William  Davies, 
Edmund  Webb,  John  Hardy  and  W.  H.  McClelland  are 
linked  on  to  the  history  of  these  churches. 

The  Jubilee  of  the  church  in  Australasia  was  celebrated  in 
1S64,  the  initial  steps  being  taken  during  the  Conference  held 
in  February  at  Melbourne,  under  the  presidency  of  the  Rev. 
James  Buller.  It  was  proposed  to  build  a  Central  Theo- 
logical Institution,  to  extend  missionary  operations  in  New 
Guinea  or  elsewhere,  to  found  a  Church  Loan  Fund,  and  to 
encourage  trustees  in  the  erection  of  churches  and  parson- 
ages. The  Rev.  Stephen  Rabone,  chairman  of  the  Svdnev 
District,  inaugurated  the  movement  in  New  South  Wales  by 
an  official  sermon  preached  on  Monday,  November  8,  in  which 
he  said  that  few  would  live  to  see  the  Centenary  of  Australasian 
Methodism.  Let  their  doings  be  worthy  of  the  remembrance 
of  their  children.  They  boasted  a  glorious  ancestry;  let  them 
act  in  a  manner  worthy  of  their  ancestors,  and  transmit  their 
name  and  fame  imtarnished.  Prayer-meetings,  a  breakfast, 
and  many  public  meetings  marked  the  event.  Mr.  T.  W. 
Bowden.  a  son  of  the  pioneer  schoolmaster,  and  the  Hon. 
George  Allen  were  amongst  the  chairmen.  The  spirit  of 
liberality  was  abroad;  and  though  the  results  were  not  such  as 
to  warrant  the  building  of  a  Central  Theological  Institution, 
a  beginning  was  made  with  the  Loan  Fund,  while  Foreign 
Mission  work  and  church  and  parsonage  building  schemes 
received  inspiration  and  help. 

The  colony  was  favoured  at  this  time  by  distinguished 
visitors  from  other  lands.  The  Rev.  F.  J.  Jobson,  D.D., 
arrived  in  Sydney  January  1861,  bearing  an  official  address 
from  the  British  Conference  and  greatly  cheering  the  members 
of  the  Church  by  his  wise  counsels.  He  discussed  freely 
and  at  considerable  length  vital  and  delicate  questions  on 
the  relative  position  and  powers  of  the  parent  and  affiliated 


252       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Conference.  The  Rev.  E.  E.  Jenkins,  M.A,,  the  well-known 
Indian  missionary,  was  also  a  visitor  in  1864.  But  the  one 
whose  name  stands  out  most  vividly  is  the  Rev.  William 
Taylor,  popularly  known  as  Californian  Taylor,  who  after- 
wards became  bishop  of  South  Africa.  Mr.  Taylor  was 
a  typical  American.  He  possessed  great  spiritual  power. 
Many  have  cause  to  remember  him  as  the  human  instrument 
in  their  salvation.  Numerous  stories  gather  round  his  visit, 
only  one  of  which  may  be  repeated.  At  a  fellowship  meeting- 
one  speaker  advocating  baptism  by  immersion  thought  to 
give  point  to  his  remarks  by  quoting  the  w-ords  :  '  Buried 
with  Him  in  baptism.'  Mr.  Taylor  replied  with  his  deliberate 
drawl  :  '  Well,  brother,  if  you  wiW  have  it  in  that  way  you 
must  have  it  altogether ;  and  you  know  that  He  was  three 
days  and  three  nights  in  the  grave.  What  do  you  say  to 
that?  I  tell  you,  if  you  have  the  whole  thing  you  will  come 
up  as  dead  as  a  salted  herring  !  '  Later  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Cook,  Gipsy  Smith,  the  Rev.  Mark  Guy  Pearse,  and  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Champness  also  paid  visits,  leaving  gracious 
memories. 

The  year  1874  introduced  a  new  era,  and  New  South  Wales, 
Victoria,  South  Australia,  and  New  Zealand,  were  each  to 
have  their  own  Conference,  with  an  Australasian  Conference 
meeting  every  third  or  fourth  year.  Queensland  was  attached 
to  New  South  Wales,  Tasmania  to  Victoria,  and  \^>st 
Australia  to  South  Australia.  During  the  nineteen  years  that 
had  passed,  devoted  men  whose  names  will  not  be  easily 
obliterated  made  their  influence  felt  on  the  development  of  the 
moral  and  religious  life  of  the  colony.  They  stood  at  the 
beginning,  and  at  one  of  the  most  critical  periods  of  colonial 
history.  That  chapter  had  now  closed.  It  was  not  intended 
that  these  annual  Conferences  should  be  merely  magnified 
District  Synods.  The  maintenance  of  the  General  Conference, 
it  was  argued,  would  conserve  unity  in  doctrine,  would  pre- 
serve Methodism  from  diverging  along  different  lines,  and 
would  prevent  it  losing  its  national  character  by  colonization, 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  253 

thus  giving  it  the  element  of  homogeneity,  an  element  neces- 
sary to  preserve  the  Church  from  disintegrating  influences. 
Each  Conference  was  to  control  its  own  funds.  The  first 
Conference  under  this  new  order  assembled  in  York  Street 
Church,  Wednesday,  January  28,  1874,  ^^  t^"  o'clock,  the 
Conferences  in  the  other  colonies  meeting  at  the  same  hour. 
There  were  fifty-five  ministers  in  attendance,  the  Rev.  J.  H. 
Fletcher  being  chosen  as  President,  and  the  Rev.  J.  B. 
Waterhouse,  Secretary.  Mr.  Fletcher  reminded  the  Con- 
ference that  they  had  sacrificed  magnitude  and  dignity  to 
compactness,  economy,  and  flexibility.  '  Looking  forward  to 
the  great  future,'  said  he,  '  when  Australia  shall  become  a 
nationality — and  not  only  a  distinct  nationality,  but  a  com- 
munity with  a  literature  of  its  own — I  trust  that  in  laying  the 
foundation  of  that  which  doubtless  awaits  us,  we  shall  in  this 
be  brave  enough  to  attempt  all  that  God  calls  us  to  do.*  In 
1893  Queensland  separated  from  New  South  Wales.  The 
New  South  Wales  Conference  thus  met  for  the  first  time, 
the  Rev.  James  Egan   Moulton  being  President. 

The  first  Conference  of  United  Methodism  was  held  in 
Sydney  Town  Hall,  February  25,  1902,  with  the  Rev.  W. 
WooUs  Rutledge  as  President,  and  the  Rev.  W.  Halse 
Rogers  as  Secretary.  In  his  retiring  address  Dr.  George 
Lane  referred  to  the  historic  and  unique  occasion.  The 
steps  towards  the  consummation  of  Union  are  fully  and 
clearly  set  forth  by  Dr.  Burgess  in  his  chapter  on  South 
Australia.  It  would  be  useless  to  repeat  them.  Suffice  it 
to  say  that  in  New  South  Wales  Methodist  union  found 
many  earnest  advocates,  and  some  conscientious  opponents ; 
but  when  the  decision  was  once  reached  that  union  should 
take  etTect,  opposition  ceased,  and  the  former  opponents 
laboured  as  earnestly  as  the  former  advocates,  and  in  some 
cases  even  more  so,  to  make  union  a  success.  In  some  locali- 
ties the  readjustments  necessary  caused  irritation,  but  that  has 
now  practically  died  down.  The  names  of  the  Rev.  W. 
Woolls    Rutledge,    James    W.    Holden,    John    Penman,    E. 


254       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Crosier,  W.  E.  Briscombe,  James  E.  Carruthers,  William 
Clarke,  William  H.  Beale,  the  Hon.  W.  Robson,  Mr.  J. 
Blanksby,  and  Mr.  W.  E.  Robson,  B.A.,  were  prominently 
associated  with  the  union  movement.  The  position  of  United 
Methodism  as  disclosed  by  the  Conference  returns  of  1914  are 
as  follows  :  ministers,  including  supernumeraries  and  proba- 
tioners, 249 ;  home  missionaries  34 ;  local  preachers  954 ; 
churches  671  ;  other  preaching  places  593;  church  members, 
including  juniors  27,626,  adherents  123,679  (the  census  returns 
place  the  number  higher) ;  Sabbath  schools  560 ;  teachers 
5,007 ;  scholars  43,053.  These  figures  do  not  include  the 
South  Sea  Island  missions,  which  are  attached  to  the  New 
South  Wales  Conference. 

What  are  the  results  of  union  in  New  South  Wales  ?     Are 
they  beneficial  or  otherwise?     From  the  numerical  or  finan- 
cial standpoint  the  results  are  small.   The  Primitive  Methodist 
Church,  which  held  its  first  annual  assembly  in   1859,  was 
not  so  widely  represented  in  New  South  Wales  as  in  some 
of  the  other  States.    The  Bible  Christians  had  not  established 
themselves,  and  the  United  Methodist  Free  Church,  which 
met  for  its  first  assembly  in   1890,  had  three  ministers  only 
and    few   churches.     With   this   comparatively   small    repre- 
sentation it  may  thus  be  seen  that  in  many  circuits  no  change 
was  necessary.     It  has  sometimes  been  triumphantly  stated 
that  union  was  accomplished  without  the  loss  of  a  minister 
or  a  member.     But  this,   unfortunately,  is  contrary  to  fact. 
Members    were    lost,    and    adherents    drifted    or    voluntarily 
retired,  much  to  the  regret  of  those  forced  to  witness  it.     But 
notwithstanding   this  it  is   increasingly  apparent  that  there 
was  nothing  to  justify  disunion.     Union  has  closed  the  ranks, 
it  has  prevented  overlapping,  and  it  has  already  healed,  or 
is  slowly  healing,  the  causes  that  led  to  division.    The  union 
brought    several    devoted    ministers   and    many   consecrated 
laymen  into  co-operation  for  the  first  time,  with  those  formerly 
belonging  to  the  Wesleyan  Church,  and  in  unity  of  heart  and 
singleness  of  aim  they  toil  together  in  their  labour  of  love. 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  255 

Legislation,  the  wisdom  of  which  yet  remains  to  be  proved, 
came  with  the  union.  Laymen  were  given  a  seat  on  the 
stationing  committee,  and  it  was  made  possible  for  a  circuit 
minister  to  remain  in  his  circuit  for  a  fourth  or  a  fifth  year. 
While  some  sturdy  champions  for  these  concessions  are 
prepared  even  to  go  further,  there  is  a  growing  conviction 
that  the  extended  term  is  not  advantageous  to  the  circuits, 
and  the  presence  of  laymen  on  the  stationing  committee 
brings  little  joy  to  the  laymen  and  still  less  help  to  the 
ministers. 

When  the  State  Conferences  were  established  it  was  con- 
sidered expedient  to  alloca*:e  the  administration  of  the 
Connexional  Funds.  The  Children's  Fund,  providing  for  a 
small  educational  allowance  for  ministers'  children,  was 
allotted  to  New  Zealand.  The  amount  required  is  raised  by 
a  yearly  levy  on  the  three  years  average  circuit  income. 
For  many  years  the  Rev.  Richard  Caldwell  has  done  the 
secretarial  work  in  New  South  Wales.  The  Supernumerary 
F"und,  inaugurated  to  provide  for  supernumerary  ministers 
and  ministers'  widows,  was  attached  to  the  Victorian  and 
Tasmanian  Conference.  The  Rev.  William  Morley,  D.D.,  the 
clerical  secretary,  has  his  offices  in  Collins  Street,  Melbourne. 
A  committee  administers  this  fund,  the  capital  of  which 
now  stands  at  nearly  ;^50o,ooo,  earning  475  per  cent.  The 
basis  of  the  fund  has  in  recent  years  provoked  considerable 
discussion,  in  which  the  Revs.  Dr.  Morley,  Dr.  Carruthers, 
Dr.  Fitchett,  J.  G.  Wheen,  and  Hon.  William  Robson,  have 
prominently  figured.  But  on  whatever  other  points  these 
combatants  may  differ  they  are  at  one  here  :  that  the  fund 
is  sound,  and  that  adequate  provision  must  be  made  for  those 
who  have  grown  old  in  the  service  of  the  Church.  The  point 
in  dispute  is  v/hether  the  fund  should  be  administered  strictly 
on  actuarial  lines.  For  several  years  the  major  part  of  the 
funds  raised  were  vested  in  Victoria,  but  when  a  temporary 
depreciation  of  values  took  place  it  was  decided  that  future 


256       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

investments  should  be  distributed  throughout  the  States. 
Some  panic  legislation  saw  the  light  at  this  period.  The 
allowances  were  reduced  and  the  minister's  personal  sub- 
scriptions increased.  But  the  General  Conference  of  1913 
partially  restored  the  allowances.  Some  entertain  the  well- 
grounded  hope  that  the  allowances  may  soon  be  fully  restored 
if  not  increased.  The  income  is  raised  by  a  circuit  levy  and 
ministers'  subscriptions,  the  latter  being  compulsory.  No 
probationer  is  eligible  for  ordination  unless  his  personal 
subscriptions  are  fully  paid  up.  This  is  to  protect  both  the 
minister  and  his  wife. 

The  administration  of  Foreign  Missions  was  allotted  to  the 
New  South  Wales  Conference,  due  probably  to  two  facts  : 
New  South  Wales,  as  the  Mother  State,  had  always  super- 
vised Foreign  Missions,  and  Sydney  is  the  chief  port  of  call 
for  the  island  steamers.  The  General  Secretaries  have  their 
head  quarters  in  Sydney,  where  such  men  as  John  Eggleston, 
Stephen  Rabone,  Benjamin  Chapman,  William  Kelynack, 
George  Brown,  Benjamin  Danks  and  John  G.  Wheen,  the 
present  General  Secretary,  have  discharged  their  duties  with 
paternal  oversight,  constant  care,  and  unflagging  devotion. 
The  representation  on  the  Mission  committee  has  recently 
been  widened.  Previously  its  membership  was  confined  to 
New  South  Wales;  but  now  each  State  Conference  is  repre- 
sented. This  widens  the  area  of  interest  and  tends  to  prevent 
parochialism.  Each  State  has  its  organizing  Secretary  who 
is  responsible  for  the  work  in  the  State  which  elected  him. 
The  Rev.  James  Watson  is  appointed  for  New  South  Wales. 
The  income  for  Australia  last  year  exceeded  ^^42,000;  but 
the  work  will  be  hampered  and  restricted  if  /'so.cxk)  are  not 
raised  this  year. 

Naturally,  each  State  has  its  Home  Mission  Society,  which 
it  administers  with  great  vigour.  In  New  South  Wales  this 
Society  has  been  in  existence  for  fifty-five  years,  having  been 
founded  in  1859  'it  a  public  meeting  in  the  Centenary  Chapel, 
York    Street,    Sydney.     To    the    Rev.    William    Hessel    the 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  257 

Society  largely  owes  its  origin,  for  it  was  he  who,  more  than 
any  other,   laboured  for  its  establishment.     Mr.   Hessel  be- 
came the  first  Secretary,  to  be  succeeded  in  turn  by  the  Revs. 
George  Hurst,   Benjamin   Chapman,   Joseph  Oram,  George 
Woolnough,    M.A.,    George   Lane,    Richard   Sellors,   D.D., 
James  Woolnough  and  Joseph  Woodhouse.     Mr.  Hurst  was 
the  last  Honorary  Secretary,   his  successors  being  set  free 
from  circuit  work.   Mr.  Hurst  was  Secretary  for  sixteen  years. 
But  to  the  Rev.  James  Woolnough  must  be  given  pride  of 
place  for  length  of  service.     Elected  in  1896,  he  has  held  the 
office  for  eighteen  years,  and  assisted  by  his  able  colleague, 
the  Rev.  Joseph  Woodhouse,  he  still  administers  its  affairs. 
Where  all  have  done  so  well  it  is  difficult  to  particularize. 
We   must  be  permitted  to   say,   however,   that   the   services 
rendered   to    this   Society   and   through   the    Society   to   the 
Church  by  the  Revs.  George  Hurst,  George  Lane,  and  James 
Woolnough  are  incomparable.     Does  the  Church  realize  and 
properly   appraise   the   self-denying    services   of   those   who 
have  filled  this  office?     With  these  men  must  be  bracketed 
the  names  of  the  Hon.  Ebenezer  Vickery,  Lay  Secretary  for 
thirty   years,   a   most  generous  and  consistent  contributor; 
Mr.  T.  P.  Reeve,  also  Lay  Secretary  for  many  years  and  a 
liberal  friend;  Mr.  John   Dawson,  Mr.  R.  H.  Ducker,  and 
Mr.  T.  H.  England,  who  never  wearied  in  their  work  for  the 
Society.     The  Rev.  J.  B.  Waterhouse  rendered  and  the  Rev. 
J.    G.    Morris    Taylor    still    renders    valuable    service    as 
Treasurer. 

Prominent  in  the  work  of  the  Society  are  the  loan  funds 
known  as  the  Methodist  Loan  Fund,  the  Rev.  William 
Schofield's  Free  and  Perpetual  Loan  Fund,  the  Vickery 
Settlement  and  the  Bright  Bequest.  The  Methodist  Loan 
Fund  has  been  built  up  by  public  subscriptions  and  legacies. 
The  Schofield  Loan  Fund  is  a  bequest  of  ;^4o,ooo  by  the 
Rev.  William  Schofield;  the  Vickery  Settlement  is  half  of 
^20,000  settled  by  the  Hon.  Ebenezer  Vickery  on  home 
and  foreign  missions;  and  the  Bright  Bequest  is  ;^40,ooo 
s 


258       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

left  to  the  Church  Sustentation  and  Extension  Society  by 
Mr.  John  Bright  of  Wollongong.  It  is  estimated  that  from 
its  birth  to  its  jubilee  in  1909  the  Church  Sustentation  and 
Extension  Society  has  given  nearly  ;^20o,ooo  to  assist  in  the 
development  and  sustenance  of  ^lethodism  in  the  State,  and 
this  altogether  apart  from  the  help  rendered  by  the  loan 
funds.  By  a  system  of  progressive  loans  and  prospective 
grants,  an  idea  which  sprang  from  the  Rev.  James  Wool- 
nough's  fertile  brain,  many  circuits  and  heavily  burdened 
trusts  have  been  put  on  a  satisfactory  basis.  Every  minister 
is  assured  now  of  a  living  wage,  and  no  trustee  has  ever  been 
called  on  to  make  good  any  trust  debt.  So  good  is  the  credit 
of  the  church  that  the  financial  institutions  readily  advance 
money.  A  Connexional  Fire  Insurance  Fund  has  recently 
been  inaugurated,  with  Mr.  P.  N.  Slade  as  the  efficient 
secretary.  The  income  for  1913  was  ;i^900.  The  total  risks 
covered  were  ;^272,459,  and  one  claim  of  ;^io  only  had  to  be 
met.  This  office  has  also  inaugurated  a  Ministers'  Settle- 
ment Fund,  its  object  being  to  facilitate  the  formation 
of  circuits  and  the  settlement  of  probationers  and  ministers 
therein.  The  income  is  derived  by  levy  upon  those  circuits 
due,  but  not  fulfilling  their  obligation,  to  take  a  married 
minister.  Another  fund  of  great  service  to  the  Church  is 
the  Removal  and  General  Expenses  Fund,  in  the  origin  of 
which  the  Rev.  W.  Woolls  Rutledge  did  valuable  work. 
This  fund  was  established  for  the  payment  of  ministers 
removal  expenses  and  the  expenses  of  the  General  Conference, 
the  Annual  Conference,  Conference  committees,  and  District 
Synods,  the  income  being  raised  by  levy.  For  its  successful 
working  the  fund  is  greatly  indebted  to  the  Rev.  T.  F.  Potts, 
secretary,  and  Mr.  Joseph  Vickery,  treasurer. 

The  general  system  of  education  prevailing  throughout 
Australia  has  been  admirably  presented  by  the  Rev.  C.  J. 
Prescott,  M.A.,  in  the  chapter  on  Education.  A  few  details, 
however,  may  be  added.     Newington  College  was  founded  in 


NEW   SOUTH   WALES  259 

the  year  1863  at  Newington  House,  on  the  Parramatta  River, 
with  the  Rev.  John  A.  Manton  as  the  first  president.  Mr. 
Manton,  who  had  been  president  of  Horton  College,  Tasmania, 
was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Joseph  Horner  Fletcher,  formerly 
head  master  of  Auckland  Wesleyan  College,  New  Zealand. 
The  magnificent  pile  of  buildings  at  Stanmore  was  ready  for 
occupation  in  July  1880,  when  Mr.  Fletcher  and  his  staff  took 
possession,  remaining  at  the  head  till  1887.  Mr.  Fletcher  was 
remarkable  for  his  influence  on  young  life.  On  his  retirement 
as  President  to  become  Principal  of  the  Theological  Insti- 
tution he  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  William  Kelynack,  D.D., 
who  had  been  Foreign  Mission  Secretary  for  five  years.  Dr. 
Kelynack's  untimely  death  in  November  1891  led  to  the 
appointment  of  the  Rev.  J.  Egan  Moulton,  D.D.,  who  retired 
when  the  dual  system  of  control  was  abolished,  the  Rev.  C.  J. 
Prescott,  M.A.,  who  is  still  in  charge,  taking  upon  himself 
the  double  duties  of  president  and  head  master.  The  college 
celebrated  its  Jubilee  in  1913.  At  the  request  of  the  College 
Council  the  Rev.  John  Hulme  was  set  apart  to  raise  the  sum 
of  ;^  1 0,000  to  reduce  the  debt  and  to  assist  the  endowment 
fund.  A  scheme  devised  by  Mr.  F.  Cull  will  greatly  assist 
the  college  and  be  a  permanent  memorial  of  the  jubilee.  Mr. 
Hulme  met  with  great  encouragement.  Newington  College 
holds  high  place  amongst  educational  institutions  for  its 
results  in  scholarship  and  sport.  To  these  results  the  head 
masters,  Mr.  Johnstone,  Mr.  Joseph  Coates,  Mr.  W.  H. 
Williams,  M.A.,  Mr.  A.  S.  Lucas,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  and  the  Rev. 
C.  J.  Prescott,  ALA.,  have  contributed  greatly,  finding  loyal 
and  efficient  support  in  the  assistant  masters,  amongst  whom 
may  be  named  Mr.  John  Waterhouse,  M.A.,  Mr.  J.  J. 
Fletcher,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  Mr.  R.  T.  Baker,  F.L.S.,  and  Mr. 
Buchanan,  B.A. 

The  Ladies'  College  at  Burwood  dates  its  foundation  from 
the  year  1885,  when  the  Rev.  C.  J.  Prescott  took  charge  as 
president  and  head  master,  and  did  a  work  which  merits 
high    praise.      On    Mr.    Prescott's    removal    to    Newington 


26o       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

College,  the  Rev.  E.  J.  Rodd  became  president,  with  Miss 
Amy  Wearne,  M.A.,  as  head  mistress.  Mr.  Rodd  retired 
at  the  Conference  of  1914,  and  the  Rev.  Harold  Kelynack, 
B.A.,  became  principal,  with  Miss  Sutton,  B.A.,  as  head 
mistress.  A  committee  of  ladies  has  recently  rendered  great 
financial  help  to  this  Institution.  Both  Newington  and 
Burwood  Colleges  rank  high  amongst  the  public  schools  of 
the  State. 

The  Church  has  not  been  slow  to  mark  memorable  events 
in  her  history  or  in  that  of  the  colony.  The  celebration  of  the 
Jubilee  of  Methodism  has  been  referred  to.  The  Centenary  of 
the  colony  falling  due  in  1887,  the  Conference  decided  to  raise 
a  Thanksgiving  Fund.  ;^5o,ooo  was  named  as  the  amount. 
The  money  raised  was  to  be  used  in  the  erection  and  endow- 
ment of  a  Theological  Institution  ;  the  extinction  of  trust  debts  ; 
the  acquisition  of  a  site  for  a  girls'  college ;  and  to  inaugurate 
and  assist  mission  work  in  the  city  and  country.  Though  the 
;^5o,ooo  was  not  nearly  reached,  a  substantial  sum  was 
raised.  Generous  subscriptions  were  freely  given,  and  the 
fund  found  eloquent  advocates  in  the  Revs.  James  A.  Nolan, 
J.  H.  Fletcher,  Dr.  Sellors,  S.  Wilkinson,  Dr.  Kelynack, 
James  Woolnough,  George  Lane,  and  Messrs.  G.  Crawshaw, 
J.  H.  Watkin,  S.  E.  Lees,  T.  P.  Fletcher,  W.  H.  McClelland 
and  others.  The  closing  of  the  nineteenth  century  induced 
the  Conference  to  prepare  a  scheme  designed  to  raise  ;^5o,ooo 
to  assist  local  church  property  efforts,  the  Centenary  Hall 
(then  the  head  quarters  of  the  Central  Mission),  Newington 
and  Burwood  Colleges  and  Foreign  Missions.  The  Rev. 
Rainsford  Bavin,  who  became  organizing  secretary,  was 
greatly  assisted  by  the  Rev.  John  Hulme  and  Mr.  P.  N.  Slade 
as  secretaries,  the  Rev.  E.  J.  Rodd  and  Mr.  R.  J.  Lukey  as 
treasurers,  and  a  strong  and  efficient  committee.  For  two 
years  Mr.  Bavin  laboured  with  herculean  effort,  and  when  he 
relinquished  his  arduous  task  he  was  able  to  report  that  44,000 
guineas  out  of  the  50,000  aimed  at  had  been  received. 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  261 

The  approaching  Centenary  of  Methodism  in  the  southern 
world  in  1915  furnished  another  opportunity  for  practical 
expression  of  gratitude  to  God.  '  It  is  an  occasion,'  said  the 
Conference  Committee,  '  to  call  forth  gratitude  and  to 
challenge  our  highest  possibilities  in  relation  to  personal 
reconsecration  and  combined  liberality,  with  a  view  to  more 
effectively  carrying  on  the  work  committed  to  us  as  a  Church 
in  the  centuries  before  us.'  The  Conference  decided  that 
50,000  guineas  should  be  the  amount  fixed,  the  objects  of  the 
fund  embracing  a  Centenary  Theological  Institution  for  the 
training  of  the  ministry ;  the  erection  of  a  college  affiliated  to 
the  University  of  Sydney,  to  be  known  as  Wesley  College ; 
financial  assistance  to  Newington  and  Burwood  Colleges ;  and 
the  ever-expressing  and  expanding  claims  of  Home  and 
Foreign  Missions.  The  Rev.  W.  Woolls  Rutledge  became 
organizing  secretary,  entering  upon  his  five  years'  task  with 
characteristic  vigour  and  enthusiasm.  Unfortunately,  during 
the  year  1913,  Mr.  Rutledge  had  a  serious  illness,  which 
necessitated  the  appointment  of  the  Rev.  John  Hulme  as  joint 
secretary.  The  Rev.  B.  Dinning  in  his  capacity  as  clerical 
secretary  and  the  Hon.  William  Robson  as  lay  treasurer, 
have  greatly  assisted  in  the  successful  working  of  the  fund. 
To  the  Conference  of  1914  Mr.  Robson  reported  that  the  sum 
of  ;^3i,369  175.  2d.  had  been  promised  up  to  December  31, 
and  there  were  forty-three  circuits  yet  to  be  visited.  Tuesday, 
August  10,  will  be  recognized  as  Centenary  day,  that  being 
the  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  landing  of  Samuel  Leigh, 
the  first  missionary.  It  is  expected  that  representatives  from 
British  Methodism,  the  United  States  of  America,  Canada, 
South  Africa  and  New  Zealand  will  participate  in  the  com- 
memoration of  this  historic  event. 

The  excellent  work  of  the  Book  Room,  The  Methodist,  and 
the  Epworth  Printing  and  Publishing  House,  also  calls  for 
notice.  The  Book  Room  dates  its  origin  from  the  sales  made 
by  the  Rev.   William  Schofield,   who,   as  a  supernumerary 


262       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

minister  resident  in  Sydney  in  the  year  1852,  consented  to 
act  as  distributing  agent  for  the  magazines  and  other  Hterature 
forwarded  by  the  EngHsh  Book  Steward.  In  the  District 
Meeting  of  1854  the  missionaries  discussed  the  advisabiUty 
of  founding  a  Book  D^pot.  Mr.  Schofield  took  York  Street 
House  as  a  distributing  centre,  and  this  arrangement  con- 
tinued until  1858;  when,  as  the  result  of  the  deliberations  of 
the  Revs.  Stephen  Rabone,  Samuel  Ironside,  William  A. 
Quick,  William  Hessel,  and  Messrs.  Barker,  J.  R.  Houlding, 
and  John  Dawson,  premises  were  taken  at  the  corner  of  King 
and  Castlereagh  Streets.  Mr.  Hessel  became  Book  Steward, 
and  he  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Stephen  Rabone.  In  1861 
the  business  was  removed  to  a  small  shop  in  the  George 
Street  markets,  and  in  1863  Mr.  John  Corbett  was  appointed 
manager.  Mr.  Corbett's  keen  business  instincts,  his  self- 
abnegation,  his  laborious  toil  and  his  never-failing  courtesy, 
went  far  to  make  the  Book  Room  the  success  it  is  to-day.  In 
1890  the  Book  Room  Committee  purchased  the  present 
property  at  381  George  Street,  at  a  cost  of  ;^i8,ooo,  to  which 
must  be  added  ;^2,ooo  spent  in  alterations.  On  Mr.  Corbett's 
lamentable  death  a  few  years  later  the  present  manager,  Mr. 
A.  J.  Carnell,  was  appointed  to  succeed  him.  The  premises, 
which  are  centrally  situated  and  now  modernized,  are  nearly 
free  from  debt.  When  that  consummation  is  attained  the 
management  will  feel  free  to  give  effect  to  its  ideals  for 
extended  usefulness.  Since  Mr.  Rabone's  death  the  office  of 
Book  Steward  has  been  filled  by  the  Revs.  George  Hurst, 
Frank  Firth,  Joseph  Spence,  and  William  Clarke.  The  Rev. 
William  H.  Beale  now  worthily  fills  the  position. 

The  church  organ,  the  Methodist,  first  saw  the  light  as  The 
Christian  Advocate  and  Wesleyan  Record  on  June  21,  1858, 
the  Rev.  William  Hessel  and  William  A.  Quick  being  re- 
quested by  the  Book  Committee  to  act  as  editors.  The  history 
of  the  paper  from  that  day  to  the  present  has  been  chequered. 
It  has  changed  its  name,  reduced  its  price,  altered  its  size, 
and  varied  its  contents,  but  the  result  remains  practically  the 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  263 

same.  When  it  is  said  that  Joseph  Fletcher,  William  Kely- 
nack,  William  Curnow,  afterwards  editor  of  the  Sydney 
Morning  Herald,  F.  W.  Ward,  late  editor  of  the  Sydney 
Daily  Telegraph,  George  Martin,  Edward  J.  Rodd,  James  E. 
Carruthers,  William  H.  Beale,  W.  Woolls  Rutledge  and  Paul 
Clipsham  have  filled  the  editorial  chair,  it  will  be  seen  that  no 
fault  lies  with  the  editorial  staff.  The  paper  needs  to  be  made 
financially  strong,  independent  and  free ;  and  that  means  a 
proprietary,  a  suggestion  which  the  Conference  has  hitherto 
refused  to  entertain.  Glad  Tidings,  the  organ  of  the  Holiness 
Association ;  The  Weekly  Greeting,  issued  by  the  Sydney 
Central  Mission  ;  the  Northern  Light,  published  by  the  New- 
castle Mission ;  and  the  Missionary  Review,  proceeding  from 
the  Foreign  Mission  office,  all  serve  useful  purposes  in 
spreading  information  and  inspiring  their  readers. 

It  was  this  want  of  well-deserved  success  on  the  part  of  The 
Methodist  that  led  the  Rev.  Paul  Clipsham,  when  acting  as 
editor  and  manager,  to  advocate  the  establishment  of  a 
printing  and  publishing  house.  In  1893  Mr.  Clipsham 
obtained  permission  to  establish  the  printing  establishment 
now  known  as  the  Epworth  Printing  and  Publishing  House. 
Mr.  Clipsham  became  personally  responsible  for  the  initial 
outlay,  and  the  scheme  was  launched  without  money  and 
without  a  home.  To-day  it  owns  valuable  premises  in  Castle- 
reagh  Street,  together  with  a  modern  plant,  is  in  a  sound 
financial  position,  while  it  has  a  name  in  the  printing  trade 
second  to  none.  This  is  a  fine  tribute  to  Mr.  Clipsham's 
foresight  and  business  capability.  Though  the  Book  Room, 
The  Methodist,  and  the  Epworth  Publishing  House  have 
already  done  much  for  the  Church,  they  are  destined  to  play 
a  still  greater  part  in  the  future. 

Several  attempts  have  been  made  to  form  a  Sunday-school 
Union  for  the  purposes  of  thorough  organization  and  more 
effective  equipment  in  Sunday-school  work.  The  Conference 
of  1879  in  a  series  of  resolutions  gave  expression  to  its  views. 


264       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

But  little  was  done  effectively  till  the  year  1888,  when  the  Rev. 
C.  W.  Graham  succeeded  the  Rev.  Frank  Firth  as  secretary. 
When  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Beale  became  secretary  the  Union  was 
a  reality  and  a  success.  Competitive  examinations  were  in- 
augurated and  considerable  enthusiasm  manifested.  The 
present  success  of  the  Union  may  be  traced  to  the  persistent 
advocacy  and  patient  toil  of  the  Rev.  R.  H.  Rickard,  and 
Messrs.  E.  A.  Bronsdon,  Henry  Bush,  J.  A.  Somerville  and 
other  members  of  the  committee.  It  was  felt,  however,  that 
the  time  was  ripe  for  the  formation  of  a  Sunday-school 
Department  with  the  Rev.  Harold  Wheen  as  general  secre- 
tary. Though  Mr.  Wheen  has  held  office  but  a  short  time  the 
decline  in  numbers,  noticeable  for  some  years,  has  been 
arrested  and  turned  into  a  substantial  increase.  The  Depart- 
ment is  self-supporting  and  gives  promise  of  great  usefulness. 
Many  are  looking  to  Mr.  Wheen  to  introduce  the  leaven  of 
modern  and  successful  method.  Much  good  work  is  done 
amongst  the  scholars  in  the  public  schools  of  the  State  by  the 
visits  of  the  ministers  for  the  purpose  of  giving  religious 
instruction.  Some  ministers  attend  to  this  important  matter 
with  conscientious  regularity  and  thoroughness.  Would  that 
all  did  this,  for  here  is  a  golden  opportunity.  In  questions 
of  temperance  or  social  reform  the  Conference  takes  an 
advanced  position. 

This  is  a  condensed  resume  of  the  past.  The  develop- 
ments are  such  as  to  call  for  the  profoundest  expressions  of 
gratitude  to  the  Great  Head  of  the  Church.  What  of  the 
future  ?  In  the  com.ing  century  the  Church  of  New  South 
Wales  must  make  itself  stronger  in  the  thought  centres  of 
the  community.  It  has  sought  to  do  its  duty  to  the  bottom 
man.  But  Methodism  as  John  Wesley  left  it  was  inclusive 
and  tolerant.  Wesley  drew  to  himself  scholars  like  Dr.  Coke 
and  Adam  Clarke,  saints  like  Fletcher  and  Walsh,  sinners 
like  Tommy  Olivers  and  John  Nelson.  Has  Methodism  the 
same  power  to-day?  Is  it  parochial  in  its  outlook,  intolerant 
of  spirit  towards  education,  indifferent  to  soul-saving  and  life- 


NEW    SOUTH    WALES  265 

regenerating  work  ?  If  so  it  is  not  the  Methodism  of  Wesley's 
day.  Methodism  has  a  message  for  all — the  educated,  the 
unlearned — the  wealthy  and  the  poor.  Let  it  be  lifted  out  of 
the  ruinous  ruts  of  parochialism  and  prejudice.  Let  it  capture 
the  educated  as  well  as  the  rank  and  file ;  and  then  enthused 
with  the  Spirit  of  the  Living  God  turn  its  face  to  the  rising 
sun  and  say  :  We  are  ready  for  the  work  of  the  next  century. 


CHAPTER    II 

TASMANIA   AND   VICTORIA 

By   EDWARD   H.    SUGDEN,  M.A.,  B.Sc. 

Master  Queen's  College,  Melbourne  University 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

(a)  Tastnania.  First  settlements — Carvosso—Hobart— Sunday  school- 
Leigh  —  Horton  —  Macquarie  Harbour  —  Launceston —  Turner — 
The  conciliator — Later  events — Visit  of  Young— Other  Methodist 
Churches — Tin  mines— Methodist  Union. 

{b)  Victoria.  First  settlement — Batman — Orton— Melbourne — Building 
— Geelong — Buntingdale  —  Primitives — First  District  Meeting — 
Gold  rush — Robert  Young — Australian  Conference — Revivals — 
Draper  —  First  Conference  —  Famous  men — Home  Missions — 
Central  Mission,  Melbourne— Licensing  laws — Secondary  educa- 
tion —  Jubilee  —  Methodist  Union  —  Protestant  Union  —  Foreign 
Missions. 


CHAPTER    II 

TASMANIA  AND   VICTORIA 

The  first  English  settlement  in  Tasmania,  or  Van  Die- 
man's  Land,  as  it  was  then  called,  took  place  in  1803,  when 
Governor  King,  apprehensive  lest  the  French  should  occupy 
the  island,  sent  Lieutenant  Bowen  with  eight  soldiers,  twenty- 
four  convicts  selected  for  their  refractoriness,  and  six  free 
men  to  find  a  new  home  on  the  Derwent.  He  chose  a  site 
at  Risdon,  on  the  east  bank  of  the  river,  a  little  higher  up 
than  Hobart ;  and  was  joined  a  month  later  by  a  second 
detachment  of  forty-two  convicts  and  fifteen  soldiers.  During 
the  next  year  Collins,  having  failed  to  find  what  he  considered 
a  suitable  spot  for  a  settlement  on  the  shores  of  Port  Phillip, 
brought  over  his  company  of  331  convicts,  fifty-one  soldiers, 
and  thirteen  free  men  to  the  Derwent,  and  established  them 
at  the  foot  of  Mount  Wellington,  naming  the  place  Hobart's 
Town,  after  the  then  Colonial  Secretary.  In  the  same  year 
Colonel  Patterson  established  a  convict  settlement  at  Port 
Dalrymple,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Tamar,  and  two  years  later 
transferred  it  to  the  site  of  Launceston.  In  1806  the  free 
inhabitants  of  Norfolk  Island  were  ordered,  much  against 
their  will,  to  go  to  Van  Dieman's  Land,  and  received  allot- 
ments of  land,  some  at  New  Norfolk  on  the  Derwent,  others 
at  Norfolk  Plains  in  the  north  of  the  island.  In  1820  Jeffreys 
estimates  that  there  were  300  houses  and  1,200  people  in 
Hobart,  and  eighty  houses  in  Launceston ;  but  the  population 
was  rapidly  increasing,  and  by  the  end  of  1821  there  were 
426  houses  and  2,700  inhabitants  in  Hobart.  The  total 
population  of  the  island  was  estimated  at  about  8,000. 

There  was  only  one  minister  of  religion  for  all  these  people, 

269 


270       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  Rev.  Robert  Knopwood,  who  had  accompanied  Collins 
as  chaplain,  and  resided  at  Hobart.  He  was  a  merry,  con- 
vivial bachelor,  fond  of  good  company,  easy-going,  popular, 
and  tolerant.  There  was  no  church  building  in  the  island 
until  1822,  the  services  being  held  up  to  that  time  in  the 
verandah  of  the  Governor's  residence.  The  Rev.  Samuel 
Leigh,  who  had  been  sent  to  Sydney  in  1815,  was  impressed 
by  the  spiritual  needs  of  Tasmania,  and  in  1817  wrote  to  the 
Missionary  Society  suggesting  that  a  missionary  should  be 
sent  there.  On  his  visit  to  England  in  1820  he  pressed  his 
appeal,  with  the  result  that  in  the  Minutes  of  the  Conference 
of  that  year  we  find  the  entry  in  the  stations  :  '  30,  Van  Die- 
man's  Land,  Benjamin  Carvosso.' 

Carvosso,  the  son  of  the  well-known  William  Carvosso,  had 
already  sailed  for  Sydney  in  1819,  and  on  April  25,  1820, 
the  Saracen,  with  himself  and  his  wife  on  board,  came  to 
anchor  in  the  Derwent.  He  tells  how  '  lofty  hills  and  low 
vales,  all  covered  with  ever-green  trees,  gave  to  the  country  a 
pleasing  appearance,  while  a  noble  background  was  formed 
to  the  picture  by  a  high  mountain  capped  with  snow.' 
Carvosso  at  once  made  inquiries  as  to  the  spiritual  condition 
of  the  people,  and  records  that  there  was  only  one  chaplain 
in  the  town,  '  who  is  so  far  advanced  in  life,  and  labours  under 
so  many  bodily  infirmities,  as  to  be  able  to  do  but  little  for 
the  good  of  souls.' 

There  had  been  no  minister  in  the  north  of  the  island  until 
three  months  before :  and  no  services  were  held  in  the  Pitt- 
water  and  New  Norfolk  districts.  He  found  one  Methodist 
in  Hobart,  of  the  name  of  Field,  who  came  from  Ceylon 
two  years  before;  and  he  informed  him  that  he  had  not  found 
a  single  person  with  whom  he  could  have  Christian  fellow- 
ship;  he  had  heard  of  one,  and  had  walked  15  miles  to  see 
him,  but  found  him  swearing  at  his  servants !  Carvosso 
sought  leave  of  Mr.  Humphry,  the  police-magistrate,  to  hold 
an  open-air  service;  on  his  advice  he  applied  to  the  Governor, 
Sorell,  who  referred  him  to  Mr.    Knopwood.      That  genial 


TASMANIA    AND    VICTORIA  271 

clergyman  welcomed  him  warmly,  sent  the  bellman  round  to 
announce  the  service,  and  ordered  the  constable  to  attend  and, 
if  necessary,  protect  the  preacher.  Accordingly,  on  Friday, 
April  28,  at  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  Carvosso  took  his 
stand  with  his  wife  on  the  steps  of  the  court-house,  and  held 
the  first  Methodist  service  in  Tasmania.  There  were  about 
100  persons  present.  One  of  the  Methodist  hymns  was  sung 
by  the  two  visitors,  and  then  the  preacher  announced  his 
text :  Ephesians  v.  14,  '  Awake  thou  that  sleepest,  and  arise 
from  the  dead,  and  Christ  shall  give  thee  light.'  Eighty 
years  before,  Charles  Wesley  had  startled  the  University  of 
Oxford  with  a  sermon  from  this  text ;  and  it  was  probably 
quite  as  appropriate  to  the  congregation  in  St.  Mary's  as 
to  the  little  company  round  the  court-house  in  Hobart. 
Carvosso  preached  again  on  Saturday  evening,  and  on  Sun- 
day addressed  the  prisoners  in  the  jail  on  the  story  of  the 
Prodigal  Son,  and  at  three  in  the  afternoon  spoke  from  the 
court-house  steps.  He  finished  his  public  ministrations  on 
the  Monday  evening,  and  was  begged  by  some  of  his  con- 
gregation to  stay  in  Hobart ;  but  his  appointment  was  to 
Sydney,  and  thither  he  had  to  go,  leaving  on  Thursday, 
May  4. 

In  October  1820,  three  soldiers,  members  of  the  Methodist 
Society  in  Sydney,  one  of  whom  was  Corporal  George 
Waddy,  said  to  be  connected  with  the  family  which  gave 
Dr.  Samuel  Waddy  to  Methodism,  came  to  Hobart.  They 
decided  to  start  a  class-meeting,  and  invited  Mr.  Benjamin 
Nokes  to  become  the  leader.  At  his  house  in  Collins  Street 
the  first  meeting  was  held  on  October  29,  when  eight  members 
attended.  The  next  week  they  removed  to  the  house  of  Mr. 
Wallis  in  Liverpool  Street,  where  preaching  services  were 
also  conducted,  in  spite  of  popular  opposition.  The  place 
soon  became  too  strait  for  the  congregation,  and  they  found 
accommodation  in  a  carpenter's  shed  in  Argyle  Street 
belonging  to  a  Mr.  Charles  Donn,  whose  real  name  was 
Cranmer,  and  who  claimed  to  be  a  descendant  of  the  great 


272       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

archbishop.  It  stood  nearly  on  the  spot  occupied  later  by  the 
'Bird  in  Hand'  hotel,  between  Liverpool  and  Collins  Streets. 
The  congregation  numbered  lOO,  and  increased  so  fast  that 
Donn  was  persuaded  to  enlarge  his  shed  so  as  to  find  room 
for  300  persons.  A  Sunday  school  was  started  on  May  13 
with  twenty-three  scholars,  the  first  Sunday  school  in 
Tasmania.  In  July  Nokes,  accompanied  by  a  Mr.  Butcher, 
visited  New  Norfolk,  held  a  service  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Albe, 
and  arranged  for  the  building  of  a  chapel  there.  A  soldiers' 
prayer-meeting  was  also  begun  in  a  house  in  Goulburn  Street. 

On  August  8,  182 1,  Leigh,  accompanied  by  Walker  and 
Horton,  arrived  at  Hobart  on  his  way  to  Sydney.  They  held 
several  services,  and  had  attentive  congregations  of  between 
two  and  three  hundred  hearers.  As  Carvosso  had  not  been 
able  to  leave  Sydney  to  take  up  his  appointment  at  Hobart, 
Leigh,  acting  on  his  authority  as  General  Superintendent, 
left  Mr.  Horton  there,  and  he  was  thus  the  first  regular 
Methodist  minister  in  Tasmania.  Lieutenant-Governor  Sorell 
had  already  given  the  Methodists  two  acres  of  land  for  a 
church,  but  it  was  too  far  out  of  the  town  to  be  convenient, 
and  Mr.  David  Lord  met  the  difficulty  by  presenting  to  the 
Society  a  block  of  land,  120  by  90  feet,  in  Melville  Street, 
and  Horton  at  once  began  to  build  a  church  there.  But  he 
was  only  able  to  raise  ;^400  for  the  building ;  and  having 
expended  that,  he  refused  to  go  into  debt,  and  the  work 
ceased  for  the  time  with  the  walls  only  half  completed. 
Meanwhile  Corporal  Waddy,  now  raised  to  the  rank  of 
sergeant,  had  been  ordered  to  the  new  penal  station  at 
Macquarie  Harbour,  where  he  was  again  successful  in 
starting  a  class-meeting. 

In  May  1822  Nathaniel  Turner  arrived  at  Hobart  on  his 
way  to  New  Zealand.  As  the  inter-tribal  wars  there  made 
it  inadvisable  for  him  to  proceed,  he  stayed  in  Tasmania 
nearly  twelve  months,  and  gave  great  assistance  to  Horton 
in  opening  up  new  preaching-places  and  ministering  to  the 
convicts.     A   horse  was   imported  from   Sydney,   and  visits 


TASMANIA   AND   VICTORIA  273 

were  made  to  Kangaroo  Point,  Clarence  Plains,  New  Norfolk, 
Pitt-water,  and  other  settlements  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Hobart.  In  1823  Mansfield  came  from  Sydney  to  succeed 
Horton,  and  by  his  earnest  appeals  obtained  a  grant  from  the 
Missionary  Committee  for  the  completion  of  the  church.  In 
the  same  year  John  Hutchinson,  a  local  preacher,  was  sent 
to  Macquarie  Harbour  to  carry  on  the  work  begun  by 
Sergeant  Waddy.  In  1825  Carvosso  took  Mansfield's  place, 
and  had  the  satisfaction  of  opening  the  new  church  on 
November  27,  his  text  being  :  '  My  house  shall  be  called  a 
house  of  prayer.'  It  was  the  building  now  known  as  the 
Mechanics'  Institute.  A  public  meeting  was  held  there  on 
February  12  of  the  next  year,  one  result  of  which  was  the 
formation  of  the  first  public  library  in  Australia. 

The  needs  of  Launceston  had  not  escaped  the  notice  of  the 
Hobart  ministers.  In  1822  Horton  reported  that  the  wicked- 
ness of  the  place  exceeded  all  description ;  but  nothing  was 
done  till  1825,  when  Hutchinson,  now  received  into  the 
ministry,  was  sent  there  from  Macquarie  Harbour.  In  the 
next  year  a  church  and  parsonage  were  built  in  Cameron 
Street;  but  in  1828  the  minister  was  withdrawn  and  the  pro- 
perty sold  to  the  Government,  who  turned  the  church  into 
a  State  school  and  the  parsonage  into  a  store.  The  purchase 
money  was  handed  over  to  John  Pascoe  Fawkner,  and  he, 
with  somewhat  lax  notions  of  his  duty  as  a  trustee,  gave  it  to 
the  Presbyterians,  and  it  was  used  in  the  erection  of  the 
Scotch  Church  in  Charles  Street.  In  1827  William  Schofield 
was  sent  to  Macquarie  Harbour,  in  the  interests  of  which 
Governor  Arthur  was  greatly  concerned ;  '  the  result  of  his 
labours,'  says  Professor  Jenks,  '  entirely  justified  the  Gover- 
nor's hopes,  and  Macquarie  Harbour  was  no  longer  simply  a 
place  of  despair.' 

In  1830  Carvosso  was  compelled  by  failing  health  to  return 
to  England.  His  faithful  ministry  had  greatly  endeared  him 
to  his  people,  and  his  memory  is  still  preserved  in  the  Melville 
Street  Church  by  a  clock  which  bears  the  inscription  :   '  For 

T 


274       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  use  of  the  Wesleyan  Chapel,  Hobart  Town,  Van  Die- 
man's  Land.  Presented  by  B.  Carvosso,  a.d.  1830.'  He 
died  in  1853,  and  was  buried  in  the  graveyard  of  Ponsanooth 
chapel  beside  his  father.  He  was  succeeded  by  John  Hutch- 
inson, whose  retirement  in  1831  brought  no  little  trouble  to 
the  Society  in  Hobart ;  but  Nathaniel  Turner,  who  came  from 
New  Zealand  to  take  his  place,  proved  equal  to  the  situation, 
and  peace  was  soon  restored.  During  Turner's  term  of  four 
years,  the  Melville  Street  Church  was  enlarged,  a  temperance 
society  was  formed,  and  Mr.  John  Leach,  a  good  Yorkshire 
Methodist,  was  engaged  as  a  hired  local  preacher.  Along 
with  Manton,  who  had  succeeded  Schofield  at  Macquarie 
Harbour,  Turner  rode  across  the  island  to  Launceston,  the 
population  of  which  had  increased  to  about  1,000  souls.  On 
the  way  he  held  services  at  Green  Ponds  and  at  Captain 
Samuel  Horton's  at  Ross.  Captain  Horton  was  a  cousin  of 
the  Rev.  W.  Horton,  and  had  taken  up  land  at  Ross  on  his 
advice.  Through  Turner's  influence  he  joined  the  Methodist 
Society,  and  subsequently  showed  his  attachment  to  it  by  the 
gift  of  land  at  Ross  on  which  Horton  College  was  built. 
Services  were  held  in  Launceston,  and  Turner  promised  to 
do  his  best  to  secure  a  minister  for  the  town.  Meanwhile, 
in  1832  Francis  French  began  holding  open-air  services  on 
Windmill  Hill;  and  in  1834  John  Leach,  who  had  been 
appointed  catechist  to  the  road-parties  in  the  north  of  the 
island,  began  regular  services  in  the  house  of  one  Benjamin 
Rogers.  In  1834  Launceston  makes  its  first  appearance  in 
the  station  sheet  with  John  A.  Manton  as  the  minister.  A 
grant  of  land  was  obtained  in  Patterson  Street  where  the 
public  pound  stood,  and  in  1835  the  church  was  built.  It  is 
now  used  as  a  Sunday  school. 

It  was  during  these  years  that  Robinson,  the  'Conciliator,' 
as  he  came  to  be  called,  succeeded  by  the  force  of  sympathy 
and  kindness  in  doing  a  work  which  all  the  military  and 
police  resources  of  the  colony  had  failed  to  accomplish.  The 
natives  had  proved  very  troublesome  to  the  colonists,  espe- 


TASMANIA   AND    VICTORIA  275 

cially  in  the  outlying  districts;  and  in  1830  Governor  Arthur 
organized  the  '  great  drive  '  by  which  it  was  expected  that 
all  the  natives  would  be  captured.  A  cordon  of  troops  and 
civilians  was  drawn  right  across  the  island  and  was  directed 
to  converge  on  Tasman's  Peninsula.  Five  thousand  men 
were  employed,  and  ;^30,ooo  was  expended,  and  the  net  result 
was  the  capture  of  a  man  and  a  boy.  Robinson,  a  deeply 
pious  Methodist,  now  offered  to  bring  in  all  the  natives  him- 
self, without  the  use  of  any  means  save  those  of  personal 
persuasion.  The  Governor  consented;  and  by  1835  the  last 
of  the  aboriginals  was  gathered  in,  and  the  remnants  of  the 
dying  race  were  located  first  at  Swan  Island,  then  at  Gun- 
carriage  Island,  and  finally  at  Flinders  Island,  where  the  last 
survivor  passed  away  in  1876.  It  cannot  but  be  regretted 
that  in  the  clash  of  race  with  race,  the  weaker  must  go  to 
the  wall ;  but  it  was  infinitely  better  that  the  blacks  should 
be  collected  in  the  peaceable  fashion  in  which  Robinson 
managed  to  do  it,  than  that  they  should  have  been  extermin- 
ated by  force  of  arms. 

In  the  Minutes  of  1835  Van  Dieman's  Land  appears  as  a 
separate  district,  the  ministers  being  :  '  Hobart  Town,  Joseph 
Orton  ;  Port  Arthur,  William.  Butters ;  Launceston,  John  A. 
Manton.'  Orton  had  been  sent  to  Sydney  in  1831  and  had 
done  four  years'  splendid  work  there ;  he  was  now  transferred 
to  Hobart  to  take  charge  of  the  new  district.  The  first 
District  Meeting  was  held  in  1836,  and  included  the  three 
ministers  above  named  and  William  Simpson.  Permission 
was  given  for  the  building  of  a  new  church  at  Hobart ;  and 
on  December  27,  1837,  the  foundation-stone  of  the  present 
Melville  Street  Church  was  laid  by  the  Governor,  Sir  John 
Franklin.  The  membership  was  reported:  Hobart,  195; 
Launceston,  24;  Port  Arthur,  5.  Manton  soon  improved  the 
state  of  things  in  Launceston.  In  1837  he  reports  a  society 
of  100  members;  a  Sunday  school  of  100  scholars;  a  Tract 
Society,  and  a  circulating  library.  The  opening  of  a  new 
church   in    Longford   by    Butters  on   July  4,    1837,  ^"d  the 


276       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

beginning  of  a  society  at  Westbury  are  recorded.  Butters 
in  1838  tells  of  a  society  of  fifty  members  at  Ross,  which  had 
been  made  into  a  circuit  with  New  Norfolk  and  Longford 
in  the  previous  year.  In  the  same  year  James  Sutch,  Ben- 
jamin Hurst,  and  Francis  Tuckfield  called  at  Hobart,  and 
Tuckfield  stayed  for  a  little  time  to  help  Orton. 

In  1839  John  Waterhouse  came  out  as  General  Super- 
intendent of  the  Australian  and  Polynesian  Missions,  and 
was  stationed  at  Hobart;  with  him  came  John  Eggleston. 
They  had  the  satisfaction,  in  1840,  of  seeing  the  new  Melville 
Street  Church  opened  on  October  18.  The  Governor  and  his 
suite  were  present,  and  amongst  the  singers  was  a  young  girl 
who  afterwards  became  famous  as  Madam  Carandini.  Water- 
house  preached  from  :  '  I  beseech  Thee,  O  Lord,  send  now 
prosperity.'  Turner  was  present,  having  just  arrived  from 
New  Zealand ;  but  the  next  year  he  was  removed  to  Launces- 
ton,  where  he  did  memorable  service  in  extending  the  work. 
He  was  the  first  to  occupy  the  new  parsonage,  or  mission 
house,  as  it  was  called,  in  Patterson  Street.  The  work  in 
Hobart  and  throughout  Polynesia  suffered  a  severe  loss  in 
the  death  of  John  Waterhouse,  soon  after  his  return  from  his 
second  missionary  tour  through  the  islands.  He  got  wet 
through  in  going  to  a  missionary  meeting  at  Longford,  and 
died  in  Hobart  on  March  30,  1842. 

Space  forbids  more  than  the  briefest  reference  to  the  later 
events  in  the  history  of  Tasmanian  Methodism.  In  1849, 
during  the  term  of  John  Eggleston  and  Jonathan  Innes,  the 
whole  of  the  debt  on  Melville  Street  was  paid,  and  the  same 
year  Westbury  was  made  a  separate  circuit  under  the  super- 
intendency  of  Jabez  B.  Waterhouse.  Longford  was  made  a 
circuit  in  1851  and  Deloraine  in  1S54.  In  1852  Robert  Young 
was  appointed  by  the  British  Conference  to  visit  Australia 
and  Polynesia  in  order  to  report  on  the  desirability  of  con- 
stituting a  separate  conference  there.  He  was  a  very  stout 
man,  and  Samuel  Waddy  humorously  objected  to  his 
appointment  on  the  ground  that  it  was  not  right  to  present 


TASMANIA    AND    VICTORIA  277 

such  a  temptation  to  the  recent  converts  in  Fiji  !  In  January 
1854  he  visited  Tasmania  and  reported:  *  We  have  twenty- 
three  chapels  in  the  island,  and  there  is  not  a  farthing  debt 
upon  any  of  them.  We  have  also  mission  houses  (i.e. 
parsonages)  in  Hobart  Town,  Launceston,  Campbell  Town, 
and  Longford.' 

The  Australasian  Conference  was  constituted  by  the  British 
Conference  of  1854,  ^"d  held  its  first  meeting  in  Sydney  in 
January  1855,  under  the  presidency  of  William  Binnington 
Boyce,  who  had  come  out  in  1845  as  General  Superin- 
tendent. Tasmania  returned  23  chapels  and  11  other 
preaching-places;  8  ministers;  694  members;  3,950  attend- 
ants on  public  worship;  and  1,082  Sunday  scholars.  John 
A.  Manton  was  appointed  Governor  of  Horton  College,  Ross, 
which  was  opened  in  the  course  of  the  year.  The  name  of 
John  Cope  appears  for  the  first  time  as  the  second  minister 
for  Hobart.  In  1859  W^illiam  Abraham  Quick  succeeded 
Manton  at  Horton  College.  He  had  entered  the  ministry 
in  1841,  and  had  been  for  a  time  a  missionary  in  Sierra  Leone. 
He  came  to  Sydney  in  1855,  and  is  still  living  (1913)  at 
Brighton,  near  Melbourne,  in  his  ninety-fourth  year.  The 
Primitive  Methodists  came  to  Launceston  in  1857  and  began 
services  in  Wycliffe  Chapel,  in  Vincent  Street.  They  had 
then  a  membership  of  six  only,  but  they  gradually  grew, 
until  in  1862  they  built  the  Frederick  Street  Church.  They 
also  went  across  to  Hobart  in  i860,  where  they  worshipped 
first  in  Argyle  Street  and  later  in  Knox's  Free  Church  in 
Collins  Street.  When  Methodist  union  was  effected  in  1904, 
they  brought  into  the  United  Church  seven  circuits,  twenty- 
two  churches,  eight  ministers,  and  753  members. 

During  the  twenty  years  between  the  establishment  of  the 
Australian  Conference  and  its  division  into  four  local  Con- 
ferences in  1874,  there  was  steady  progress  in  Tasmania;  and 
at  the  first  Victoria  and  Tasmania  Conference  she  reported 
97  churches  and  other  preaching  places;  15  ministers; 
1,450  members;  3,203   Sunday  scholars;  and  9,857   attend- 


278       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

ants  on  public  worship.  In  1880  the  Methodist  Ladies' 
College  was  opened  in  Launceston,  under  the  presidency  of 
Spencer  Williams,  and  in  1889  Francis  James  Nance,  M.A., 
came  out  from  England  to  succeed  him,  and  held  the  head- 
mastership  until  1903,  when  the  ministerial  headship  was 
discontinued.  Hitherto  Tasmania  had  been  a  single  district; 
but  in  1888  it  was  divided  into  three,  viz.  the  Hobart,  the 
Launceston,  and  the  Mersey  districts. 

The  discovery  of  the  rich  tin  deposits  at  Mount  Bischoff  in 
the  early  seventies  opened  a  new  era  in  the  history  of  Tas- 
mania; and  when,  some  ten  years  later,  silver  was  found  in 
the  Mount  Zeehan  neighbourhood,  there  was  a  second  and 
even  larger  influx  of  population  to  the  north-west  coast. 
Methodism  w^as  not  slow  in  putting  in  an  appearance  in  this 
new  field;  in  1880  Mount  Bischoflf  and  Stanley  became  a 
circuit,  under  the  superintendence  of  Daniel  A.  Gilsenan  ;  in 
1890  a  home  missionary  was  sent  to  Mount  Zeehan,  and  the 
next  year  it  also  became  a  circuit,  George  S.  Lloyd  being  its 
first  minister.  The  impassioned  appeal  made  by  one  of  its 
representatives  in  Conference  for  the  north-west  will  not 
soon  be  forgotten.  '  Mr.  President,'  said  he,  '  the  brethren 
do  not  realize  the  possibilities  of  this  field  of  labour.  Why, 
sir,  Mount  Bischoff  is  a  solid  mass  of  tin  ore;  millions  of 
tons  have  been  already  taken  out  of  it,  and  there  is  still  as 
much  in  it  as  ever  there  was  !  ' 

Methodist  union  was  accomplished  in  Victoria  and  Tas- 
mania in  1902.  The  United  Church  in  Tasmania  returned 
177  churches  and  other  preaching  places;  27  ministers; 
2,661  members;  7,028  Sunday  scholars;  and  17,865  attend- 
ants on  public  worship.  The  largest  addition  was  from 
the  Penguin  district,  which  had  been  very  effectively  worked 
by  the  Primitive  Methodists  and  the  United  Methodist  Free 
Church.  It  was  not  unnatural  that  a  desire  should  be  felt 
for  a  separate  conference  for  Tasmania,  whilst  at  the  same 
time  there  were  manifest  advantages,  especially  in  regard  to 
ministerial  supplies,  from  its  connexion  with  Victoria.     The 


TASMANIA    AND    VICTORIA  279 

difficulty  was  solved  by  the  constitution  in  1905  of  a  Tasmania 
Assembly,  to  which  was  committed  the  control  of  the  Con- 
nexional  Funds  and  the  management  of  Sunday  schools, 
temperance  work,  and  other  matters  of  purely  local  signifi- 
cance. The  first  President  of  the  Assembly  was  the  Rev. 
S.  T.  Withington.  In  1907  Melville  Street  followed  the 
precedent  already  set  in  Melbourne,  and  w^as  turned  into  a 
mission  church,  under  the  superintendency  of  the  devoted  and 
scholarly  Frank  Lade,  who  was  succeeded  later  by  Joseph 
Snell. 

Abortive  attempts  at  settlement  on  Victorian  soil  were  made 
in  1803  by  Lieutenant  Collins  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Port 
Phillip,  and  in  1827  on  Westernport  Bay.  The  first  perma- 
nent settler  was  William  Button,  who  in  1832  established  a 
whaling  station  in  Portland  Bay,  where  in  1834  he  was  joined 
by  the  Henty  family.  John  Batman,  once  a  scholar  in  the 
Parramatta  Wesleyan  Sunday  school,  came  over  to  Port 
Phillip  from  Launceston  in  May  1835,  and  travelled  over  the 
district  round  Corio  Bay  and  the  mouth  of  the  Yarra.  He 
notes  in  his  journal  of  the  land  near  the  old  Yarra  Falls  : 
'  This  will  be  the  place  for  a  village.'  But  he  returned  with- 
out making  any  attempt  at  a  settlement  there,  though  he 
had  bought  some  600,000  acres  of  land  from  the  natives,  and 
had  the  transaction  recorded  in  a  quasi-legal  document,  which 
the  curious  may  see  in  the  Melbourne  Public  Library.  He 
was  followed  in  August  by  John  Pascoe  Fawkner,  the  land- 
lord of  the  '  Cornwall  Hotel  '  in  Launceston ;  who,  in  con- 
temptuous disregard  of  Batman's  claims,  sailed  up  the  Yarra 
to  the  Falls,  and  built  himself  a  sod  hut  just  behind  the  site 
of  the  present  Custom  House.  Batman  returned  in  October, 
and  built  himself  a  log  hut  on  Batman's  Hill,  now  levelled 
to  make  room  for  Spencer  Street  Station.  Meanwhile,  other 
adventurous  spirits  were  finding  their  way  over  from  Tas- 
mania, amongst  them  Henry  Reed,  at  that  time  a  zealous 
local  preacher  amongst  the  Methodists,  who  held  a  service 


28o       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

in  one  of  the  sod  huts  erected  by  Fawkner,  and  had  the 
famous  ex-convict,  William  Buckley,  in  his  congregation. 

Batman  crossed  the  straits  once  more,  and  on  his  return  in 
April  1836,  he  brought  with  him  Joseph  Orton,  the  chairman 
of  the  Tasmanian  district,  who  came  under  instructions  to 
see  what  could  be  done  for  the  evangelization  of  the 
aborigines.  On  April  24  he  conducted  the  first  public 
religious  service  in  Victoria,  standing  on  the  eastern  slope 
of  Batman's  Hill.  The  Liturgy  was  read,  the  responses 
being  given  by  the  resident  magistrate,  Mr.  James  Simpson  ; 
the  singing  was  led  by  Dr.  Alexander  Thompson,  afterwards 
Mayor  of  Geelong ;  and  Orton  preached  from  :  '  What  shall 
I  do  to  inherit  eternal  life  ?  '  In  the  afternoon  he  preached 
again,  and  had,  in  addition  to  the  fifty  white  settlers,  about 
fifty  aboriginals  in  his  congregation.  He  then  went  up  to 
the  head  of  Corio  Bay  and  selected  a  site  of  64,000  acres 
for  an  aboriginal  mission  station,  which  was  subsequently 
granted  by  the  Government  for  the  mission,  and  was  known 
as  Buntingdale. 

During  the  latter  part  of  1836  and  1837  several  Methodists 
came  over  from  Tasmania,  amongst  them  George  Lilly,  J.  J- 
Peers,  the  chief  musician  of  Victorian  Methodism,  and 
W.  Witton.  A  class  of  seven  was  formed  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Witton,  and  w^as  held  in  his  house  in  Lonsdale  Street. 
A  Sunday  school  was  started  in  a  house  at  the  south  end 
of  Russell  Street;  and  in  1838  the  first  chapel  was  built  at 
the  corner  of  Swanston  and  Little  Flinders  Street,  at  a  cost 
of  ^250.  It  was  a  brick  building  30  feet  by  16,  and  after- 
wards became  the  kitchen  of  '  Champion's  Hotel.'  It  was 
pulled  down  in  1905,  and  one  of  the  original  bricks  is  pre- 
served in  the  museum  of  Queen's  College.  Benjamin  Hurst 
and  Francis  Tuckfield  were  appointed  to  take  charge  of  the 
Aboriginal  Mission  at  Buntingdale.  They  arrived  in  Victoria 
in  1839  arid  1838  respectively,  and  supplied  the  Melbourne 
pulpit  once  a  month.  About  the  same  time  Messrs.  E.  S. 
Parker  and  James  Dredge,  who  had  been  appointed  by  the 


TASMANIA   AND   VICTORIA  281 

Colonial  Office  as  assistant  protectors  of  the  aborigines, 
arrived  at  Fort  Phillip.  They  were  active  Methodists;  indeed, 
Parker  was  for  a  time  in  the  ministry  in  England,  and  they 
rendered  splendid  service  as  local  preachers.  A  letter,  pre- 
served in  the  library  of  Queen's  College,  was  sent  to  the 
chairman  of  the  Van  Dieman's  Land  district  by  Dredge 
and  Parker,  urging  the  appointment  of  a  minister.  It  is 
dated  February  20,  1839,  and  states:  '  (i)  This  township 
contains  a  population  of  nearly  2,000  souls,  with  an  Epis- 
copal clergyman,  a  Presbyterian  and  an  Independent  minis- 
ter, and  church  accommodation  by  the  whole  for  about 
500.  (2)  We  have  at  present  a  congregation  of  about  100 
persons,  for  whose  accommodation  we  have  nearly  ready 
a  temporary  chapel,  32  feet  by  16  feet.  We  have  also 
a  society  of  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  members.  (3)  We 
have  made  application  to  the  Government  for  a  grant  of 
land  on  which  to  erect  a  substantial  chapel  and  minister's 
house,  and  have  a  subscription  list  to  the  amount  of  nearly 
i:35o.' 

The  result  of  this  letter  was  a  second  visit  by  Orton  early 
in  1839,  and  a  visit  in  November  of  the  same  year  by  Simp- 
son, the  minister  in  Launceston.  The  latter  records  that 
he  found  a  population  of  4,000 ;  there  were  fifty  members 
of  the  Methodist  Society,  and  the  chapel  was  overcrowded 
with  worshippers.  The  Government  had  granted  a  piece  of 
land  for  a  chapel,  conditionally  on  ;^300  being  raised;  and 
Simpson  got  the  members  together  and  induced  six  of  them 
to  guarantee  ^50  each  in  order  to  secure  the  site.  He 
strongly  urged  the  appointment  of  a  minister,  even  if  it 
should  be  necessary  to  take  one  away  from  Tasmania,  '  I 
know  not,'  he  writes,  'a  finer  field  for  usefulness  in  any  of 
our  British  settlements  in  this  part  of  the  world.'  The  site 
granted  by  the  Government  was  on  the  Eastern  Hill,  which 
was  too  remote  from  the  centre  of  population  to  serve  the 
need  of  the  Methodists;  Witton,  with  no  little  difficulty, 
secured  an  exchange  for  half  an  acre  at  the  corner  of  Collins 


282        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Street  and  Queen  Street,  where  the  Bank  of  Australasia 
now  stands,  and  the  building  of  the  chapel  was  forthwith 
commenced. 

Orton,  whose  failing  health  had  compelled  him  to  ask  for 
a  furlough,  nobly  consented  to  delay  his  departure  for  Eng- 
land in  order  to  take  temporary  charge  in  Melbourne.  He 
arrived  on  October  3,  1840,  and  found  a  society  of  eighty 
members  with  four  leaders  and  seven  local  preachers.  He 
held  the  first  Quarterly  Meeting  at  his  house  in  Russell  Street 
on  January  28,  1841,  the  members  present  being  the  Rev. 
Joseph  Orton,  and  Messrs.  Dredge,  Thorpe,  Witton,  Wilkin- 
son, Peers,  Forster,  Wellard,  Crockett,  Willoughby,  and 
Smith.  In  April  1841  Samuel  Wilkinson,  the  first  resident 
Wesleyan  minister  appointed  to  Melbourne,  arrived  from 
Sydney.  The  new  Collins  Street  Chapel  was  opened  on 
June  24  of  that  year,  the  preachers  being  the  Revs.  W. 
Waterfield,  J.  Orton,  Tuckfield,  and  Forbes.  New  chapels 
were  determined  on  at  Newton  (Fitzroy),  and  the  Brickfields 
(Brunswick).  In  1842  Orton  left  for  England,  but  died  on 
the  way  off  Cape  Horn,  and  was  buried  at  sea.  The  growth 
of  Geelong  claimed  attention  ;  and  in  1842  James  Dredge  was 
sent  there  as  a  hired  local  preacher,  and  laboured  successfully 
till  1846,  when  he  left  for  England;  but,  like  Orton,  died 
before  reaching  its  shores.  The  first  Yarra  Street  Church 
was  erected,  or  rather  transferred,  for  it  had  been  a  weather- 
board store,  in  1842,  and  was  opened  on  February  20  by 
Benjamin  Hurst.  The  same  year  saw  the  first  Methodist 
chapel  erected  in  Portland;  and  in  1844  it  appears  on  the 
plan  of  the  Melbourne  Circuit  under  the  charge  of  Mr. 
Thomas  Wilkinson. 

In  1842  William  Schofield  was  appointed  to  Melbourne, 
and  was  succeeded  in  1845  by  Edward  Sweetman,  who 
received  as  his  assistant  in  1847  \\"illiam  Lowe.  At  the 
Quarterly  Meeting  of  July  1847,  the  two  first  candidates  for 
the  ministry  from  Victoria  were  nominated  :  John  Christian 
Symons,    who   was   associated    with    the    foundation    of   the 


TASMANIA    AND    VICTORIA  283 

Y.M.C.A.  in  London,  and  had  come  out  as  chaplain  on  the 
Maitland,  and  Robert  C  Flockart.  The  membership  had 
now  reached  412  with  fifty-one  on  trial  in  the  whole  of  the 
colony;  but  in  1848  the  numbers  were  dissected,  and  we  find 
Melbourne  294;  Geelong  129;  Buntingdale  two.  The  next 
year  Portland  Bay  was  made  a  separate  circuit,  with  thirty- 
four  members.  In  1849  the  ministers  in  Melbourne  were 
H.  H.  Gaud  and  John  Harcourt.  There  was  thus  steady 
progress  during  this  period;  the  only  drawback  being  the 
abandonment  of  the  Aboriginal  Mission  at  Buntingdale. 
Tuckfield  worked  there  with  unflagging  zeal  until  1848;  the 
place  was  then  sold  and  the  mission  relinquished. 

In  1849  the  Primitive  Methodists  sent  John  Ride  to  Mel- 
bourne; under  his  administration  the  church  at  the  corner 
of  Lygon  and  Latrobe  Streets  was  built,  and  soon  he  was 
able  to  report  a  membership  of  forty. 

In  1850  William  Butters  was  appointed  to  Melbourne,  and 
owing  to  the  difficulty  and  expense  of  travelling  to  Sydney, 
Melbourne  was  made  a  separate  district,  though  it  was  still 
under  the  general  control  of  the  chairman  of  the  Sydney 
district,  the  Rev.  W.  B.  Boyce.  The  first  District  Meeting 
was  held  on  September  9,  1851.  The  ministers  present  were 
William  Butters  (chairman),  F.  Lewis  (secretary),  W.  Light- 
body,  John  Harcourt,  and  Samuel  Waterhouse.  Mr.  Water- 
house  was  in  charge  of  what  was  called  the  Bush  Mission, 
which  included  Bacchus  Marsh,  Kilmore,  Kyneton,  and 
Mount  Franklin.  The  returns  showed  712  members,  1,283 
Sunday  scholars,  and  about  5,000  attendants  on  public 
worship.  The  property  included  the  church  and  parsonage 
in  Collins  Street,  a  school  in  Lonsdale  Street,  where  Wesley 
Church  now  stands,  and  churches  at  Collingwood,  Bruns- 
wick, Williamstown,  Great,  Little,  and  East  Brighton,  Rich- 
mond, and  Pentridge. 

The  discovery  of  gold  in  185 1  revolutionized  the  state  of 
affairs  in  Victoria.  Between  1851  and  1854  the  population 
increased  from  97,000  to  312,000,  and  a  large  proportion  of 


284       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  newcomers  were  Methodist  miners  from  Cornwall  and 
the  north  of  England.  The  sudden  influx  of  immigrants  was 
a  severe  tax  upon  the  accommodation  in  Melbourne ;  and 
Butters,  with  the  help  of  laymen  like  Walter  Powell,  Webb, 
Guthridge,  Beaver,  and  others,  built  the  Wesleyan  Immi- 
grants' Home  in  1852,  in  which  provision  was  made  for  the 
temporary  housing  of  the  new  arrivals.  It  stood  at  the 
corner  of  Rathdown  and  Queensbury  Streets,  and  for  many 
years  fulfilled  the  philanthropic  intentions  of  its  founders. 
The  need  for  it  having  ceased,  it  was  sold  in  1881  for  ;;^4,388. 
The  proceeds  were  lent  to  the  Building  Fund  of  the  Methodist 
Ladies'  College,  the  interest  being  paid  to  the  trustees  of  the 
proposed  Affiliated  College  as  an  endowment  for  the  training 
of  ministerial  students.  Butters  lost  no  time  in  visiting  the 
gold-fields,  and  services  were  begun,  at  first  in  tents  or  under 
the  open  sky,  conducted  by  devoted  laymen  like  James 
Sanderson,  who  preached  the  first  Methodist  sermon  in 
Ballarat,  Langsford  of  Castlemaine,  John  Boots,  one  of  the 
first  Methodists  in  South  Australia,  and  James  Warnock,  of 
Maldon,  the  well-known  '  Jimmy  '  Jeffrey,  a  Cornish  local 
preacher,  whose  homely  and  pointed  sermons  were  heard  all 
over  the  gold-fields,  Gillet,  Moyle,  James,  and  Fizelle  of 
Bendigo,  Jonathan  Falder  of  Tarnagulla,  Job  Hansford  of 
Dunolly,  and  George  Middleton  of  Inglewood.  The  first 
resident  minister  on  the  gold-fields  was  J.  C.  Symons,  who 
pitched  his  tent  at  Pennyweight  Creek  between  Chewton 
and  Castlemaine,  or  Forest  Creek,  as  it  was  then  called,  in 
1852.  He  was  joined  in  a  few  weeks  by  J.  Chapman,  and 
as  the  result  of  their  efforts  the  first  gold-fields  church  was 
opened  in  July  1852  at  Wesley  Hill.  T.  B.  Vipont  went  to 
Ballarat  in  1853,  and  was  followed  by  Theo.  Taylor;  J,  W. 
Crisp  preached  the  first  sermon  in  Clunes;  W.  P.  Wells 
followed  Symons  at  Castlemaine;  John  Mewton  founded  the 
cause  at  Maldon ;  Bendigo  was  at  first  worked  from  Castle- 
maine, but  in  1853  received  its  first  minister  in  the  person 
of  Thomas  Raston.     In    1854  there  were  in  the  four  gold- 


TASMANIA   AND    VICTORIA  285 

field  circuits  505  members,  727  Sunday  scholars,  and  some 
4,000  attendants  on  public  worship. 

In  1 85 1  Joseph  Townend,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist 
Association,  afterwards  the  United  Methodist  Free  Church, 
came  to  Melbourne,  and  began  services  in  the  Temperance 
Hall,  Russell  Street,  and  in  the  church  in  Albert  Street, 
CoUingwood.  There  were  also  causes  in  Kew,  Brunswick, 
and  Geelong,  which  Townend  served  with  great  zeal  and 
wisdom. 

The  Rev.  Robert  Young  visited  Melbourne  in  1853.  He 
preached  at  Collins  Street  and  at  Geelong,  and  opened  a  new 
church  at  St.  Kilda.  He  returned  after  a  six  months'  tour  in 
the  islands,  and  was  surprised  at  the  rapid  growth  of  the  city 
in  the  interval.  Omnibuses  were  running  in  the  principal 
streets,  a  railway  was  in  course  of  construction  from  the  port, 
and  many  new  buildings  had  been  erected.  He  opened  the 
church  at  Brunswick,  and  made  a  tour  of  the  gold-fields. 
During  his  visit  ;^6oo  was  raised  to  pay  the  passage  of  six 
new  ministers  from  England.  As  the  result  of  his  report  to 
the  British  Conference,  the  plan  for  forming  the  Australasian 
and  Polynesian  Missions  into  a  distinct  and  affiliated  Con- 
ference was  adopted.  The  returns  from  Victoria  showed  20 
circuits  ;  31  churches ;  40  other  preaching  places ;  15  ministers ; 
151  local  preachers;  1,955  members,  with  84  on  trial;  3,507 
Sunday  scholars;  3,007  day  scholars;  and  18,897  attendants 
on  public  worship.  Daniel  J.  Draper  was  appointed  to  the 
Melbourne  East  Circuit,  and  was  elected  chairman  of  the 
district.  His  colleagues  in  Melbourne  were  John  Eggleston, 
J.  C.  Symons,  William  Hall,  J.  W.  Crisp,  and  J.  S.  Waugh. 
Of  the  ministers  on  that  station  sheet,  only  one,  Joseph 
Albiston,  survives. 

Draper,  realizing  his  responsibilities  as  chairman,  lost  no 
time  in  visiting  the  gold-field  circuits,  and  in  the  course  of 
the  year  had  toured  the  whole  of  the  colony.  The  Conference 
of  1856,  the  first  Melbourne  Conference,  recognized  the  im- 
portance of  this  work  of  general   supervision,   and  released 


286       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Draper  from  circuit  work,  appointing  him  superintendent  of 
the  Immigrants'  Home.  To  his  truly  apostolic  labours 
Victorian  Methodism  is  under  an  incalculable  obligation. 
On  August  26,  1857,  the  opening  services  of  Wesley  Church, 
Lonsdale  Street,  were  begun.  Draper  read  the  morning 
prayers,  and  Butters  preached  from  Zech.  iv.  6,  7.  Dr. 
Cairns  (Presbyterian),  Isaac  New  (Baptist),  W.  L.  Binks,  and 
Joseph  Dare  also  took  part  in  the  opening  services.  Wesley 
Church  took  the  place  of  the  old  Collins  Street  Church.  The 
Collins  Street  site  was  sold  for  ;^40,ooo,  of  which,  however, 
only  ;^35,ooo  was  actually  paid.  Of  this  sum  ;^i9,ooo  was 
allotted  to  Wesley  Church,  a  site  was  bought  in  Bourke  Street 
for  ;^5,5oo,  which  was  afterwards  sold  for  ;^3,ooo,  involving 
a  loss  of  ^2,500,  and  the  remainder  was  divided  between 
North  Melbourne,  St.  Kilda,  and  Brunswick  Street.  It  is 
easy  to  criticize  after  the  event ;  had  the  trustees  leased  the 
Collins  Street  site,  instead  of  parting  with  it  outright,  the 
finances  of  the  Church  would  have  been  greatly  benefited,  as 
it  is  now  worth  ten  times  what  the  trustees  then  received. 
The  stones  of  the  old  church  were  taken  to  North  Alelbourne 
and  used  in  the  building  of  the  church,  and  the  pews  and 
galleries  were  also  reinstated  there. 

The  next  years  were  characterized  by  a  gracious  revival, 
which,  beginning  at  Brighton  in  the  May  of  1859,  gradually 
spread  to  Melbourne  and  to  the  country  districts.  It  arose 
spontaneously,  and  was  carried  on  by  the  circuit  ministers 
without  any  assistance  at  first  from  professional  evangelists. 
Notable  amongst  those  who  were  most  successful  in  leading 
sinners  to  Christ  was  Joseph  Dare,  a  born  evangelist,  whose 
name  is  still  gratefully  remembered  by  many  of  his  sons  in 
the  gospel.  The  climax  came  in  1863  with  the  visits  first 
of  the  Rev.  William  Taylor  from  California,  and  then  of 
Matthew  Burnett,  the  Yorkshire  temperance  advocate. 
Taylor  began  his  work  in  Wesley  Church,  where  hundreds 
were  converted,  and  then  visited  Geelong,  Ballarat,  and  other 
parts  of  the  colony,   wilh   unbroken  success.     Amongst  his 


TASMANIA    AND   VICTORIA  287 

converts  were  numbered  David  O'Donnell,  Thomas  Adam- 
son,  Barnard  Butchers,  and  Aloses  BuUas,  who  all  became 
well-known  ministers  in  the  Methodist  Church.  Increases 
of  hundreds  of  members  were  reported  every  year  from  1859 
to  1863,  and  the  result  of  Taylor's  w^ork  was  seen  in  the 
increase  of  1,705  recorded  in  1864.  During  these  seven  years 
the  membership  more  than  doubled;  in  1858  it  was  2,194;  i" 
1864,  8,088.  Not  the  least  of  the  factors  in  the  prosperous 
condition  of  the  Church  were  the  visits  of  Dr.  Jobson  in  1861, 
and  of  Ebenezer  Jenkins  in  1863. 

That  same  year  was  notable  for  the  division  of  the  district 
into  three ;  Melbourne,  Geelong  and  Ballarat,  and  Castle- 
maine  and  Sandhurst,  and  also  for  the  celebration  of  the 
Jubilee  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Missionary  Society. 
;^5,ooo  was  raised  in  Victoria  as  a  thank-offering ;  the 
money  being  devoted  partly  to  the  establishment  of  a  Church 
Building  and  Loan  Fund,  partly  to  the  Fund  for  a  Theo- 
logical Institution,  and  partly  to  the  initiation  of  a  new 
mission.  The  last  great  enterprise  with  which  Draper's 
name  is  associated  was  the  founding  of  Wesley  College. 
The  foundation-stone  was  laid  on  January  4,  1865,  by  the 
Governor,  Sir  Charles  Darling,  and  the  college  was  opened 
in  February  1866.  One  of  the  most  generous  donors  to  the 
Building  Fund  was  Walter  Powell,  whose  name  is  still  asso- 
ciated with  an  annual  scholarship.  Draper  sailed  for  England 
early  in  1865,  and  during  his  visit  secured  the  services  of 
Dr.  Corrigan,  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  as  the  first  head 
master.  He  left  on  his  return  voyage  on  January  5,  1866; 
on  January  11  the  London  foundered  in  the  Bay  of  Biscay, 
and  all  on  board  were  lost  save  nineteen.  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Draper  went  down  with  the  ship,  spending  their  last  hours 
in  consoling  their  fellow  passengers  and  pointing  them  to  the 
Saviour.  The  news  reached  Melbourne  on  March  15  and 
plunged  the  whole  city  into  sorrow,  relieved  only  by  the 
pride  which  the  heroism  of  Mr.  Draper  inspired.  A  tablet 
was  erected  to  his  memory  in  Wesley  Church,  and  a  scholar- 


288       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

ship  was  founded  in  his  name  at  Wesley  College.  His  Life, 
written  by  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Symons,  is  a  worthy  memorial  of 
his  work  and  character. 

An  important  event  in  the  development  of  Methodism 
during  this  period  was  the  establishment  in  1857  of  The 
Wesleyan  Chronicle,  a  weekly  newspaper  for  the  recording 
of  Church  matters  and  the  discussion  of  religious  questions. 
It  was  edited  successively  by  Isaac  Harding,  William  Hill, 
and  J.  C.  Symons.  In  1875  it  was  enlarged  from  quarto  to 
folio  size,  and  was  rechristened  The  Spectator.  For  many 
years  The  Spectator  was  edited  by  Dr.  Lorimer  Fison,  whose 
strong  common  sense  and  wide  learning  raised  it  to  a  com- 
manding position  amongst  the  religious  journals  of  Victoria, 
a  position  which  it  has  retained  during  the  editorship  of 
Richard  Ditterich. 

In  1870  Stephen's  Education  Act  abolished  the  denomina- 
tional primary  schools  and  established  a  system  of  universal 
free  and  non-religious  education.  Up  to  this  time  the  primary 
education  of  the  community  had  been  carried  on  by  the 
Churches,  and  Methodism  had  taken  her  fair  share  of  this 
work ;  at  the  time  of  the  passing  of  the  Act  she  had  seventy 
day  schools  with  8,861  scholars.  All  the  Churches,  except 
the  Roman  Catholic,  accepted  the  new  system ;  whether 
wisely  or  not  may  be  questioned.  It  has  become  more  and 
more  obvious  that  effective  religious  education  cannot  be 
given  by  the  State ;  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  Sunday 
schools  can  at  all  adequately  perform  this  service. 

The  General  Conference  of  1873  decided  to  divide  the 
administration  of  the  affairs  of  the  Church  amongst  four 
Annual  Conferences  for  New  South  Wales,  Victoria  and 
Tasmania,  South  Australia,  and  New  Zealand  respectively, 
under  the  control  of  a  General  Australasian  Conference,  10 
meet  triennially.  Accordingly,  the  first  Victoria  and  Tas- 
mania Conference  met  in  Wesley  Church,  Melbourne,  on 
January  28,  1874,  with  John  Cope  as  President  and  John 
Harcourt  as  vSecretary.     The   returns  showed  615   churches 


TASMANIA   AND   VICTORIA  289 

and  preaching-places;  102  ministers;  628  local  preachers; 
11,814  members;  36,548  Sunday  scholars;  and  83,278  attend- 
ants on  public  worship.  Amongst  the  ministers  present  were 
John  Watsford,  the  first  Australian-born  youth  to  enter  the 
Methodist  ministry,  a  successful  missionary  and  a  prince  of 
evangelists;  Joseph  Albiston,  distinguished  father  of  a  still 
more  distinguished  son ;  Henry  Bath,  profoundest  and  most 
eloquent  of  preachers;  Edmund  S.  Bickford,  afterwards  to 
prove  the  most  able  and  indefatigable  of  Home  Missionary 
secretaries ;  Barnard  Butchers,  mighty  in  controversy ;  James 
W.  Crisp,  a  man  greatly  beloved;  Joseph  Dare,  now  a  super- 
numerary; Martin  Dyson,  the  Hill  of  Australian  Methodism; 
Alexander  R.  Edgar,  fervent  evangelist,  and  later  founder 
of  the  Central  Mission  at  Wesley  Church;  John  Eggleston, 
winner  of  souls ;  Lorimer  Fison,  successful  missionary  and 
foremost  amongst  the  anthropologists  of  Australia ;  William 
H.  Fitchett,  brilliant  journalist,  adroit  controversialist,  world- 
famed  author,  and  Fernley  Lecturer ;  Thomas  Grove,  most 
judicious  of  administrators ;  Francis  Neale  and  Edward 
Wason  Nye,  both  sons  of  the  Manse  and  old  Grove  boys ; 
William  A.  Quick,  most  courteous  of  gentlemen,  and  the 
founder  of  Queen's  College;  John  C.  Symons,  whose  brusque 
manner  concealed  the  tenderest  of  hearts;  Edwin  I.  Watkin, 
the  fervid  orator;  James  S.  Waugh,  Governor  of  Wesley 
College ;  Thomas  Williams,  author  of  Fiji  and  the  Fijians ; 
William  Williams,  judicious  in  counsel,  and  unflinching  in 
duty ;  and  many  others  who  each  did  yeoman  service  for 
Methodism.  Amongst  those  received  into  full  Connexion  was 
Thomas  Adamson,  destined  to  splendid  service  in  connexion 
with  the  Church  Building  and  Loan  Fund,  loyal  to  his  heart's 
core  to  Methodism.  The  General  Conference  of  1875  adopted 
the  principle  of  lay  representation  in  the  Conference ;  the 
Methodist  Conference  i\ct,  1876,  gave  the  necessary  legal 
sanction  to  the  change;  and  in  the  Conference  of  1877  the 
ministers  were  joined  by  an  equal  number  of  laymen,  amongst 
whom  were  Richard  Hodgson,  Edward  Oakley,  Dr.  Cutts, 
u 


290       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

J.  T.  Harcourt,  Edward  John,  Thomas  J.  Crouch,  Alfred  J. 
Smith,  John  Bee,  James  Jamieson,  John  Keys,  WilHam 
Humble,  Alexander  Dennis,  James  Warnock,  Richard  Hock- 
ing, William  Lancaster,  Peter  Learmonth,  and  Jonathan  Best. 
A  far-reaching  movement  was  initiated  at  the  Conference  of 
1876,  when  John  Watsford  was  appointed  Home  Mission 
secretary.  In  a  country  in  which  expansion  is  going  on  so 
rapidly  as  in  Victoria,  nothing  is  more  necessary  than  a  wise 
organization  for  occupying  and  sustaining  new  spheres  of 
labour.  Methodism,  by  reason  of  its  free  employment  of  lay 
agents  and  its  Connexional  system  of  finance,  has  exceptional 
advantages  for  this  kind  of  work ;  but  a  wise  and  enthusiastic 
head  is  most  important  if  the  greatest  possible  gain  is  to  be 
reaped.  Such  a  man  was  John  Watsford,  and  the  work  of 
which  he  had  laid  the  foundations  was  carried  on  with  brilliant 
success  by  Edmund  S.  Bickford,  who  took  his  place  in  1886. 
'  In  journeyings  often,  in  perils  in  the  wilderness,'  this  truly 
apostolical  man  gave  himself  body  and  soul  to  the  task  of 
providing  the  means  of  grace  for  those  who  were  beyond  the 
reach  of  the  ordinary  circuit  administration ;  his  lamented 
death  in  1904  was  undoubtedly  due  in  part  to  his  excessive 
labours.  He  had  a  like-minded  successor,  trained  under  his 
own  direction,  in  Albert  T.  Holden,  under  whom  the  work 
is  being  prosecuted  with  ever-growing  promise.  During  Mr. 
Bickford's  term  of  office,  the  Livingstone  Home  for  neglected 
children  was  founded  at  Cheltenham,  as  well  as  the  Mintaro 
Home  for  girls.  The  former  still  continues  its  Christ-like 
work;  but  Mintaro,  after  some  years  of  good  service  under 
the  care  of  Thomas  Adamson  and  his  wife,  had  to  be  closed 
owing  to  the  difficulty  of  getting  a  sufficient  number  of 
inmates.  In  1912  the  income  of  the  Home  Missionary  Society 
amounted  to  £'j,^^6;  it  was  employing  seventy-two  home 
missionaries,  who  supplied  forty-four  stations  and  gave  help 
in  twenty-seven  circuits ;  sixty-six  children  were  admitted  to 
the  Livingstone  Home,  and  it  was  reported  that  680  children 
had  passed  through  the  Home. 


TASMANIA   AND   VICTORIA  291 

But  the  city  has  its  special  needs  as  well  as  the  country. 
The  growth  of  the  suburbs  around  Melbourne  led  to  a  gradual 
desertion  of  the  city  churches,  whilst  the  population  in  their 
neighbourhood  showed  no  disposition  to  come  in.  The  news 
of  the  success  of  the  Forward  Movement  in  England  sug- 
gested the  application  of  similar  methods;  and  in  1893  the 
Central  Mission  was  established  at  Wesley  Church,  under  the 
charge  of  Alexander  R.  Edgar.  It  was  an  immediate  success  ; 
the  church  was  crowded  at  the  Pleasant  Sunday  Afternoons, 
and  again  at  the  evening  services;  and  in  course  of  time  a 
Home  for  Fallen  Women  at  South  Yarra,  an  institute  for  the 
reform  of  alcoholic  patients,  a  boys'  farm  at  Burwood,  and 
a  hospice  and  men's  shelter  were  instituted.  After  the  con- 
summation of  Methodist  union,  the  old  Primitive  Methodist 
Church  in  Lygon  Street  was  incorporated  in  the  mission  ; 
later  the  old  churches  at  North  Melbourne  and  at  Brunswick 
Street  were  added,  and  a  new  mission  was  started  in  CoUing- 
wood  in  1905,  under  the  superintendency  of  T.  S.  B.  Wood- 
full,  a  striking  feature  of  which  is  the  Free  Kindergarten. 
In  igo6  the  old  Cecil  Street  Church  in  South  Melbourne 
became  a  mission,  under  the  direction  of  Charles  Tregear. 
In  191 2  the  membership  in  the  various  missions  amounted 
to  2,048,  and  eleven  ministers  were  employed  in  this  branch 
of  the  work.  Not  the  least  of  the  many  services  rendered  to 
the  community  by  the  Central  Mission  was  the  part  it  played 
in  the  agitation  for  the  amendment  of  the  Gambling  and 
Licensing  Laws.  Sunday  after  Sunday  Mr.  W.  H.  Judkins 
and  his  helpers  maintained  an  active  protest  against  the 
inefficiency  of  the  existing  Acts  and  the  slackness  of  their 
administration.  Every  device  was  used  to  silence  the  in- 
defatigable little  man,  even  to  the  point  of  threats  of  personal 
violence.  Nothing,  however,  was  able  to  daunt  him ;  he 
persevered  through  evil  report  and  good  report  until  the 
passing  of  an  amended  Act  was  secured.  In  this  crusade  he 
sacrificed  his  own  health;  but  he  met  the  death-sentence  of 
the  physicians  with  the  same  unflinching  courage  which  he 


292        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

had  shown  in  the  rostrum  of  Wesley  Church,  and  died  in  the 
full  triumph  of  faith  in  1912. 

The  Conference  lost  no  time  in  endeavouring  to  complete 
its  system  of  secondary  and  University  education.  In  1882 
the  Methodist  Ladies'  College  at  Hawthorn  was  opened,  under 
the  presidency  of  William  H.  Fitchett.  Under  his  skilful 
management  the  college  has  had  a  career  of  ever-growing 
prosperity,  and  now  numbers  345  pupils,  of  w^hom  ninety- 
five  are  boarders,  and  a  teaching  staff  of  forty.  The  head 
masters  have  been  Messrs.  Frank  Wheen,  E.  J.  Corr,  and 
Otto  Krome.  Steps  were  taken  also  to  raise  the  necessary 
funds  for  the  erection  of  a  college  to  be  affiliated  with  the 
University  of  Melbourne.  W^illiam  A.  Quick  took  the  lead 
in  this  effort,  and  as  the  result  of  his  indefatigable  exertions 
;^6,ooo  was  promised;  this  was  supplemented  by  a  grant  of 
;^  13,000  from  the  Jubilee  Fund,  and  the  college  was  built 
and  opened  under  the  name  of  Queen's  College  in  1888,  under 
the  mastership  of  Edward  H.  Sugden,  who  came  from  Eng- 
land to  take  charge.  The  college  has  been  three  times 
enlarged,  and  now  numbers  sixty-seven  resident  and  twenty- 
one  non-resident  students.  Wesley  College  also  made  great 
progress  during  this  period,  and  under  the  headmastership 
of  Mr.  L.  A.  Adamson  has  reached  a  position  previously 
unequalled  in  its  history,  with  a  scholars'  roll  of  475,  of 
whom  1 01  are  boarders. 

In  1886  it  was  resolved  to  celebrate  the  Jubilee  of  Victorian 
Methodism  by  raising  a  Thanksgiving  Fund.  John  Wats- 
ford  was  appointed  secretary,  and  as  the  result  of  his  energetic 
advocacy  a  sum  of  ;^40,ooo  was  realized.  Of  this  sum 
;^i3,ooo  was  set  apart  for  the  building  of  the  Affiliated 
College;  ;^4,ooo  was  granted  to  the  Local  Preachers'  Associa- 
tion for  the  help  of  local  preachers  in  distressed  circum- 
stances ;  and  the  remainder  was  formed  into  a  Loan  Fund  to 
assist  in  the  building  of  churches  and  parsonages.  Thanks 
largely  to  this  effort,  the  Church  was  able  to  w^eather  the 
financial    storm   of    1893,   and   no   creditor  of   the    Victorian 


TASMANIA   AND   VICTORIA  293 

Methodist  Church  lost  a  single  penny  of  principal  or  interest. 
Victoria  followed  the  example  of  the  mother  country  in 
celebrating  the  opening  of  the  new  century  by  raising  a 
Thanksgiving  Fund.  William  Williams  was  appointed 
secretary,  and  some  ;^2o,ooo  was  contributed  in  Victoria  and 
Tasmania.  The  money  was  expended  in  the  reduction  of 
Church  debts  and  the  relief  of  trusts  which  had  been  brought 
into  difficulties  during  the  financial  crisis  of  1893.  Some 
part  of  it  was  devoted  to  the  payment  of  the  necessary  pre- 
liminary expenses  in  the  carrying  out  of  Methodist  union. 

The  movement  towards  the  union  of  the  various  sections 
of  the  Methodist  Church  began  during  the  sixties.  In  1866 
George  Daniell  moved  a  resolution  in  favour  of  union  in 
the  Victorian  Conference,  but  it  failed  to  find  a  seconder. 
It  was  not  till  1884  that  the  General  Conference  passed  a 
resolution  '  commending  the  subject  to  the  favourable  con- 
sideration of  the  Annual  Conferences,  and  directing  them  to 
open  communications  with  other  branches  of  the  Methodist 
family  in  their  respective  colonies.'  In  1888  the  first  actual 
union  took  place,  when  the  one  existing  church  of  the 
Methodist  New  Connexion  in  Victoria  was  taken  over  by  the 
Wesleyan  Conference,  and  its  able  minister,  William  Shaw, 
received  into  the  Wesleyan  Church.  The  Conference  of  1893 
declared  that  in  its  judgement  the  glory  of  God  in  the  exten- 
sion of  Christ's  kingdom  would  be  promoted  by  the  organic 
union  of  the  Methodist  Churches  in  Victoria  and  Tasmania; 
but  could  not  recommend  that  immediate  steps  be  taken  to 
secure  it.  The  next  Conference,  however,  was  bolder;  and 
the  District  Synods,  having  declared  in  favour  of  union, 
advised  the  adoption  by  the  forthcoming  General  Conference 
of  the  basis  of  union  which  had  been  drawn  up  by  a  con- 
ference of  representatives  of  the  various  Churches  in  1892. 
Meanwhile,  it  suggested  the  formation  of  a  Federal  Council, 
with  Dr.  Watkin,  who  had  been  the  most  consistent  and 
earnest  advocate  of  union,  as  convener.  These  proposals 
were  accepted  and  endorsed  by  the  General  Conference  of 


294       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

1894  with  some  modifications;  and  the  Annual  Conferences 
were  authorized  to  carry  union  into  effect  in  their  respective 
States  on  the  basis  proposed.  Active  negotiations  were  at 
once  entered  into  between  the  branches  of  the  Methodist 
Church  in  Victoria  and  Tasmania ;  and  at  the  Conference  of 
1898  it  was  resolved  that  union  should  be  consummated  in 
1902. 

There  were  still  a  few  members  of  the  Conference  who 
thought  that  the  proposal  was  premature ;  but  they  retired 
from  the  Conference  before  the  vote  was  taken,  and  the 
motion  was  carried  unanimously.  Accordingly,  the  first  Con- 
ference of  the  United  Church  was  held  in  Wesley  Church  in 
1902,  Dr.  Fitchett  being  President  and  Arthur  Powell  Secre- 
tary. The  Wesleyan  members  took  their  places  in  the 
church,  and  then  the  representatives  of  the  Primitive,  Bible 
Christian,  and  United  Methodist  Free  Churches  marched  in 
procession  into  their  places,  singing  (absit  omen!)  '  Onward, 
Christian  soldiers,  marching  as  to  war  !  '  In  spite  of  this 
militant  opening,  the  Conference  was  one  of  great  peace 
and  harmony.  The  returns  showed  that  the  Wesleyan 
Church  brought  into  the  union  178  ministers  and  22,151 
members;  the  Primitives  37  ministers  and  4,180  members; 
the  U.M.F.C.  17  ministers  and  1,619  members;  and  the 
Bible  Christians  36  ministers  and  2,684  members.  The 
total  membership  in  the  United  Church  was  reported  as 
30,674.  Amongst  the  ministers  who  came  into  the  United 
Conference  from  the  junior  Churches  were  the  venerable 
evangelist  Joseph  Ross,  William  Hunt,  President  of  the 
United  Conference  in  1908,  Thomas  Copeland,  James  H. 
Cain,  William  H.  Chapman,  Daniel  Daley,  George  W. 
Harrison,  Henry  Heathershaw,  Francis  Mason,  Alfred  Mad- 
sen,  John  Seccomb,  William  J.  Treloar,  Edmund  Turner, 
Henry  Wallace,  Henry  Yeo,  and  many  other  good  men  and 
true,  whose  praise  had  been  in  their  respective  Churches,  and 
whose  gifts  have  been  of  the  greatest  service  in  the  United 
Church.     A  series  of  great  public  meetings  in  the  Exhibition 


TASMANIA   AND   VICTORIA  295 

Building  was  held  to  celebrate  the  occasion ;  and  the  proces- 
sion of  the  Sunday  schools  through  the  streets  of  Melbourne 
impressed  upon  the  general  public  the  beginning  of  the  new 
epoch  in  Methodist  history. 

The  successful  accomplishment  of  Methodist  union  has 
stimulated  the  desire  for  a  larger  union  still,  embracing  all 
the  Protestant  Churches  of  the  State.  Since  1904  committees 
have  been  sitting,  and  as  the  result  a  better  feeling  and  more 
enlightened  mutual  understanding  have  been  steadily  grow- 
ing. A  great  step  forward  was  taken  in  19 13,  when  the 
Congress  of  the  Union  of  Churches  was  summoned  by  Mr. 
W.  Wooton,  an  earnest  Congregationalist,  and  met  in  the 
Collins  Street  Congregational  Church,  under  the  presidency 
of  Alexander  M'Callum.  All  the  Protestant  Churches  were 
represented,  with  the  exception  of  the  so-called  Church  of 
Christ,  and  the  Society  of  Friends.  The  debates  revealed 
the  most  brotherly  feeling ;  plans  were  proposed  for  the  co- 
education of  candidates  for  the  ministry,  and  for  the  preven- 
tion of  over-lapping  in  Home  Mission  work,  which  are  sure 
to  bring  about  an  improvement  in  these  respects.  Whilst 
there  seemed  little  prospect  of  organic  union  between  the 
Anglican  and  the  Baptist  Churches  and  the  other  Churches 
represented,  there  was  a  strong  feeling  that  there  was  no 
insuperable  barrier  to  the  union  within  a  reasonable  time  of 
the  Methodists,  Presbyterians,  and  Congregationalists.  In- 
deed, a  very  practical  step  had  been  already  taken  in  the 
constitution  by  Act  of  Parliament  in  1910  of  the  Melbourne 
College  of  Divinity,  with  power  to  confer  the  degrees  of  B.D. 
and  D.D.  and  a  diploma  in  theology.  The  college  includes 
representatives  of  the  Anglican,  Presbyterian,  Methodist, 
Baptist,  and  Congregational  Churches,  and  no  difficulty  has 
yet  arisen  in  the  harmonious  working  of  the  Board. 

Nothing  has  been  more  remarkable  and  hopeful  of  late 
years  than  the  growth  of  enthusiasm  for  foreign  missions. 
The  wonderful  meetings  at  the  last  Sydney  General  Con- 
ference stimulated  zeal  for  this  branch  of  the  Church's  work 


296       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

throughout  Australasia ;  and  the  feeling  there  aroused  has 
been  cherished  and  augmented  by  the  work  of  the  Laymen's 
Missionary  movement.  Under  the  leadership  of  laymen  like 
F.  J.  Cato,  J.  W.  Eggleston,  Dr.  Gault,  Dr.  Wilkinson, 
Robert  Beckett,  Aaron  Danks,  and  others,  the  movement  has 
made  swift  headway,  and  by  the  visits  of  its  members  to  the 
various  churches  has  stimulated  them  to  increased  interest 
and  liberality.  The  contributions  have  increased  from 
;^5,662  in  1909  to  ^8,884  in  1913,  and  the  tide  is  still  rising. 
The  legislation  of  the  General  Conference  of  1913,  by  which 
representatives  of  the  various  Annual  Conferences  were  added 
to  the  Mission  Board,  will  greatly  assist  in  the  development 
of  the  missionary  spirit  throughout  the  Commonwealth. 

Sunday-school  affairs  have  received  special  attention  during 
the  last  few  years.  In  1910  one  of  the  most  able  of  the  younger 
ministers,  John  W.  Grove,  was  set  apart  for  the  service  of 
the  Sunday  School  Department,  and  he  was  succeeded  in 
191 2  by  Horton  H.  Williams.  These  brethren  have  done 
splendid  service  in  the  reorganization  of  our  Sunday-school 
work  on  the  lines  of  modern  development.  The  Conference 
has  never  ceased  to  urge  the  introduction  of  the  Bible  into 
the  State  schools,  and  has  shown  its  practical  sympathy  by 
permitting  one  of  its  ministers,  Joseph  Nicholson,  to  devote 
his  whole  services  to  the  League  for  the  carrying  out  of  that 
object. 

Another  interesting  development  of  recent  years  has  been 
the  growth  of  the  Methodist  Book  Depot.  Originally  located 
in  a  most  unsuitable  room  at  Wesley  Church,  it  was  first 
removed  to  better  premises  in  Little  Collins  Street.  Under 
the  able  management  of  Mr.  G.  B.  Duff,  the  business  in- 
creased so  fast  that  it  was  resolved  to  build  new  premises 
on  a  corner  block  in  the  same  street,  and  these  were  opened 
in  1913.  They  include  a  tea-room,  the  whole  profits  of  which 
are  devoted  to  foreign  missions. 

In  this  necessarily  rapid  survey  of  a  century's  work,  much 
has  been  omitted  and  much  merely  indicated,   where  fuller 


TASMANIA   AND    VICTORIA  297 

details  would  have  been  of  advantage;  too  little  honour  has 
been  done  to  the  faithful  men  and  women  who  under  God 
have  made  the  history  of  Methodism  in  Victoria  and  Tas- 
mania. But  enough  has  been  recorded  to  show  the  manifest 
hand  of  the  great  Head  of  the  Church  in  the  founding  and 
the  progress  of  this  branch  of  His  Holy  Catholic  Church 
in  these  States.  To  His  name  alone  be  the  glory,  world 
without  end.     Amen. 


CHAPTER   III 

SOUTH   AUSTRALIA 
By    henry   T.    burgess,  LL.D., 

Adelaide  ;  Ex-President  Methodist  Church  of  Australasia 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Duke  of  York — Angas — First  classes — First  church — Arrival  of  Long- 
bottom — Primitives— Critical  times — Copper  discoveries — Growth 
— State  aid— Central  Church  in  Adelaide — Gold  rush — Extension — 
Draper — Wright — Way — Watsford — Taylor — Prince  Alfred  College 
— Bible  Christians — Methodist  New  Connexion — Australian  Confer- 
ence— Annual  and  General  Conferences — Lay  representation — 
Western  Australia — Palmerston — Other  Methodist  Churches — Uni- 
form advance — Boards  of  union — Sentiment — Advance  towards 
union — Critical  stage — Plan  of  union — Subsequent  expansion — 
Present  position  of  Methodism. 


CHAPTER    III 

SOUTH    AUSTRALIA 

From  the  rugged  headland  at  the  north-west  extremity  of 
Kangaroo  Island,  now  occupied  by  the  Cape  Borda  light- 
house, a  watcher  at  sunset  on  July  26,  1836,  might  have  seen 
an  unusual  sight,  and  perhaps  heard  an  extraordinary  sound. 
The  white  sails  of  a  vessel  making  for  Investigator's  Straits 
had  caught  the  rays  of  the  declining  sun.  Presently  its  lights 
shone  over  the  waste  of  waters,  and  from  one  of  its  cabins 
blended  voices  were  raised  in  sacred  song  and  earnest  prayer. 
The  vessel  was  the  Duke  of  York,  under  Captain  Morgan, 
bringing  the  first  contingent  of  settlers  to  the  new  province 
of  South  Australia,  with  Mr.  Samuel  Stephens,  the  manager 
of  the  South  Australian  Company.  The  anchorage  at  Nepean 
Bay  was  reached  on  the  following  morning.  A  boat-load  of 
passengers  was  set  ashore,  and  their  first  act  was  to  hold  a 
thanksgiving  service  for  the  safe  conclusion  of  their  voyage, 
which  the  captain  concluded  with  an  extemporary  prayer. 
Captain  Morgan  was  an  ardent  Methodist,  and  Mr. 
Stephens  was  a  son  of  the  Rev.  John  Stephens,  President  of 
the  British  Conference  in  1827.  The  five  months'  voyage  of 
the  Duke  of  York  had  been  that  of  a  tiny  floating  circuit, 
with  its  regular  divine  services  on  Sundays  and  week-nights, 
and  its  Sunday  school  for  the  children.  The  Captain's  diary 
recorded  that  in  the  evening  of  the  day  of  landing  '  family 
worship  '  was  held  on  board.  The  recognition  of  an  over- 
ruling Providence  in  the  manner  described  was  spontaneous 
and  sincere. 

The  prominence  of  Methodism — its  spirit,  principles,  and 

institutions — in  the  earliest  stages  of  South  Australian  colon- 

301 


302        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

ization  was  neither  incidental  nor  accidental.  No  offshoot 
from  the  United  Kingdom  owed  more  to  religious  sentiments 
and  philanthropic  motives  than  did  this  adventure,  unless  it 
be  the  exodus  of  the  Pilgrim  Fathers  to  North  America 
in  the  Mayflower.  The  project  was  undertaken  less  as  a  com- 
mercial enterprise  than  as  a  means  of  relieving  the  con- 
gested population  in  the  old  country,  and  of  establishing  a 
centre  of  moral  influence  together  with  intellectual  light  in  the 
southern  world.  Its  basis,  though  now  universally  approved, 
was  then  so  startling  a  novelty  as  to  provoke  strong  opposi- 
tion. But  for  the  confidence  in  it,  and  the  energy  of  a  group 
of  large-minded  and  sagacious  men,  the  scheme  must  have 
failed.  Every  member  of  this  group  deserves  to  be  held  in 
honourable  memory;  but  for  direct,  active,  personal,  service 
George  Fife  Angas  was  easily  first.  When  the  proposal 
seemed  about  to  collapse  he  made  its  success  possible  by 
forming  the  South  Australian  Company,  of  which  he  became 
chairman,  incurring  thereby  heavy  financial  liability  and 
still  heavier  personal  responsibility.  He  knew  that  no  system, 
however  perfect,  can  be  self-executing,  and  that  more  depends 
on  the  efficiency  of  the  workman  than  upon  the  mechanical 
fitness  of  the  works. 

How  Mr.  Angas  felt  and  discharged  his  duties  may  be 
seen  in  the  following  extract  from  his  private  journal.  He 
wrote  on  January  26,  1836  :  '  I  am  now  deeply  engaged  in 
the  outfit  of  the  three  ships  (which  the  Company  had  pur- 
chased) and  in  the  onerous  duty  of  appointing  captains, 
officers,  and  crews.  As  far  as  is  in  my  power  in  the  appoint- 
ment of  managers,  officers,  and  men  for  the  Company,  I  have 
sought  out  and  engaged  those  who  fear  God ;  and  where  I 
could  not  do  this  I  took  the  next  best  I  could.  ...  I  trust 
the  present  movement  will  lay  the  foundation  of  a  new 
kingdom  in  truth  and  righteousness;  and  I  pray  that  the 
power  and  influence  put  into  my  hands  may  be  used  for  His 
glory  and  for  the  good  of  the  people  of  South  Australia.' 
This  is  a  necessary  explanation  of  how  it  came  to  pass  that 


SOUTH   AUSTRALIA 


d^3 


among-  the  pioneers  there  were  so  many  earnest  and  devoted 
Christians,  men  who  feared  God  and  dehghted  in  His  service, 
whose  influence  powerfully  affected  the  community,  and  is 
operative  still. 

The  '  three  ships  '  reached  Kangaroo  Island  and  disem- 
barked their  passengers  in  quick  succession.  As  soon  as  the 
manager's  house  was  erected  it  was  used  for  divine  services, 
which  were  afterwards  held  in  a  carpenter's  shop,  and  con- 
ducted by  Messrs.  East  and  Boots.  Not  long  after  the  arrival 
of  the  Surveyor-General,  Colonel  Light,  Holdfast  Bay  was 
selected  as  the  place  of  debarkation  on  the  mainland ;  and 
there  also  the  new  arrivals  built  their  altars  for  worship,  even 
before  they  laid  their  hearths.  Pending  the  survey  of  the 
Capital,  everything  was  crude  and  temporary ;  but  perhaps 
the  primitive  surroundings  enhanced  the  privileges  of  praise 
and  prayer.  '  Like  draws  to  like,'  and  when  a  move  was 
made  from  the  shores  of  Holdfast  Bay  to  the  banks  of  the 
River  Torrens,  a  band  of  about  twenty  Methodists  met  for 
worship  in  one  or  other  of  the  scattered  tents  that  were 
dignified  by  the  title  of  Buffalo  Row.  This  was  continued 
until  Mr.  Edward  Stephens,  a  brother  of  the  South  Australia 
Company's  first  manager,  placed  a  store-room,  and  after- 
wards his  spacious  kitchen,  at  their  disposal.  It  was  in  the 
latter  meeting-place  on  May  ii,  1837,  after  due  notice,  that 
a  INIethodist  society  was  formed,  consisting  of  fifteen  mem- 
bers, which  was  divided  into  male  and  female  classes,  John 
C.  White  and  Jacob  Abbot  being  appointed  leaders. 

Grand  men  were  these  in  every  sense  of  the  word.  Typical 
colonists,  and  withal  full  of  zeal  and  knowledge.  Mr.  White 
had  been  a  local  preacher  in  London,  and  a  candidate  for  the 
ministry,  but  his  health  failed.  At  Holdfast  Bay  he  con- 
ducted the  first  Methodist  service  on  the  mainland,  in  the  tent 
of  Mr.  Stephens ;  and  his  knowledge  of  Methodist  law  and 
usage  qualified  him  for  the  practical  superintendency  of  the 
infant  church  in  Adelaide.  Mr.  Abbot  was  like-minded  : 
sincere,  ardent,  and  devout.     At  a  later  period  his  time  was 


304       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

fully  given  to  Church  work,  and  he  became  the  pioneer  Home 
Missionary,  travelling  incessantly  among  the  scattered  and 
remote  settlers  who  were  constantly  pushing  into  w'hat  was 
then  known  as  the  bush.  Both  these  good  men  outlived  all 
their  fellow  members,  and  though  their  subsequent  spheres 
of  action  were  widely  divided,  the  bond  between  them  w-as 
never  sundered.  By  an  interesting  coincidence,  forty-four 
years  to  the  very  day  after  their  appointment,  they  met  in 
the  Cathedral  of  South  Australian  Methodism  at  a  sacramental 
service.  Their  residences  were  i,ooo  miles  apart;  they 
had  not  seen  each  other  for  two-score  years;  and  it  may  be 
imagined  with  what  emotions  they  knelt  together  again  at  the 
table  of  the  Lord. 

The  suitability  of  the  Methodist  system  for  evangelistic 
extension  received  in  this  case  a  striking  illustration.  With- 
out waiting  for  ecclesiastical  authority  or  depending  on 
pastoral  oversight,  the  men  and  women  who  had  formed 
themselves  into  a  society  proceeded  in  as  regular  and  orderly 
fashion  as  if  they  had  both.  Their  piety  was  nourished  by 
their  class  meetings.  They  arranged  for  public  services, 
prayer-meetings,  and  a  Sunday  school.  They  appointed 
officers,  examined  and  accredited  local  preachers,  fixed  the 
times  of  collections  and  Church  meetings,  prepared  a  '  plan,' 
and  told  off  one  of  their  number  for  special  work  among  the 
aborigines.  All  this  took  place,  it  should  be  remembered, 
amid  the  inconveniences,  and  despite  the  difficulties  insepar- 
able from  the  formation  of  a  new  settlement,  accentuated  by 
the  incessant  disagreement  among  colonial  officials  on  public 
questions. 

Success  is  entailed  wherever  such  principles  and  their 
animating  spirit  are  translated  into  definite  action.  Numbers 
increased,  both  by  immigration  and  conversion,  so  that  ampler 
accommodation  became  a  pressing  necessity.  The  site  chosen 
was  in  Hindley  Street  on  an  allotment  leased  from  the  South 
Australian  Company.  The  story  of  this  erection  would  form 
a  prose   epic.      The   building   was  of   stone,    but    there    was 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  305 

difficulty  about  roof  timbers ;  and  accordingly,  as  soon  as  the 
walls  were  high  enough,  tarpaulins  were  stretched  across,  and 
in  this  condition  the  opening  services  were  held  on  Sunday, 
March  13,  1838.  The  pioneer  church  of  South  Australia 
was  50  feet  by  22,  and  its  total  cost  ;^370;  much  of  the  labour 
expended  upon  it  being  gratuitous.  The  first  permanent 
edifice  in  the  new  colony  to  be  definitely  consecrated  to  the 
service  of  God  naturally  received  considerable  public  support. 
Better  still,  the  first  love-feast,  on  June  3,  1838,  conducted  by 
Mr.  Abbot,  was  followed  by  the  first  of  a  long  series  of 
blessed  revivals,  in  the  course  of  which  '  much  people  was 
added  unto  the  Lord.'  The  growth  of  the  congregation  was 
such  that  in  a  short  time  every  sitting  was  let,  and  the  question 
of  enlargement  had  to  be  seriously  considered. 

Meanwhile,  though  the  infant  church  was  making  good 
use  of  its  talents  and  opportunities,  the  need  of  a  regularly 
appointed  minister  was  felt  with  increasing  intensity.  It  was 
made  a  matter  of  prayer  to  God  and  supplication  to  the  con- 
stituted authorities.  Though  a  clergyman  of  the  Church  of 
England  and  a  Congregational  minister  were  on  the  ground, 
no  provision  for  religious  ordinances  had  been  made  by  the 
British  Wesleyan  Conference,  perhaps  because  its  entire 
work  in  the  southern  world  was  in  charge  of  the  Missionary 
Department.  Application  was  made  to  the  chairmen  of  the 
New  South  Wales  and  Tasmanian  districts;  and  it  is  almost 
pathetic  to  read  the  appeals  that  were  sent  to  them,  to  which 
they  were  unable  to  respond.  The  strong  desire  was  gratified 
in  an  altogether  unexpected  way,  the  story  of  which  can  only 
be  told  here  in  briefest  outline,  though  for  many  reasons  it  is 
worthy  of  preservation  in  fullest  detail. 

After  several  years  service  in  India  the  Rev.  William  Long- 
bottom  was  transferred  in  1836  from  Madras  to  Capetown  for 
health  reasons.  Having  recruited  somewhat,  he  returned  to 
India;  but  meanwhile  had  been  stationed  at  Swan  River, 
Western  Australia.  How  to  get  there  was  the  question  ;  and  a 
study  of  Mr.  Longbottom's  itinerary  on  the  map  is  suggestive 


3o6       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  the  contrast  between  then  and  now.  He  first  proceeded  to 
Mauritius,  where  he  was  delayed  for  nine  weeks.  Thence  he 
obtained  a  passage  to  Hobart  in  Tasmania,  and  another  long 
detention  followed.  At  length,  as  the  only  opportunity  of 
reaching  his  intended  destination,  he  embarked  with  his  wife 
and  infant  son  on  the  Fanny,  a  cockle-shell  of  thirty-five  tons, 
and  set  sail  on  June  9,  1838.  Stormy  weather  was  encountered, 
the  vessel  was  driven  out  of  her  course,  and  about  midnight 
on  June  21  was  cast  ashore  on  the  Coorang  beach  between 
the  Murray  mouth  and  Lacepede  Bay.  Though  the  Fanny 
was  totally  wrecked  no  lives  were  lost,  the  party  was  un- 
molested by  aborigines,  and  after  several  weeks  of  most 
severe  privation  and  hardship  the  shipwrecked  minister  and 
his  family  reached  Adelaide  on  August  17. 

Here  he  was  received  by  the  waiting  church  with  affection- 
ate enthusiasm  as  an  angel  of  God.  Provision  was  made  for 
partly  replacing  the  losses  he  had  sustained.  A  sphere  of 
usefulness  lay  ready  to  his  hand,  and  no  one  thought  of  him 
proceeding  to  his  Conference  appointment.  His  labours  were 
immediately  successful ;  and  the  project  of  building  a  new 
and  larger  church  received  such  an  impetus  that  within  little 
more  than  three  months  arrangements  were  completed  for 
entering  on  this  enterprise.  There  was  a  large  amount  of 
courageous  confidence  and  sacrifice  displayed  in  the  new 
departure.  The  freehold  of  the  Hindley  Street  property  could 
not  be  obtained;  but  Mr.  Edward  Stephens,  with  character- 
istic generosity,  gave  an  allotment  measuring  70  feet  by  90  in 
Gawler  Place.  The  position  was  central,  and  Methodist  in- 
terests in  the  Hindley  Street  premises  having  been  disposed  of 
to  the  Baptists,  represented  by  Mr.  McLaren,  the  second 
manager  of  the  South  Australian  Company  and  father  of  the 
illustrious  McLaren  of  Manchester,  the  change  was  resolved 
upon.  Subscriptions  increased,  a  design  for  a  roomy  and 
elegant  though  not  ornate  structure  was  obtained.  The 
foundation-stone  was  laid  by  the  Governor,  Sir  George 
Gawler,  on  November  7,  1838,  and  the  building  was  formally 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  307 

opened  on  July  7  of  the  folIo\vin<j  year,  sermons  bein^' 
preached  l\v  the  Revs.  W.  Longbottom,  J.  Drummond 
(Presbyterian),  and  T.  A.  Stow  (Congreg-ationalist). 

Mr.  Longbottom's  labours  were  successful ;  but  his  health 
having  again  failed,  he  was  obliged  to  retire  to  a  less  exhaus- 
tive sphere.  A  brief  interregnum  followed,  during  which 
Mr.  White  was  left  in  charge,  sustaining  a  responsibility  he 
gladly  relinquished  on  the  arrival  of  the  saintly  John 
Egglcston  in  March  1840.  Mr.  I^ggleston's  ministry  was  dis- 
tinguished by  its  holy  zeal  and  converting  power;  but  his 
physical  strength,  weakened  by  a  horse  accident,  was  unequal 
to  the  strain  of  his  labours  more  abundant.  He  therefore 
sought  a  change,  which  took  effect  in  1842,  his  successor 
being  the  Rev.  John  Weatherstone.  This  appointment 
proved  unfortunate  for  reasons  that  need  not  now  be  entered 
into.  All  the  interests  of  South  Australia  suffered  severe 
depression.  A  disastrous  secession  from  the  Church  took 
place,  and  a  more  difficult  situation  was  created,  which  was 
relieved  by  the  return  of  the  Rev.  W.  Longbottom  to  the 
former  scene  of  his  labours.  Though  still  enfeebled  in 
health  he  continued  his  useful  services  until  September 
1846,  when  the  Rev.  D.  J.  Draper  took  the  burden  off  his 
shoulders.  He  continued  to  reside  in  Adelaide  or  its 
neighbourhood  until  July  1849,  when  his  gentle  spirit  entered 
into  rest. 

The  union  of  Methodism  in  igoo  was  the  confluence  of  three 
converging  streams.  Hitherto  attention  has  been  limited  to 
the  larger  of  the  three,  which  started  first ;  but  reference  must 
now  be  made  to  the  respective  origins  of  the  others.  It  was 
on  a  Sunday  afternoon  in  June  1840  that  John  Wiltshire,  a 
local  preacher,  supported  by  his  wife  and  relatives,  conducted 
the  first  Primitive  Methodist  service  in  the  Southern  Hemi- 
sphere. The  place  was  Light  Square,  Adelaide,  and  the 
novelty  attracted  a  considerable  congregation.  To  all 
inquirers  the  explanation  was  given  :  '  We  are  Primitive 
Methodists  who  have  just  come  from  England.'     It  was  a 


J 


08       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 


rallying  call  to  others  who  had  belonged  to  the  same  denomina- 
tion, and  on  the  following  Sunday  a  class  was  formed  con- 
sisting of  eight  members.  For  four  years  these  earnest  people 
held  together,  waiting  for  a  minister  to  take  charge  of  the 
work.  Mr.  Wiltshire  was  the  leading  spirit,  zealous  and 
ardent,  urging  both  brothers  and  sisters  to  cultivate  and 
exercise  their  gifts  of  exhortation.  A  sanctuary  was  erected 
in  Elizabeth  Street  of  the  early  colonial  style  of  architecture; 
and  at  its  first  Quarterly  Meeting  in  March  1841  the  mission 
reported  sixteen  members,  seven  of  whom  were  local  preachers, 
and  a  Sunday  school  with  twenty  scholars. 

In  1844  the  Revs.  J.  Long  and  J.  Wilson  arrived  to  sustain 
and  extend  the  work,  and  were  welcomed  with  great  joy.  A 
better  place  of  worship  was  needed  in  Adelaide ;  and  Mr.  Long 
laboured  on  its  behalf  with  indefatigable  industry,  sometimes 
working  with  his  own  hands,  while  his  wife  collected  sub- 
scriptions in  the  streets  to  purchase  materials.  Several  preach- 
ing-places were  opened  in  the  suburbs  of  Adelaide,  and  a 
second  centre  of  influence  established  at  Mount  Barker.  Mr. 
Wilson  was  soon  removed  to  New  South  Wales  to  commence 
a  mission  there ;  and  Mr.  Storr,  who  was  sent  to  supply  his 
place,  was  stationed  at  Mount  Barker  in  1848.  By  this  time 
the  Connexion  had  two  circuits,  six  chapels,  as  many  Sunday 
schools,  with  twenty-eight  teachers  and  227  scholars,  and  a 
Church  membership  of  139. 

It  is  understood  that  some  of  those  who  helped  to  form  the 
first  Methodist  society  in  Adelaide  had  been  members  of  the 
Bible  Christian  Church  in  England;  but  then,  and  for  several 
years  afterwards,  they  deemed  it  wisest  to  cast  in  their 
lot  with  their  Wesleyan  Methodist  brethren.  The  copper 
discoveries  at  Kapunda  and  Burra,  however,  attracted  a 
number  of  immigrants  from  the  British  counties  where  the 
denomination  was  strongest.  Included  in  a  group  of  those 
who  settled  at  Burra  were  Messrs.  Blatchford,  Halse,  and 
Pellew,  who  were  local  preachers.  These  earnest  men,  with 
others,  formed  themselves  into  a  church,  sixteen  persons  being 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  309 

present  at  the  first  class-meeting-.  They  arranged  for  regular 
public  services,  took  steps  to  build  a  place  of  worship,  and 
sent  a  request  to  the  Home  Conference  for  ministers.  This 
request  was  responded  to  by  the  appointment  of  the  Revs. 
James  Way  and  James  Rowe,  who  reached  South  Australia 
in  November  1850.  They  soon  formed  two  extensive  circuits, 
the  southern  with  Mr.  Way  in  the  city,  and  the  northern 
with  Mr.  Rowe  at  Burra.  In  both  cases  they  found  large 
and  eager  congregations  waiting  to  hear  the  Word,  active 
and  zealous  coadjutors  to  assist  them  in  carrying  on  the 
work,  and  a  spirit  of  expectancy  which  was  in  itself  a  presage 
of  success. 

This  summary  of  origins,  if  such  it  may  be  called,  clearly 
shows  the  distinct  family  likeness  of  Methodists  under  any 
name,  and  at  the  same  time  strongly  suggests  how  largely 
the  extension  of  Methodism  is  due  to  the  lay  agency  it  employs 
and  inspires.  In  each  case,  as  we  have  seen,  the  story,  nearly 
as  old  as  the  Christian  Church,  was  repeated.  '  They  there- 
fore that  were  scattered  abroad  went  about  preaching  the 
Word.'  God  was  with  them.  His  Spirit  cheered  their  hearts, 
and  His  Providence  directed  their  steps.  All  honour  to  such 
men  and  women  !  John  C.  W^hite  walked  regularly  for  a  long 
period  from  Glenelg  to  Adelaide  and  back  to  conduct  services, 
sometimes  travelling  barefoot  in  the  darkness  to  avoid  miss- 
ing the  track,  and  gave  up  his  position  in  the  bank  to  quarry 
stone  for  the  first  chapel.  John  Wiltshire,  gathering  a 
company  in  the  open  air  and  watching  over  the  little  fiock, 
was  in  some  respects  his  counterpart.  James  Blatchford,  who 
preached  and  held  prayer-meetings  weekly  throughout  the 
long  voyage  from  England,  and  was  known  as  '  the  parson  ' 
on  board,  may  be  paralleled  with  Captain  Morgan.  These 
are  typical  names  from  the  long  catalogue  of  bright,  brave, 
and  faithful  men  and  women  who  prepared  the  way  of  the 
Lord  in  this  part  of  the  Southern  world,  and  whose  names  are 
written  in  heaven.  '  They  rest  from  their  labours  and  their 
works  do  follow  them.' 


3IO       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

When  the  second  half  of  the  nineteenth  century  began  there 
were  three  active  and  flourishing  Methodist  bodies  in  South 
AustraHa.  Each  of  them  had  been  established  by  godly  and 
earnest  laymen  who  had  brought  with  them,  and  kept  alive,  a 
large  measure  of  devout  enthusiasm.  They  preached  the 
doctrines  they  had  tested,  and  observed  the  ordinances  by 
which  they  had  profited.  Hence  their  lines  of  development  and 
processes  of  organization  presented  much  similarity.  Though 
they  differedmaterially  in  numerical  strength,  as  in  the  periods 
of  their  respective  local  operations,  they  adhered  to  the  essen- 
tial principles  of  Methodism,  and  of  necessity  were  alike 
influenced  by  the  general  conditions  of  their  environment. 

The  province  of  South  Australia  had  endured  severe  fluc- 
tuations in  its  general  prosperity.  Its  political  constitution 
was  experimental,  and  proved  unequal  to  the  strain  of  actual 
trial.  As  defects  became  apparent  in  the  plan,  and  friction 
occurred  in  the  administrative  machinery,  there  was  inevit- 
able trouble.  As  seen  in  the  light  of  history,  and  in  view 
of  the  novelty  of  the  new  departure  in  the  work  of  colonization, 
the  wonder  is,  not  that  mistakes  were  made  and  losses  incurred, 
but  that  these  were  so  few  and  limited.  At  the  time,  however, 
this  was  not,  and  could  not  be  perceived.  Accordingly,  party 
feeling  ran  high.  The  social  atmosphere  was  electric,  and 
there  was  a  sensitive  touchiness  in  the  body  politic.  Senti- 
ments and  feelings  of  this  kind  had  their  effect  on  Church 
affairs,  and  all  the  more  in  the  domain  of  Methodism 
because  of  the  agitation  in  the  mother  country.  Local  differ- 
ences of  opinion  were  subsequently  liable  to  become  serious 
disagreements,  causing  the  wheels  of  the  gospel  chariot  to 
drag.  Happily  for  the  welfare  of  the  Church,  the  principal 
minister  at  the  helm  of  its  affairs  at  this  critical  juncture  was 
an  ecclesiastical  statesman  of  the  best  type.  Bold  yet  prudent, 
sagacious  and  enterprising,  authoritative  but  conciliatory, 
fervent  in  piety,  genial  in  disposition,  and  a  born  adminis- 
trator, the  Rev.  Daniel  J.  Draper  left  an  indelible  impression 
during  his  eight  years  of  service. 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  311 

When  that  term  beoan,  in  September  1846,  the  clouds  which 
had  overhune^  the  Church  and  State  had  begun  to  roll  away. 
The  copper  discoveries  at  Kapunda  and  Burra  Burra,  not  long- 
afterwards,  introduced  a  rapid  return  of  general  prosperity, 
caused  an  influx  of  population,  and  stimulated  the  expansion 
of  settlement.  A  considerable  proportion  of  the  persons  who 
were  attracted  by  the  impetus  of  the  mining  industries  hailed 
from  Cornwall,  in  England,  and  brought  with  them  their 
typical  fervour.  As  early  as  1847  Burra  was  visited  by  the 
Rev.  John  Harcourt,  IMr.  Draper's  first  colleague;  and  at  the 
end  of  that  year  he  personally  opened  the  first  chapel  there, 
when  there  was  no  other  place  of  worship  within  seventy  miles. 
It  was  in  the  same  locality  that  John  Wiltshire,  the  Primi- 
tive Methodist  pioneer,  repeated  his  effort  of  Light  Square  in 
Adelaide,  by  gathering  a  company  around  him  for  an  open- 
air  service,  and  followed  it  up  by  cottage  meetings.  A  chapel 
was  built,  and  a  membership  of  thirty,  with  five  local 
preachers,  was  reported  before  a  resident  minister  could  be 
obtained.  When  the  first  Bible  Christian  ministers,  the 
Revs.  James  Way  and  James  Rowe,  arrived,  in  November 
1850,  Mr.  Rowe  was  stationed  at  Burra,  and  found  on  his 
arrival  a  strong  and  increasing  church. 

Governor  Grey's  policy  of  relieving  central  congestion  by 
practically  compelling  cultivation  of  the  land  bore  fruit ;  and 
with  the  expansion  of  settlement  numerous  preaching-places 
were  opened  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Adelaide.  Farther 
afield  Willunga,  30  miles  to  the  south-west,  and  Mount 
Barker,  20  odd  miles  eastward,  soon  claimed  and  received 
attention.  Churches  were  organized  at  both,  the  public 
services  being  almost  exclusively  conducted  by  local  preachers. 
Some  of  these  invaluable  agents  walked  to  their  appointments 
as  much  as  30  miles  each  way.  The  first  offshoots  of  the 
Adelaide  Circuit  were  entitled  North  INIines,  including 
Kapunda  and  Burra,  50  miles  apart,  and  Willunga.  Mount 
Barker  was  the  head  of  the  second  Primitive  Methodist 
circuit. 


312       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

There  Avere  elements  of  weakness  as  well  as  strength  in  the 
early  organization.  It  had  the  faults  of  its  qualities.  Sturdy 
individualism  is  a  useful  driving  force  under  proper  guidance, 
but  may  increase  the  damage  of  impact  when  there  is  a  col- 
lision. An  early  recovery  was  made  from  the  sharp  set-back 
during  the  Weatherstone  period;  but  there  was  greater  and 
more  prolonged  trouble  over  the  vexed  question  of  State  aid 
to  religion,  which  was  not  settled  till  August  1851.  The 
obnoxious  principle,  which  had  been  introduced  by  Governor 
Robe,  had  been  a  burning  question  for  five  years,  till  it  was 
repudiated  by  the  first  representative  legislature.  Public 
opinion  was  always  against  it ;  but  in  the  church  there  was  a 
strongly  divided  feeling  on  the  question  whether,  the  money 
being  available,  it  should  or  should  not  be  accepted  and 
turned  to  good  account.  Agreement  was  not  possible;  but 
happily  Mr.  Draper's  judicious,  firm,  and  kindly  management 
averted  serious  disaster.  It  was  while  this  agitation  con- 
tinued that  Mr.  Draper  embarked  on  the  enterprise  which 
has  done  more  for  Methodism  in  Adelaide  and  South 
Australia  than  any  other  building  scheme  ever  launched. 
The  story  of  its  inception  is  worth  repeating.  Walking  to 
and  fro  in  his  study  while  conversing  with  his  most  trusted 
friend,  who  afterwards  became  the  G.  O.  M.  of  the  Methodist 
laity,  Mr.  Draper  exclaimed  in  his  characteristic  fashion  : 
'  John  Colton,  we  want  a  new  chapel.  We  must  have  a  new 
chapel.  I'll  give  a  hundred  pounds  if  you'll  give  a  hundred 
pounds.'  Mr.  Colton's  laconic  response  was  '  Done.' 
And  if  to  be  '  well  begun  is  half  done  '  the  work  was 
justified. 

The  work  of  collecting  subscriptions  was  immediately 
entered  upon.  An  admirable  central  site  was  secured.  The 
foundation-stone  was  laid  by  Governor  Young  in  July  1850, 
and  the  building  was  opened  the  following  year,  having  cost 
over  /,"6,ooo.  Numerous  additions  were  subsequently  made 
to  the  premises.  Galleries  were  erected  and  a  fine  organ 
(afterwards  enlarged)  was   purchased   in    1855.     A   spacious 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  313 

lecture  hall,  class-rooms,  manse,  and  caretaker's  residence 
were  added  as  required,  and  minor  improvements  effected. 
What  has  long-  been  the  cathedral  of  South  Australian 
Methodism,  and  is  now  the  head  quarters  of  the  Adelaide 
Central  Mission,  in  regard  to  suitability  for  its  purpose  and 
completeness  of  appointments,  holds  an  exceptionally  high 
position.  Many  hundreds  of  churches  have  been  erected  since 
then,  a  few  more  costly,  some  more  beautiful  in  external 
design  and  more  ornate  in  internal  appearance;  but  it  would 
be  difficult  to  name  any  of  them  in  which  a  congregation  of 
equal  numbers  can  hear  with  greater  ease  and  comfort,  or 
the  discourse  of  a  preacher  can  be  more  effectively  delivered. 
This  is  the  true  test,  and  it  may  be  freely  applied.  No  other 
ecclesiastical  edifice  in  Adelaide  has  had  so  much  effect  on  the 
social  and  religious  life  of  the  community.  Hundreds  of 
historic  gatherings  have  taken  place  within  its  walls.  Method- 
ist union  was  not  only  debated,  but  settled  under  its  roof. 
A  host  of  religious,  charitable,  and  philanthropic  movements 
have  there  received  impetus,  and  a  multitude  which  no  man 
can  number  has  there  been  converted  to  God.  When  it  is 
remembered  that  this  luminous  record  began  within  fourteen 
years  of  the  time  when  Adelaide  was  an  unsurveyed,  gum-tree- 
clothed  plateau,  the  far-seeing  wisdom  and  zeal  which  made  it 
possible  must  elicit  thankful  admiration. 

While  this  enterprise  was  being  proceeded  with,  others 
were  taken  in  hand.  The  times  were  relatively  prosperous, 
population  was  increasing,  and  in  all  the  Methodist  Churches 
there  was  growing  activity.  An  abrupt  and  severe,  but 
happily  only  a  temporary  check  to  these  pleasant  conditions 
came  in  the  latter  half  of  1851  through  the  auriferous  dis- 
coveries in  Victoria.  In  the  month  of  August  a  veritable 
exodus  of  the  male  population  began.  It  was  stated  that 
within  three  months  after  news  of  the  Ballarat  and  Mount 
Alexander  discoveries  15,000  men  left  South  Australia  for 
the  gold-fields.  The  stampede  continued  until  every  interest 
seemed  on  the  verge  of  ruin.     Business  places  were  closed, 


314       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

farms  left  untilled,  and  dwellings  empty.  Congregations 
were  scattered,  Church  income  in  many  cases  shrank  to 
vanishing  point,  and  every  organization  was  dislocated. 

It  was  not  all  loss  to  the  Church  of  God ;  for  South 
Australian  Methodists,  especially  from  the  mining  centres, 
became  the  pioneer  evangelists  on  several  of  the  Victorian 
diggings,  where  they  are  still  held  in  honourable  remem- 
brance. Locally  the  reaction  came  with  the  return  of  success- 
ful '  diggers,'  and  the  remittance  of  their  earnings  by  others. 
The  stream  of  gold  revived  business,  and  the  influx  of  popula- 
tion from  over-seas  created  a  market  for  produce,  the  effect 
of  which  was  to  stimulate  industrial  activity.  Accordingly, 
Church  operations  received  a  healthy  impetus,  in  which  all  the 
Methodist  denominations  shared.  At  the  Wesleyan  Methodist 
District  Meeting,  though  only  four  ministers  were  present, 
appointments  were  recommended  for  six,  and  the  number 
asked  for  was  eleven.  About  the  same  time  the  Bible 
Christian  ministerial  staff  was  strengthened,  and  preaching- 
places  were  shortly  afterwards  opened  at  Gawler  Plains, 
Kapunda,  and  Auburn  in  the  north ;  and  at  Willunga,  Yan- 
kalilla,  and  Port  Elliot  in  the  south.  Primitive  Methodisrn 
received  an  opportune  reinforcement  from  England  in  1854, 
which  provided  for  the  reopening  of  stations  that  had 
been  closed,  and  the  formation  of  churches  at  North 
Adelaide,  Beverly,  Crafers,  Glenelg,  Port  Gawler,  and 
elsewhere. 

Limitations  of  space  prohibit  detailed  reference  to  the  work 
of  extension  which  characterized  all  three  of  the  iNlethodist 
denominations.  There  was  between  them,  no  doubt,  a  good 
deal  of  rivalry,  but  it  was  mostly  friendly,  and  not  entirely 
to  be  deprecated.  There  was  much  similarity  in  the  usual 
process.  A  group  of  like-minded  persons  in  a  given  locality 
drew  together  and  either  established  religious  ordinances  or 
solicited  their  supply.  A  class-meeting  was  instituted,  a 
Sunday  school  formed,  and  a  congregation  gathered.  A 
building,  large  or  small,  of  temporary  or  permanent  materials, 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  315 

according  to  circumstances,  became  an  early  and  imperative 
necessity,  because  there  was  no  accommodation  to  be  obtained 
otherwise.  Without  a  fold  the  flock  would  be  inadequately 
cared  for,  and  possibly  scattered. 

Hence  the  work  of  development  proceeded  on  parallel  lines. 
Classes  were  formed  into  societies,  societies  grouped  into 
circuits,  and  circuits  into  districts,  the  next  stage  being  the 
local  Conference.  For  the  special  conditions  surrounding  him, 
Mr.  Draper  was  exceptionally  qualified.  Robust  in  frame,  tire- 
less in  energy,  full  of  zeal,  not  afraid  of  responsibility  where 
it  was  justified,  and  withal  prudent  in  counsel,  he  was  well 
equipped  for  his  task.  Under  his  supervision  as  chairman 
of  the  district,  within  three  years  twenty-seven  places  of 
worship  were  erected  and  four  ministers'  residences,  at  a  total 
cost  of  ;^i5,ooo,  and  w-ithout  an  embarrassing  pressure  of 
debt.  At  the  close  of  his  term  in  1855  public  services  were 
conducted  in  thirty-eight  churches  and  thirty  other  preaching- 
places.  Mr.  Draper  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  William 
Butters,  who  was  in  many  respects  his  counterpart.  Mr. 
Butters  was  a  singularly  able  administrator,  and  at  the  same 
time  a  man  of  extraordinarv  power  in  the  pulpit.  He  had  the 
joy  of  witnessing  many  conversions  and  rapid  growth  in 
every  department.  During  his  six  years'  term  the  number  of 
churches  was  more  than  doubled,  and  there  was  a  correspond- 
ing increase  in  Church  membership. 

Primitive  Methodism  did  not  recover  from  the  gold-fields 
exodus  quite  so  speedily ;  but  its  development  received  a 
powerful  impetus  by  the  arrival  of  additional  ministers  from 
England,  prominent  among  whom  was  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Wright. 
His  flaming  zeal  and  unbounded  faith  carried  him  through 
or  over  every  obstacle.  At  one  time  his  circuit  extended 
from  Kapunda  to  ]\Iount  Remarkable,  150  miles;  and  his 
career  was  a  kind  of  triumphal  march.  In  1856,  the  year  of 
his  arrival,  though  the  denomination  had  only  five  ministers, 
twenty-five  churches  had  been  erected,  and  the  membership 
had  increased  to  431.     Generally  similar  progress  had  been 


3i6       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

made  by  the  Bible  Christian  Churches,  under  the  superin- 
tendency  of  the  Rev.  James  Way.  The  re-opening  of  closed 
churches,  the  establishment  of  other  centres  of  influence,  and 
growing  success,  was  the  legitimate  reward  of  faithful  service. 
Mr.  Way's  transparent  sincerity  and  genuine  devotion  were 
a  passport  to  the  confidence  of  public  men  during  the  trying 
period  of  financial  trouble ;  while  his  ability  as  a  preacher  and 
an  administrator  secured  the  success  of  the  projects  he 
undertook. 

The  seventh  decade  of  the  nineteenth  century  witnessed, 
not  only  a  continuance  of  the  extension  work  and  the  con- 
solidation of  its  results,  but  the  entrance  also  on  new  spheres 
of  usefulness  that  have  had  blessed  results.  In  1862  the  Rev. 
John  Watsford  was  appointed  to  the  Pirie  Street  circuit,  and 
he  had  little  more  than  commenced  his  ministry  there  when 
a  most  gracious  revival  took  place,  the  influence  of  which 
extended  far  and  wide.  Mr.  Watsford's  emotional  fervour 
rendered  his  impassioned  appeals  almost  irresistible,  and  very 
many  people  were  added  to  the  Lord.  The  sacred  fire  spread 
to  other  circuits,  and  almost  everywhere  there  was  great 
rejoicing.  About  three  years  later  the  Rev.  William  Taylor, 
afterwards  Bishop  Taylor,  of  California,  spent  several  months 
in  South  Australia,  where,  as  in  other  parts  of  the  continent, 
his  labours  were  greatly  blessed.  A  distinguishing  feature 
of  these  showers  of  blessings  in  each  case  was  the  perman- 
ence of  the  work  wrought,  and  its  fruitfulness  in  raising  up 
workers  imbued  with  its  spirit. 

In  territorial  expansion  also  the  period  was  remarkable, 
circuits  being  multiplied  and  new  stations  taken  up,  until  the 
operations  of  the  Church  extended  from  Blinman  in  the 
far  north  to  Mount  Gambler  in  the  distant  south-east,  and 
included  Port  Lincoln  on  the  west  of  Spencer  Gulf.  New 
departures  were  varied  and  important.  A  fresh  impulse  was 
given  to  Sunday-school  work,  to  the  agencies  of  temperance 
reform,  to  young  men's  societies,  and  other  auxiliaries.  The 
pioneer  of  periodical  literature  was  issued  in  the  form  of  a 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  317 

circuit  magazine,  which  was  adopted  by  the  District  Meeting 
of  1864,  and  continued  until  its  supersession  by  a  weekly 
Connexional  paper  ten  years  later,  which  is  still  issued.  In 
the  same  year  provision  was  made  for  the  more  adequate 
supply  of  religious  literature  by  the  establishment  of  a  book- 
room.  Both  the  sister  Methodist  Churches  took  similar  action 
at  a  later  period,  each  of  them  having  its  own  periodical  and 
book  concern. 

Much  the  most  important  event  of  this  kind  was  the  initia- 
tion of  the  college  enterprise  which  has  done  so  much  for 
both  Methodism  and  the  State.  Always  recognized  as  desir- 
able, the  idea  had  been  held  in  abeyance  until  September  1855  ; 
when,  at  an  informal  meeting  convened  by  Mr.  Watsford,  a 
group  of  public-spirited  laymen  decided  to  purchase  the  highly 
eligible  site  which  is  now  occupied.  This  was  done;  circum- 
stances prevented  immediate  action,  but  the  foundation-stone 
of  the  building  was  laid  on  November  5,  1867,  by  Prince 
Alfred,  the  Duke  of  Edinburgh,  who  gave  his  name  to  the 
college,  and  school  work  was  begun  in  January  1869. 

Prosperity  attended  the  work  of  the  sister  Methodist 
Churches  during  the  same  period.  The  Bible  Christian 
Mission,  which  had  been  established  about  1855,  became  a 
separate  district  in  i860,  with  the  Rev.  James  Rowe  as  its 
first  superintendent.  Established  centres  gained  strength  and 
influence,  and  new  openings  were  entered  into  from  Port 
Augusta  to  Mount  Gambler.  The  Primitive  Methodist  Jubilee 
Church  was  built  in  i860;  and  at  North  Adelaide  progress 
was  made  towards  the  erection  of  the  most  commodious  and 
handsome  church  belonging  to  the  denomination,  which  was 
a  centre  of  great  influence  during  the  ministrations  of  the 
Revs.  Hugh  Gilmour  and  J.  D.  Thompson. 

In  1862  a  fourth  number  of  the  illustrious  Methodist 
sisterhood  entered  the  field.  The  Methodist  New  Connexion, 
desiring  to  extend  its  missions,  appointed  the  Rev.  James 
Maughan  to  Adelaide.  He  gathered  round  him  a  number  of 
those  who  had  belonged  to  the  body  he  represented,  and  the 


3i8       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

church  which  still  bears  his  name  was  erected  in  Franklin 
Street,  Adelaide.  He  was  cultured,  versatile,  and  able ;  but 
found,  as  did  other  ministers  who  succeeded  him,  that  there 
was  little  scope  for  extension.  At  length,  over  twenty  years 
afterwards,  the  Missionary  Committee  of  the  Home  Confer- 
ence, having  ascertained  the  facts  of  the  situation  from  the 
Rev.  E.  Gratton,  who  was  then  in  charge,  wisely  decided  to 
direct  its  energies  into  more  open  fields.  Union  with  the  Bible 
Christian  Church  was  accordingly  effected  in  1888,  Mr. 
Gratton  electing  to  personally  unite  with  that  body. 

The  Rev.  W.  L.  Binks,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Watsford  as 
Chairman  of  the  South  Australian  district  of  the  senior  Church 
in  1868,  though  differing  from  his  predecessors  in  several 
respects,  was  their  equal  in  talent,  zeal,  and  ability.  His  services 
elsewhere  were  recognised  by  his  appointment  as  President 
of  the  Australasian  Conference  in  1869.  He  laboured  suc- 
cessively in  the  Archer  Street,  Pirie  Street,  and  Kent  Town 
circuits,  and  everywhere  the  work  of  the  Lord  prospered  in 
his  hands.  As  the  first  President  of  Prince  Alfred  College 
heavy  responsibilities  devolved  upon  him,  and  as  first  Presi- 
dent of  the  South  Australian  Conference  of  his  Church  in 
1874  he  conducted  its  business  with  wise  regard  to  the  future. 

It  may  be  noted  that  from  the  arrival  of  Mr.  Draper  in 
1846  to  take  the  oversight  of  an  infant  and  struggling 
Church,  which  had  been  weakened  by  internal  dissension, 
besides  having  to  contend  with  the  special  difiiculties  of  its 
position,  to  the  time  when  in  1874  it  had  become  sufficiently 
numerous  and  strong  to  have  a  conference  of  its  own,  four 
ministers  had  successively  sustained  the  serious  responsibility 
of  its  general  supervision.  Only  three  changes  had  taken 
place  in  the  highest  office  during  twenty-eight  years.  There 
was  thus  comparatively  unbroken  continuity  of  administration, 
to  which,  under  the  blessing  of  God,  may  be  ascribed  the 
prosperity  that  had  been  enjoyed.  Churches  had  increased  to 
160,  with  100  other  preaching-places.  These  were  supplied 
by  thirty-six  ministers,  including  probationers,  and  280  local 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  319 

preachers.  The  membership  had  risen  to  4,700,  and  the 
attendants  to  over  32,000.  These  figures  apply  exclusively  to 
the  Wesleyan  Methodist  section.  Truly  the  little  one  had 
become  a  thousand,  suggesting  the  comment :  *  What  hath 
God  wrought  !  ' 

Methodism  has  always  been  distinguished  by  its  missionary 
spirit,  of  which  the  Churches  in  the  southern  world  may  be 
described  as  the  product,  while  they  have  received  and 
cherished  it  as  part  of  their  heritage.  In  the  earlier  days  the 
work  was  included  within  the  sphere  of  Missionary  Depart- 
ments of  the  Home  Conferences,  which  appointed  ministers 
and  arranged  for  general  supervision.  For  a  number  of  years 
the  ministers  were  nominally  missionaries,  and  to  some  extent 
their  relations  with  their  respective  organizations  at  home 
were  continued.  We  have  already  seen  that  in  South 
Australia  the  pioneering  work  was  begun,  and  the  foundations 
were  laid,  without  waiting  for  ofificial  authority  or  sanction, 
and  how  the  process  of  development  and  organization  was 
carried  on.  By  the  middle  of  last  century  the  work  in 
Australasia  and  Polynesia  had  grown  to  such  magnitude  that 
the  British  Wesleyan  Methodist  Conference  became  convinced 
that  a  change  in  its  management  was  necessary.  The  time 
had  arrived  for  the  Australasian  Churches  to  be  invested  with 
local  control,  and  the  management  of  the  South  Sea  Missions 
to  be  placed  in  their  charge. 

In  order  to  effect  the  necessary  arrangements  the  Rev. 
Robert  Young  was  sent  as  a  deputation.  He  reached 
Adelaide  in  January  1853,  went  on  to  Melbourne  and  Sydney, 
and  the  proposals  with  which  he  was  charged  met  with 
general  acceptance.  He  reported  to  the  British  Conference 
of  the  same  year,  which  adopted  a  plan  for  constituting  an 
Australian  Conference,  of  which  the  Adelaide  district  formed 
a  part.  This  was  a  great  advance  in  the  direction  of  self- 
government;  for  the  District  Meeting,  instead  of  being  held 
at  irregular  intervals,  became  an  annual  fixture.  It  had  the 
management  of  affairs   within   its  own   boundaries,   and   the 


320       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

initiation  and  guidance  of  local  movements  for  Cliurch 
extension.  It  prepared  a  provisional  station  sheet  for  the 
appointments  of  its  ministers,  elected  its  representative  to 
the  Conference,  and  sent  recommendations  to  that  body, 
which  every  fourth  year  held  its  sessions  in  Adelaide. 

The  first  Australasian  Conference  was  held  at  Sydney  in 
January  1855,  South  Australia  being  represented  by  the  Rev. 
D.  J.  Draper.  At  that  time  each  colony  formed  a  district, 
except  New  Zealand,  which  had  been  divided.  The  records 
of  the  Conference  are  both  valuable  and  interesting.  They 
contain  a  complete  statement  of  the  Church  properties  then 
acquired,  which  in  the  case  of  South  Australia  covers  nearly 
six  closely-printed  pages.  They  also  show  that  the  Conference 
was  alive  to  the  augmented  efficiency  rendered  possible  under 
the  new  system.  Resolutions  were  adopted  recommending 
the  formation  of  a  Church  Extension  or  Home  Mission  Fund, 
to  take  the  place  of  the  Contingent  Fund,  and  also  of  a  Chapel 
and  Building  Fund.  Though  composed  of  ministers  only, 
the  Conference  recommended  the  appointment  of  district 
committees,  consisting  of  equal  numbers  of  ministers  and 
laymen,  to  manage  their  funds.  In  these  resolutions  a  further 
instalment  of  self-government  was  provided  for;  and  in  them 
may  be  seen  the  germ  of  the  present  Financial  District  Synod 
and  Representative  Conference. 

While  this  arrangement  continued  the  administration  of 
local  affairs  developed  upon  the  District  Meeting,  the  duties 
of  which  became  increasingly  onerous  as  the  area  of  occupa- 
tion extended.  There  was  growth  in  every  direction,  and 
such  movements  of  population  as  taxed  the  resources  of  the 
Church  Extension  Fund  and  the  Committee  for  the  supply  of 
religious  ordinances.  The  nine  circuits  of  1855  had  increased 
to  sixteen  ten  years  afterwards,  and  to  twenty-two  in  1870. 
They  extended  from  Blinman  in  the  far  north  to  Mount 
Gambler  in  the  south-east.  The  district  was  confessedly 
unwieldy,  and  its  effective  oversight  by  a  single  chairman 
difficult ;  but  division  did  not  seem  practicable. 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  321 

Meanwhile,  a  similar  problem  had  presented  itself  for 
solution  in  New  South  Wales  and  Victoria,  and  at  the  Annual 
Conference  of  1862  effect  was  given  to  the  resolutions  of  these 
districts  by  dividing  the  former  into  five  and  the  latter  into 
three.  While  this  adjustment  had  its  advantages,  it  did  away 
with  the  general  administration  of  affairs  in  which  the  districts 
had  common  interests.  Thus  it  fostered  the  desire  for  a  system 
of  annual  and  general  conferences  which  gradually  acquired 
both  form  and  favour.  This  plan  was  recommended  as  early 
as  1858  by  the  Melbourne  District  Meeting,  but  though 
occasionally  referred  to,  remained  in  abeyance  till  the  Confer- 
ence of  1872,  when,  with  sundry  alterations  and  amendments 
it  was  forwarded  to  the  British  Conference  and  Missionary 
Committee  for  their  approval  and  sanction. 

This  plan  was  not  regarded  with  very  much  favour  in  South 
Australia,  the  apprehension  being  freely  expressed  that  in  the 
event  of  its  complete  isolation,  the  numerical  smallness  of  its 
ministerial  staff  would  greatly  hamper  the  working  of  an 
itinerant  system.  The  benefits  derived  from  frequent  inter- 
changes with  the  Eastern  districts  would  be  lost,  and  the  Con- 
nexional  bond  be  weakened.  These  arguments  had  sufficient 
weight  to  cause  provisions  for  such  interchanges  to  be  in- 
cluded in  the  functions  of  the  General  Conference,  and  the 
plan  as  altered  and  amended,  having  been  adopted  by  the 
Conference  of  1873  and  received  the  sanction  of  the  British 
Conference,  came  into  operation  the  following  year.  The 
South  Australian  district  was  divided  into  two  :  the  southern 
and  the  northern,  and  its  first  Annual  Conference  was  held 
in  1874. 

This  Conference,  like  its  predecessors,  was  composed  of 
ministers  only ;  but  the  right  of  laymen  to  take  an  active  share 
in  the  business  management,  and  the  advantages  of  their 
doing  so,  had  been  recognized  long  before.  Opportunities 
had  been  made  by  the  appointment  of  Connexional  and 
missionary  committees,  which  included  all  the  ministers  within 
the  bounds  of  the  district  or  Conference,  with  an  equal  number 

Y 


322       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  laymen.  To  these  committees,  as  to  the  Financial  District 
Meetings,  composed  of  ministers  and  stewards,  additional 
subjects  were  allotted  from  time  to  time,  and  their  resolutions 
were  adopted  en  bloc  by  the  Conference,  in  order  to  give  them 
legal  effect.  Into  the  constitution  of  these  committees,  how- 
ever, the  representative  element  had  not  been  incorporated. 
To  remedy  this  and  other  defects,  recommendations  were  for- 
warded to  the  first  General  Conference  of  1875,  which  amended 
the  original  plan  ;  and  the  British  Conference  having  done  its 
part,  the  revised  constitution  was  acted  upon  at  the  second 
General  Conference  in  1878.  The  Annual  Conference  of  1879 
accordingly  consisted  of  ministers  and  lay  representatives  in 
equal  numbers,  the  latter  having  been  elected  by  their 
respective  Quarterly  Meetings. 

Substantially  this  constitution  is  still  that  of  Australasian 
Methodism,  though  modifications  of  its  details  have  been 
made  from  time  to  time.  Many  of  these  have  increased  the 
functions  and  responsibilities  of  lay  representatives,  and  after 
the  experience  of  nearly  forty  years  the  effectiveness  of  the 
system  is  its  justification.  The  stage  of  self-government  was 
reached  by  an  evolutionary  process,  in  which  the  germination 
of  great  principles  may  be  traced  from  inception  to  fruition. 
Its  history  was  unmarked  by  any  injurious  agitation,  and  was 
accompanied  by  an  increasing  measure  of  vitality  and  power. 
Incidentally,  as  it  were,  the  new  departure  of  1874  imposed 
a  somewhat  heavy  responsibility  on  the  South  Australian 
Conference,  for  West  Australia  was  included  as  one  of  its 
districts.  The  connexion  was  inevitable,  for  at  that  time  there 
were  only  three  ministers  and  118  Church  members  in  the 
West.  It  was  compelled  by  geography,  was  understood  to 
be  little  more  than  nominal  and  temporary,  but  it  continued 
for  twenty-six  years,  during  the  latter  part  of  which  period  it 
was  neither  nominal  nor  trifling.  When  the  great  influx  of 
population  took  place  as  the  result  of  auriferous  discoveries, 
with  rapid  church  extension  as  its  consequence,  it  was  to  the 
South  Australian  Conference  that  the  demands  naturally  came 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  323 

for  ministerial  supplies.  Until  1900,  therefore,  two-thirds  of 
the  continent  of  Australia  were  comprised  within  the  territorial 
area  of  the  numerically  smallest  of  its  Conferences. 

A  more  direct  addition  to  financial  responsibility  was  under- 
taken at  about  the  same  time  by  the  establishment  of  a  mission 
at  Port  Darwin  in  the  Northern  Territory.  The  extensive 
tract  of  country,  comprising  about  523,600  square  miles,  had 
been  attached  to  South  Australia  several  years  before  as  a 
recognition  of  the  successful  exploring  energy  which  had 
traversed  the  interior  of  the  continent.  The  transcontinental 
telegraph  line  had  been  constructed,  establishing  communica- 
tion between  London  and  Adelaide.  After  much  failure  and 
delay,  a  site  for  the  future  capital  had  been  chosen,  and  the 
survey  of  land  completed.  The  country  was  believed  to  be  a 
land  of  promise,  exceptionally  rich  in  natural  resources  and 
commercial  possibilities.  It  attracted  population  to  such  an 
extent  that  in  1873  there  were  said  to  be  5,000  white  people 
in  Palmerston  and  the  neighbourhood.  In  the  middle  of  that 
year  the  chairman  of  the  southern  district  convened  a  meeting 
v^hich  undertook  to  raise  funds  for  preliminary  expenses,  and 
a  minister  was  sent.  Accordingly,  on  the  stations  of  the  first 
Conference  there  appeared  :  '  Palmerston,  A.  J.  Bogle.'  The 
hopes  then  cherished  have  not  been  realized.  The  prospects 
of  the  territory  have  always  been  bright,  but  its  actual  position 
invariably  discouraging.  Many  changes  in  administration 
have  taken  place;  but  through  cloud  and  sunshine  the 
Methodist  flag  has  been  kept  flying,  often,  and  for  long 
periods,  as  the  only  representative  of  Protestant  evangelical 
Christianity  in  that  part  of  the  world.  What  the  itinerant 
system  rendered  possible  in  the  South  Australian  Conference 
for  many  years  was  illustrated  by  a  serious  proposal,  actually 
made  during  the  work  of  stationing,  that  a  minister  be 
transferred  from  Kalgoorlie  to  Palmerston.  Had  this  been 
carried  into  effect,  he  with  his  family  would  have  had  to 
travel  through,  or  by,  Perth,  Adelaide,  Melbourne,  Sydney, 
and   Brisbane,    to   reach    his   appointment.     Translated   into 


324       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

European  terms  it  would  have  been  equal  to  a  removal  from 
Moscow  to  Constantinople,  via  Paris,  London,  Lisbon, 
Gibraltar,  and  Naples  !  Yet  the  burden  was  uncomplainingly 
borne. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  trace  the  evolutionary  process  of  self- 
government  in  the  other  Methodist  Churches  with  the  same 
degree  of  particularity  as  in  the  older  body,  because  it  would 
be  re-traversing  the  same,  or  similar,  ground.  There  was  a 
strong  family  likeness  all  through.  Commencing,  as  it  were, 
spontaneously,  they  sought  recognition  and  ministerial  assist- 
ance from  their  respective  Home  Conferences.  Waxing 
stronger,  they  declined  to  continue  dependent,  and  sought 
freedom  of  action,  in  order  to  fulfil  their  mission  and  strengthen 
their  influence  in  the  community.  There  was  no  weakening 
of  attachment  to  the  parent  stock,  but  a  manifestation  of 
inherent  vitality  in  their  seeking  and  gradually  developing 
the  principle  and  power  of  self-government. 

In  the  Primitive  Methodist  Church  the  first  General 
Assembly  was  held  in  1856,  to  deliberate  on  the  question  of 
'  our  becoming  at  once  a  self-sustaining  body.'  Three  years 
afterwards  at  the  District  Meeting  it  was  resolved  to  proceed 
with  the  erection  of  the  Jubilee  Memorial  Church  at  Morphett 
Street,  Adelaide,  which  gave  the  denomination  a  better  posi- 
tion. Meanwhile,  extension  was  rapidly  proceeding.  The 
district  was  divided  at  one  time,  but  subsequently  re-united  ; 
and  in  1890  the  first  Primitive  Methodist  Inter-Colonial 
Conference  of  Australia  was  held  in  Adelaide. 

Within  five  years  from  the  time  when  the  Rev.  James  Way 
landed  at  Adelaide  with  the  Rev.  James  Rowe  as  his  colleague, 
the  Bible  Christian  Societies  and  circuits  had  so  far  increased 
as  to  warrant  their  organization  into  a  district.  The  process 
of  extension  and  consolidation  continued  on  similar  lines  as 
in  the  other  Methodist  bodies,  and  each  annual  District  Meet- 
ing recorded  an  advance.  As  the  sphere  of  labour  enlarged, 
the  desirability  of  division  (the  districts  being  united  in  an 
Annual  Conference),  was  realized,  and  the  meeting  of  1874 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  325 

passed  a  resolution  asking-  the  British  Conference  to  effect 
this  change.  That  Conference  having  suggested  as  an 
ahernative  the  formation  of  an  Australian  Conference  to 
include  all  the  colonial  districts,  in  1875  the  request  was 
repeated  and  urged  as  necessary  to  secure  (a)  greater  stability 
and  security,  (b)  greater  safety  in  legislation,  (c)  greater  ex- 
pedition, because  in  any  matter,  such  as  the  sale  of  property, 
requiring  the  decision  of  Conference,  action  was  delayed  for 
nine  months.  This  appeal  was  revived  the  following  year, 
and  the  result  was  that,  permission  having  been  obtained,  the 
first  Conference,  composed  of  ministers  and  laymen  in  equal 
numbers,  was  held  in  February  1877. 

In  each  of  the  three  Methodist  churches  the  attainment  of 
self-governing  functions  and  responsibility  was  accompanied 
by  the  spirit  of  enterprise  and  zeal  for  God.     To  describe  in 
detail  the  manifestations  and  results  which   followed  would 
over-run  our  space  and  involve  tedious  repetition.     A  com- 
prehensive survey  shows   that  there  was  uniformity  of   im- 
pulse,  of  alertness   in   perceiving  and  readiness  to  embrace 
opportunities  of  usefulness,  while  there  was  little  dissimilarity 
in  actual  process.     This  was  seen,  not  only  in  the  principal 
centres  of  population  where  more  and  larger  churches  were 
built   as  required,    but   also   in    the   country   districts.      The 
extension  of  settlement  under  such  circumstances  as  the  open- 
ing of  the  Wallaroo  and   Moonta  copper  mines  on   Yorke 
Peninsula  in  the  sixties,  the  immigration  of  farmers  to  the 
northern  areas  in  the  seventies,  and  later  to  other  parts,  were 
felt  to  be  calls  for  service  that  had  to  be  responded  to.    So 
also  when  the  discoveries  of  silver  took  place  at  Silverton  and 
Broken   Hill,    east    of  the    South    Australian    border  at    the 
Barrier,  colonial  geography  did  not  constitute  an  obstacle ; 
but  South  Australian  Methodism  provided  for  and  included  a 
populous  district  in  New  South  Wales,  which  is  still  under 
its  charge.    There  was  naturally  much  similarity  in  financial 
arrangements  through   their  being  devised  for  similar  pur- 
poses, and  general  funds  for  Home  Mission  church  building 


326       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

were  constituted  and  managed  on  nearly  parallel  lines. 
Wesley's  maxim  '  go  to  those  who  need  you  most '  was 
observed  in  the  provision  for  the  outlying  regions  by  organ- 
izations that  were  alike  in  intention,  though  perhaps  differently 
named. 

Prince  Alfred  College  had  been  established,  not  only  for 
the  purpose  of  supplying  secular  education,  but  also  as  an 
institution  for  training  candidates  for  the  ministry.  The 
Bible  Christian  Conference,  with  the  same  object  in  view, 
availed  itself  of  the  facilities  which  Union  College  provided, 
and  afterwards  established  Way  College.  This  institution, 
founded  in  the  early  nineties,  was  attractive  from  the  first ; 
and  in  the  seventh  annual  report  announced  that  800  students 
had  already  passed  through  its  portals.  The  same  denomina- 
tion proved  its  missionary  zeal  by  establishing  a  mission  in 
China,  the  Rev.  E.  J.  Piper  and  Mrs.  Piper  being  its  earliest 
agents.  Thus  within  three-score  years  of  the  time  when  the 
first  Methodist  sermon  was  preached  and  the  first  class-meet- 
ing held  on  South  Australian  soil  there  were  three  strong, 
effective,  and  self-governing  Churches  firmly  established. 
They  were  identical  in  doctrine,  similar  in  organization  and 
discipline,  and  alike  in  their  fruitfulness  under  the  blessing 
of  God. 

The  Methodist  Church  in  South  Australia,  as  it  now  exists, 
is  the  product  of  an  evolutionary  process,  impelled  and  guided 
by  the  Providence  and  Spirit  of  God.  Its  union  cannot  be 
attributed  to  any  individual  or  group  of  individuals.  Those 
who  advocated  it,  and  whose  advocacy  was  successful,  of 
course  did  their  share ;  but  those  who  opposed  it  were  equally 
conscientious,  and  perhaps  their  opposition  contributed  in 
no  small  degree  to  the  satisfactoriness  of  the  final  result,  by 
preventing  rash  and  premature  action.  When  union  was 
effected,  both  parties  were  loyal  and  faithful  to  its  provisions, 
striving  in  perfect  harmony  to  advance  the  interests  of  the 
Kingdom  of  God. 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  327 

Having  traced  the  earlier  stages  of  the  evolution,  the 
pioneering,  the  development  and  organization,  and  the  degree 
of  self-government  attained  in  each  case,  the  resemblances  are 
obvious.  There  was  no  local  breach  to  heal  or  body  of  seceders 
to  reconcile.  Whatever  preferences  and  prejudices  existed 
had  their  roots  in  another  hemisphere,  and  there  was  no 
sufficient  reason  for  transplanting  and  perpetuating  them. 
The  three  bodies  were  doing  the  same  work  in  the  same  way, 
and  there  was  no  doubt  that  they  could  do  it  better,  and  more 
of  it,  collectively  than  separately.  As  their  operations  ramified 
they  became  interlaced,  as  it  were.  Families  intermarried, 
workers  interchanged  spheres,  thus  practically  obliterating 
distinctions.  At  the  same  time,  over-lapping  of  effort,  pro- 
ducing friction  and  waste  of  energy,  generated  impatience  with 
the  divisions  which  were  their  cause.  Thus  uniting  forces  of 
much  potency  were  constantly  at  work,  from  which  the 
movement  derived  impetus. 

When  organic  union  became  a  live  question  the  Primitive 
Methodist  and  Bible  Christian  Churches  were  numerically 
and  otherwise  nearly  equal  to  each  other  in  strength,  and 
together  were  about  equal  to  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church. 
Though  this  proportion  was  not  by  any  means  exact,  it  was 
near  enough  to  govern  the  ratio  of  representation  in  con- 
sultative committees,  &c.,  when  appointed.  It  followed  that, 
by  common  consent,  the  propriety  of  overtures  proceeding 
from  the  larger  body  was  generally  recognized.  The  relative 
proportion  of  Minor  Methodism — to  use  the  convenient  and 
current  term — being  higher  in  South  Australia  than  else- 
where, may  at  least  partly  account  for  the  prominent  part  that 
Conference  took  in  the  general  movement. 

There  was,  on  the  whole,  a  stronger  desire  for  union  in 
the  Minor  Methodist  Churches  than  in  the  older  body; 
because  they  felt  the  need  of  more  complete  self-government 
and  of  closer  inter-colonial  relations,  which  it  would  supply; 
consequently,  the  progress  of  the  movement  depended  mainly 
on  the  action  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Conference.    This, 


328        A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

however,  was  contingent  on  the  approval  and  sanction  of  the 
General  Conference,  which  met  triennially,  and  therefore 
long  delay  was  involved.  The  favourable  sentiment  in  Minor 
Methodism  was  shown  by  the  union  of  the  Bible  Christian 
and  New  Connexion  Churches,  and  the  proposals  for  a  further 
union  which  were  seriously  entertained,  and  only  relinquished 
because  the  more  complete  scheme  was  considered  to  be  worth 
waiting  for.  Accordingly,  the  history  of  the  proceedings  is 
to  be  found  principally  in  the  records  of  the  Annual  and 
General  Conferences  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church. 
The  initiative  devolved  on  these  bodies,  which  understood 
enough  of  the  feelings  elsewhere  to  prevent  them  from 
proposing  what  would  be  unacceptable. 

When  the  constitution  of  an  Australian  Wesleyan  Method- 
ist Church  was  established,  the  way  was  prepared  for  Church 
union  in  the  southern  world.  The  first  General  Conference 
of  that  body  removed  the  one  insurmountable  obstacle  by 
providing  for  lay  representation  in  the  Annual  and  General 
Conferences  of  1877.  From  that  time  organic  union  became 
possible,  and  being  made  possible  was  inevitable.  Other 
changes  of  a  less  important  character  were  made  from  time  to 
time  which  brought  regulations  and  administrative  methods 
more  into  line ;  so  that  when  the  time  for  union  arrived, 
extremely  little  concession  was  required  either  on  one  side  or 
the  other. 

At  the  first  South  Australian  Conference  in  1874  the  Pre- 
sident referred  to  the  new  scheme  as  facilitating  closer  relations, 
and  the  importance  of  cultivating  brotherly  associations;  and 
at  the  General  Conference  held  in  Adelaide  in  1881  the  earliest 
definite  overture  was  made.  The  Conference  by  resolution 
declared  *  its  readiness  to  consider  any  well-devised  scheme 
that  may  come  before  it  for  effecting  a  union  '  of  the  Methodist 
Churches.  Such  a  scheme  having  been  carried  into  effect  in 
Canada,  the  General  Conference  of  1884,  on  South  Australian 
initiative,  commended  it  to  the  favourable  considerations  of 
the  Annual  Conferences.     This  Conference  took  the  further 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  329 

step  of  directing  them  to  open  communications  with  the  other 
branches  of  the  Methodist  family  in  their  respective  localities, 
to  do  certain  other  things,  and  report  the  result. 

The  next  General  Conference  urged  the  necessity  of 
practical  co-operation  ;  but  for  some  years  the  union  move- 
ment was  practically  hung  up,  because  attention  was  largely 
absorbed  by  the  extremely  important  question  of  Church 
membership  and  the  disastrous  secession  in  Tonga.  Pending 
the  settlement  of  the  domestic  difficulties  there  was  little 
encouragement  to  deal  with  external  relations.  The  member- 
ship question  was  considered  so  serious  and  vital  that,  having 
been  discussed  by  the  Conference  of  1888,  the  next  Conference 
was  fixed  for  two  years  afterwards,  in  order  to  abbreviate  the 
period  of  agitation  before  an  acceptable  solution  of  the 
problem  was  found. 

The  interval  was  not  merely  one  of  marking  time.  Pursuant 
to  the  direction  of  the  General  Conference,  representative  com- 
mittees met  from  time  to  time.  In  them  useful  preliminary 
work  was  done  and  general  interest  was  kept  alive.  When 
the  membership  question  w-as  out  of  the  way  the  move- 
ment greatly  increased  in  energy.  A  Victorian  committee 
having  prepared  a  basis  of  union,  it  was  submitted  to  and 
revised  by  the  Annual  Conferences;  and  when  the  General 
Conference  of  1894  ^^^  ^^  Adelaide  it  was  expected,  with 
good  reason,  that  the  union  question  would  be  settled  for 
good  and  all.  The  debate  which  took  place  was  historic  for 
its  ability  and  spirit  as  well  as  its  results.  Large  numbers  of 
ministers  and  members  of  other  Churches  were  interested 
listeners  during  the  discussion,  and  at  its  close  a  numerously 
signed  letter  from  them  was  sent  to  the  Conference  expressing 
appreciation  of  its  Christian  and  brotherly  character.  By  a 
large  majority  the  Conference  adopted  the  basis  of  union, 
authorized  the  Annual  Conferences  to  effect  union  upon  it, 
and  provided  for  the  establishment  of  federal  councils  to 
complete  the  necessary  arrangements. 

Thenceforward  the  work  of  effecting  union  was  in  the  hands 


330       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  the  local  Conferences.  The  information  gathered  by  the 
joint  committees  in  previous  years  was  comprehensive  and 
fairly  complete.  It  showed  that  there  would  not  be  any 
inseparable  difficulties  in  arranging  details  such  as  the 
boundaries  of  circuits  and  districts,  the  employment  of 
ministers,  &c.  The  basis  of  union  having  been  frankly 
accepted  by  the  Primitive  Methodist  and  Bible  Christian 
Conferences,  it  became  their  duty  to  obtain  such  sanction  from 
the  Home  authorities  as  was  required.  They  appointed  repre- 
sentatives to  the  Federal  Council,  the  constitution  and  func- 
tions of  which  were  defined  by  the  Conference  of  1895.  The 
same  Conference  requested  the  Council  to  obtain  certain 
information  and  take  a  vote  on  the  general  question  ;  but  the 
proposal  being  somewhat  indefinite,  was  not  found  practicable. 

What  may  be  deemed  the  critical  stage  of  the  movement  was 
entered  upon  by  the  Conference  of  1896,  which  instructed 
its  representatives  on  the  Federal  Council  to  prepare  a  draft 
plan,  to  be  submitted  with  accompanying  information  to  the 
members  of  the  Church,  the  trustees  of  Church  properties, 
and  the  Quarterly  Meeting,  for  their  approval  or  otherwise ; 
records  of  the  votes  to  be  taken,  the  Primitive  Methodist  and 
Bible  Christian  representatives  being  requested  to  concur  in 
this  arrangement.  It  was  further  resolved  that  should  the 
vote  be  generally  favourable  to  union,  and  a  two-thirds  vote 
in  favour  be  carried  at  the  Conference  of  1897,  a  united 
meeting  of  the  Conference  should  be  held  to  consider  the 
whole  question,  and,  if  practicable,  define  the  conditions  and 
time  of  union. 

As  the  result  of  this  procedure  the  views  of  the  principal 
officials  and  of  the  members  of  the  Churches  were  ascertained. 
When  the  report  of  the  Federal  Council  was  presented  at  the 
Conference  of  1897  it  was  found  that  the  proportion  of  affirma- 
tive to  negative  votes  averaged  nearly  four  to  one,  and  was 
fairly  uniform.  The  confirmatory  vote  of  the  Conference  was 
carried  by  sixty-nine  votes  to  twenty-six,  a  considerable 
margin  over  the  required  two-thirds.     A  united  meeting  of 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  331 

the  three  Conferences  was  held  on  March  2,  and  proved  to 
be  a  season  of  exceptional  spiritual  power.  The  termination 
of  the  long  debate  was  a  blessed  relief,  and  divine  guidance 
was  devoutly  acknowledged.  Resolutions  covering  the  entire 
field  of  future  action  were  adopted  with  great  unanimity ;  and 
though  the  date  of  union  could  not  then  be  fixed,  it  was 
anticipated  that  the  first  Conference  might  be  held  in  1899  or 
1900.  Similar  assemblies  of  the  Conferences  were  held  in  the 
two  following  years,  and  in  pursuance  of  an  honourable 
understanding,  the  minutes  of  their  proceedings  were  adopted 
by  the  several  Conferences  as  if  their  individual  acts.  Mean- 
while, the  detail  work  was  dealt  with  by  the  Federal  Council 
and  united  action  taken  in  some  particulars.  The  chief  cause 
of  delay  was  the  method  of  providing  for  the  claims  of  super- 
numerary ministers  and  ministers'  widows,  whose  sources  of 
income  would  be  necessarily  transferred. 

Arrangements  were  so  far  advanced  that  at  the  Conference 
of  1899  the  Federal  Council  was  authorized  to  complete  the 
financial  arrangements  required  by  the  General  Conference. 
Subject  to  this  completion  the  date  of  union  was  fixed  for 
January  i,  1900,  the  first  United  Conference  to  begin  on 
February  27,  1901.  The  Council  was  instructed  to  prepare 
a  plan  of  union,  w'hich  the  Presidents  of  the  respective 
Conferences  were  empowered  to  sign,  for  presentation  to  the 
President  of  the  General  Conference.  This  formality  was  com- 
plied with  in  the  presence  of  a  large  congregation  on  August 
14,  1899.  The  original  plan  with  its  three  signatures  and  the 
pen  used  by  the  signatories  are  cherished  possessions  of  the 
present  writer.  As  he  attended  every  meeting  of  the  joint 
committees  and  of  the  Federal  Council,  was  secretary  of  each 
of  the  assemblies  of  the  uniting  Conferences,  and  President 
of  the  first  United  Conference,  he  had  exceptional  oppor- 
tunities for  observation,  and  feels  it  a  privilege,  as  well  as  a 
duty,  to  record  here  that  no  compromise  on  doctrine  or 
surrender  of  principle  ever  came  even  into  sight  from  first  to 
last. 


332       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

The  date  of  union  had  incidentally  one  peculiar  advan- 
tage. The  General  Conference  of  1897  had  separated  West 
Australia  from  South  Australia,  constituting  it  an  Annual 
Conference,  the  first  Conference  to  be  held  in  1900.  The 
union  having  taken  efifect,  that  new  Conference,  including 
both  Primitive  Methodist  and  Bible  Christian  ministers  who 
had  been  loaned  to  the  district,  entered  on  its  career  without 
having  to  face  any  trouble  over  this  question.  The  actual 
union  of  the  Churches  having  been  thus  consummated,  and 
representatives  elected  by  the  Quarterly  Meetings  in  anticipa- 
tion, both  ministers  and  laymen  from  the  previously  separate 
bodies  met  on  exactly  the  same  terms  when  the  Conference 
assembled,  and  the  business  proceeded  with  entire  smoothness 
and  regularity.  All  that  remained  to  be  done  was  the  passing 
of  a  Methodist  Union  Act  by  the  local  Legislature  for  securing 
the  properties  and  other  purposes,  which  was  obtained  without 
the  slightest  difficulty. 

Such  in  brief  outline  is  the  genesis  of  the  union  of  the 
Methodist  Church  in  South  Australia,  and  it  has  had  no 
exodus.  No  one  impartially  reviewing  its  results  can  doubt 
that  it  has  had  the  blessing  of  God.  The  absence  of  friction 
in  working,  of  unbrotherly  feeling,  of  jealousy,  and  prejudice 
has  been  an  immense  benefit.  Difficulties  have  had  to  be 
dealt  with,  especially  in  relation  to  a  few  burdened  trusts  and 
the  re-arrangement  of  circuits,  but  there  has  been  no  repudia- 
tion, and  never  a  whisper  of  secession.  Conservation  of  force, 
economy  of  labour,  development  of  energy,  and  a  consecrated 
spirit  of  enterprise,  by  the  divine  blessing  have  yielded  rich 
returns.  These  general  observations  may  be  supplemented 
by  a  few  illustrative  details.  The  period  since  union  was 
accomplished  is  shown  to  have  been  one  of  expansion  and 
progress  in  almost  every  direction  by  the  following  summary 
of  statistics.  They  are  taken  from  the  Minutes  of  the  Con- 
ferences of  igoo  and  1913,  in  each  case  being  compiled 
from  the  returns  to  the  District  Synods  of  the  preceding 
year. 


SOUTH    AUSTRALIA  ^^3 

1900.  1913.         Increase. 


Churches,    other     preaching- 

places,  and  schoolrooms  . 

740 

861 

121 

Ministers    (including  preach- 

ers on  trial)  .           .          .          . 

132 

'58 

26 

Home  missionaries 

7 

24 

17 

Church  members 

15.426 

20,764 

5,338 

Attendants  on  public  worship 

76,359 

85,892 

9,433 

The  above  summary  by  no  means  represents  all  the  activities 
of  the  Church  or  the  whole  of  its  agencies.  Movements  of 
the  population,  and  especially  the  opening  of  great  agricultural 
areas,  have  called  for  the  extension  of  Home  Missions,  which 
have  become  a  special  department.  The  merging  of  con- 
gregations temporarily  diminished  the  number  of  churches 
in  actual  use;  but  as  the  result  of  new  erections  and 
enlargements  the  accommodation  has  been  largely  increased. 
Sunday-school  work,  which  in  this  as  in  other  countries  was 
languishing,  has  greatly  revived,  and  is  now  prospering  as 
never  before.  The  two  great  colleges  under  the  control  of  the 
Church  occupy  a  foremost  place  among  such  institutions. 
Prince  Alfred  College  has  a  record  of  academic  successes 
which  it  would  not  be  easy  to  parallel  anywhere,  and  of  which 
all  connected  with  it  have  good  reason  to  be  proud.  Its  influ- 
ence on  the  life  of  the  community  cannot  possibly  be  estimated. 
Its  alumni  are  conspicuous  in  politics,  commerce,  literature, 
and  the  learned  professions.  The  establishment  in  which 
Way  College  had  its  brilliant  career  has  changed  its  name 
and  purpose,  to  increase  its  usefulness,  and  as  the  Methodist 
Ladies'  College,  fills  with  eminent  advantage  a  place  that  was 
left  vacant  too  long. 

The  Conference  returns  indicate  that  more  than  one-fifth 
of  the  population  of  the  State  is  under  Methodist  influence; 
but  the  census  returns  show  that  a  still  higher  proportion  of 
the  people  call  themselves  Methodists.  The  responsibilities 
of  this  position,  and  the  possibility  of  usefulness  connected 
therewith,  are  fully  appreciated.  A  department  of  social 
service  diligently  utilizes  available  means  for  moral  reform, 


334       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

reporting  annually  to  the  Conference.  In  this  respect  the 
Church  always  has  been  true  to  its  earliest  traditions,  when, 
with  only  a  single  minister  on  the  ground,  it  initiated  move- 
ments and  organizations  which  are  still  operating.  Its  policy 
throughout  has  been,  and  still  is,  to  render  needed  service 
irrespective  of  denominational  honour  or  advantage ;  but  every 
social  reformer  recognizes  the  valuable  moral  leverage  which 
United  Methodism  is  able  to  supply. 

It  seems  unnecessary  to  say  more  concerning  the  financial 
condition  of  the  Church  than  that  there  is  no  cause  for  anxiety 
anywhere;  and  that  its  funds,  whether  for  home  or  foreign 
work,  are  generously  sustained.  To  tabulate  spiritual  results 
would  be  impossible ;  but  the  retrospect  affords  ample  cause 
for  gratitude.  A  comprehensive  survey  of  present  conditions 
prompts  an  endorsement  of  Wesley's  confident  and  inspiring 
words:   '  The  best  of  all  is,  God  is  with  us.' 


CHAPTER    IV 

WEST   AUSTRALIA 

By    BRIAN    WIBBERLEY,  Bac.  Mus. 
Principal  Theological  Institution,  Perth,  West  Australia 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

First  Methodist  service — Building — Nourished  by  laity — Smithies — 
Fremantle — Mission  to  aborigines — Made  a  district — Albany — 
Perth  Wesley — Slow  progress — Effects  of  affiliation — Death  of 
Hardey — President's  visit — Lowe — Campbell — Jubilee — Murchison 
gold-fields  —  Rowe  —  Gold-fields  —  Sisterhood  —  Union  —  Wesley 
Church  extension — West  Australian  Conference — English  settlers 
— Home  missions — Connexional  Organization  Funds — Gain  in 
numbers. 


CHAPTER    IV 

WEST   AUSTRALIA 

The  establishment  of  Methodism  in  West  Australia  prac- 
tically synchronizes  with  the  foundation  of  the  colony.  One 
of  the  earliest  vessels  to  reach  the  Swan  River  settlement  was 
the  barque  Tranby,  which  left  Hull  on  September  9,  1829, 
and  arrived  at  Fremantle  in  February  1830.  This  vessel 
was  chartered  by  two  English  Wesleyan  families,  the  Hardeys 
and  the  Clarksons,  who  were  accompanied  by  Mr.  G.  Johnson 
and  several  other  Methodist  people.  Arriving  at  Fremantle, 
which  then  consisted  of  one  wooden  house,  a  bacchanalian 
resort,  and  a  forest  of  canvas,  the  party  erected  their  tents, 
and  forthwith  raised  an  altar.  A  simple  ordinance  of  divine 
worship  was  instituted  amid  the  babel  of  noise  and  confusion 
prevailing  throughout  the  surrounding  settlement.  This  was 
the  first  Methodist  service  in  the  colony.  Governor  Stirling, 
anxious  to  locate  the  little  group  of  settlers  near  the  capital, 
granted  them  the  Peninsula  Reserve,  situated  on  the  Swan 
River  between  Perth  and  Guildford.  Here  religious  meetings 
were  at  once  established  under  the  leadership  of  Mr.  Joseph 
Hardey,  who  had  for  many  years  been  a  local  preacher  in 
Yorkshire.  Occasional  services  were  also  conducted  at  Perth 
and  Guildford.  Shortly  afterwards,  Perth  was  chosen  as  the 
central  basis  of  religious  operations.  At  first,  for  want  of  a 
building,  worship  was  conducted  in  the  open  air  under  a  large 
jarrah-tree,  which  grew  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  Messrs. 
Sandover  &  Co.,  in  Hay  Street.  Amongst  others  participat- 
ing in  these  early  services  were,  notably,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J. 
Inkpen  and  Mr.  Henry  Trigg.  A  class-meeting  was  now 
organized,  and  Mr.  Inkpen  appointed  the  first  leader.  In 
2  337 


338       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

January  1833  further  devoted  allies  arrived  in  the  colony, 
including-  Messrs.  George  Shenton  and  Charles  and  Bernard 
Clarkson. 

It  was  now  felt  that  the  time  had  come  for  the  erection  of 
a  suitable  building  for  Church  purposes.  Accordingly,  a 
meeting  was  held  in  Perth  on  January  22,  1834,  when  it  was 
unanimously  resolved  to  erect  a  '  chapel  '  at  the  joint  expense 
of  the  subscribers,  the  property  to  be  held  in  shares  of  £1 
each,  Messrs.  Joseph  Hardey,  George  Johnson,  George 
Lazenby,  Stephen  Knight,  and  James  Lockyer  being  ap- 
pointed a  committee  of  management.  On  May  12,  1834,  ^ 
piece  of  land,  having  a  frontage  of  40  feet  to  Murray  Street, 
by  a  depth  of  80  feet,  was  purchased  for  the  sum  of  ;^5  from 
Mr.  James  Inkpen,  whereon  a  building,  30  feet  by  18  feet, 
was  forthwith  erected,  and  formally  opened  for  divine  worship, 
on  the  evening  of  June  22,  1834,  by  Mr.  Joseph  Hardey.  On 
the  afternoon  of  the  same  day,  however,  the  premises  were 
utilized  as  a  Sunday  school  under  the  superintendency  of 
Mr.  Inkpen.  The  officers  and  teachers  then  enrolled  were  : 
Messrs.  G.  Lazenby,  G.  Johnson,  J.  Clarkson,  H.  Trigg, 
R.  Clarence,  W.  Knight,  J.  W.  Hardey,  F.  F.  Armstrong, 
and  James  Inkpen,  with  Mesdames  Hulton  and  Trigg.  The 
preachers  at  this  time  included  Messrs.  Joseph  Hardey,  J.  W. 
Hardey,  G.  Lazenby,  H.  Trigg,  and  B.  Clarkson. 

Thus  a  society  was  formed,  a  church  erected,  regular 
services  appointed,  a  Sunday  school  established,  and  Method- 
ism duly  organized,  with  good  promise  of  strength  and  per- 
manence. The  pressing  need  of  a  spiritual  adviser  and  head 
was  obvious,  though  the  sagacity  and  eminent  fitness  of  the 
recognized  leaders  of  the  movement  were  exceptional.  No 
time  was  lost  in  reporting  the  state  of  affairs  to  the  English 
VV^esleyan  Missionary  Society,  accompanying  the  information 
by  an  appeal  for  a  minister  to  be  sent  to  preside  over  the 
interests  of  the  infant  cause.  For  seven  years  repeated 
applications  appear  to  have  been  made  in  vain;  and  when 
at   length   the   request   was  granted,  and   the   Rev.    William 


WEST    AUSTRALIA  339 

Longbottom  appointed  by  the  British  authorities  of  1837  to 
Swan  River,  the  long-cherished  hopes  were  strangely  frus- 
trated and  deferred.  Mr.  Longbottom  never  reached  his 
appointed  circuit.  After  a  remarkable  series  of  vicissitudes, 
his  voyage  terminated  in  his  being  cast  ashore  near  Encounter 
Bay  in  South  Australia,  where  he  elected  to  remain,  to  become 
the  pioneer  missionary  of  the  sister  State.  Thus,  for  upwards 
of  ten  years,  Methodism  in  West  Australia  was  nursed  and 
nourished  solely  by  its  laity.  In  1839,  however,  the  Rev.  John 
Smithies  was  appointed  to  Swan  River;  and  after  traversing 
half  the  circumference  of  the  globe,  from  Newfoundland  to 
Perth,  in  due  course  he  entered  upon  his  labours,  much  to 
the  gratification  of  the  Perth  Methodists.  It  was  not  until 
June  1840  that  Mr.  Smithies  reached  his  circuit.  He  arrived 
at  Fremantle  by  the  ship  Prima  Donna  on  Sunday,  June  5, 
and  found  Messrs.  Lazenby  and  Inkpen  awaiting  him. 
Having  taken  the  minister  in  charge,  his  friends  conveyed 
their  quarry  to  Perth  in  a  small  rowing  boat,  reaching  their 
destination  in  time  for  evening  service.  Mr.  Smithies  opened 
his  commission  in  the  Subscription  Chapel,  preaching  on  the 
aptly  chosen  text :  '  Unto  me  who  am  less  than  the  least  of 
all  saints,  is  this  grace  given,  that  I  should  preach  among 
the  Gentiles  the  unsearchable  riches  of  Christ.' 

For  sixteen  years  Mr.  Smithies  was  stationed  in  the  western 
colony,  from  1839  to  1855,  when  the  Australasian  Conference 
appointed  him  to  another  sphere  of  labour.  Soon  after  his 
arrival  Mr.  Smithies  took  steps  towards  erecting  a  church  at. 
Fremantle.  On  July  19  he  held  a  service  in  the  Court  House, 
Fremantle,  at  the  close  of  which  a  meeting  was  held,  when 
it  was  decided  to  build  a  chapel,  towards  which  ;£i'jo  was 
subscribed  in  the  room.  On  September  9,  1840,  the  founda- 
tion-stone was  laid  by  Governor  Hutt.  The  function  was 
witnessed  by  over  300  spectators,  one-sixth  of  the  entire 
population  of  the  colony,  and  nine  boats  were  requisitioned 
to  accommodate  the  Perth  contingent  taking  part  in  the 
ceremony.     In   Perth  the  demands  of  the  flourishing  cause 


340       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

soon  necessitated  enlarged  premises.  Consequently,  in  1842 
a  new  church  fronting  William  Street  was  erected.  This 
building  was  later  superseded  by  Wesley  Church,  but  long 
served  for  Sunday-school  and  other  purposes,  being  familiarly 
known  as  Wesley  Hall,  and  was  only  demolished  when  the 
present  Queen's  Hall  was  built. 

Under  Mr.  Smithies'  superintendence  a  mission  to  the 
aborigines  was  undertaken ;  and  for  some  years  the  organiza- 
tion did  excellent  service.  It  was  conducted  first  at  Perth, 
then  at  Waneroo,  and  finally  at  York,  directed  practically  by 
Mr.  F.  F.  Armstrong,  who  was  for  many  years  the  Aborigines' 
Protection  Officer  of  the  Government.  About  ^12,000  in  all 
was  expended  on  this  undertaking,  and  among  its  most 
prominent  supporters  was  Mr.  George  Shenton,  who  joined 
the  Methodist  Church  shortly  after  Mr.  Smithies'  arrival  ; 
and  who,  by  strength  of  personality,  loyal  service,  and 
generous  gifts,  won  a  place  of  high  regard  and  honour,  and 
remained  an  earnest  local  preacher,  class-leader,  and  promi- 
nent officer  until  his  untimely  decease  ended  a  truly  great 
career.  Associated  with  this  native  mission  was  also  Mr.  F. 
Waldeck,  who  was  for  many  years  a  loyal  Church  officer  and 
devoted  Sunday-school  superintendent,  and  whose  children's 
children  are  to-day  among  the  worthiest  people  in  the  State. 
The  importance  of  the  central  agricultural  district,  with  the 
thriving  town  of  York  as  its  centre,  had  by  this  time  suggested 
its  occupancy.  This  desirable  issue  eventuated  when,  in  1852, 
the  Rev.  W.  Lowe  arrived  in  Perth,  thus  releasing  Mr. 
Smithies,  who  immediately  proceeded  to  York  and  laid  the 
foundations  of  the  strong  and  abiding  Methodist  interests 
there. 

When,  in  1855,  the  Australasian  Conference  was  formed, 
Methodism  had  been  operative  in  the  western  colony  for  a 
quarter  of  a  century.  Its  rate  of  progress,  however,  had 
scarcely  fulfilled  the  high  hopes  born  of  the  favourable 
auspices  of  its  inauguration.  According  to  the  statistics 
supplied  to  the  Conference,  there  were  at  that  time  2  churches; 


WEST    AUSTRALIA  341 

4  other  preaching-places;  2  ministers;  3  local  preachers;  4 
class-leaders;  67  members;  2  Sunday  schools;  20  teachers; 
150  scholars;  with  450  attendants  on  public  worship.  The 
constitution  of  the  first  Australasian  Conference,  which  com- 
menced its  sessions  in  Sydney,  January  15,  1855,  and  the 
recognition  therein  of  West  Australia  as  one  of  the  districts 
under  its  jurisdiction,  form  an  important  chronological  event 
in  the  annals  herein  reviewed.  And  although  in  West 
Australia  the  next  succeeding  eighteen  years  were  neither 
remarkable  for  revolutionary  changes  in  ecclesiastical  ad- 
ministration nor  conspicuous  for  phenomenal  achievements 
in  numerical  progress,  they  nevertheless  registered  steady 
results  as  the  rew^ard  of  labour  faithfully  discharged  under 
severely  limited  circumstances. 

Four  West  Australian  circuits  appeared  on  the  Minutes  of 
the  1855  Conference,  viz.  Perth,  York,  Fremantle,  and  King 
George's  Sound.  Of  these,  two  only  had  actual  being,  and 
to  them  the  ministers  appointed  were  :  Perth,  Samuel  Hardey 
(chairman  of  the  district) ;  York,  William  Lowe.  Opposite 
the  remaining  two  stations,  which  existed  in  the  realm  of  the 
ideal  only,  the  legend  '  One  Wanted  '  was  affixed,  and  stood 
so  printed  for  two  years,  when  their  circuit  numbers  were 
withdrawn,  to  be  followed  a  year  later  by  the  disappearance 
of  their  names  altogether.  In  1859  Mr.  Lowe  was  transferred 
to  Tasmania,  the  Rev.  Charles  Clay  being  appointed  to  York. 
Three  years  later  the  Rev.  Samuel  Hardey  left  the  colony  for 
South  Africa,  and  Mr.  Clay  was  removed  to  Perth,  where  he 
ministered  for  two  years,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev. 
W.  Bond,  Mr.  Clay  returning  to  York  as  chairman  of  the 
district. 

During  the  sixties  a  successful  effort  was  made  to  establish 
Methodism  in  Albany.  Some  years  earlier  a  number  of 
adherents  of  the  Wesleyan  Church  had  settled  there,  and 
cottage  meetings  and  a  Sunday  school  had  been  organized, 
mainly  through  the  labours  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Uglow, 
who,  in  1862,  gave  a  block  of  land  for  the  erection  of  a  church. 


342        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

A  trust  was  formed,  and  evidently  the  people  had  a  mind  to 
work,  for  a  church  costing  ;^247  was  proposed,  undertaken, 
and  completed  in  1863  free  of  debt.  Under  such  auguries 
commenced  the  Methodist  history  of  the  south-west,  a  history 
of  much  encouragement  and  growing  significance,  though  the 
first  decade  was  not  without  its  disappointments  and  hopes 
deferred.  For  seven  years  the  Church  services  were,  perforce, 
supplied  by  local  preachers  and  occasional  visiting  ministers. 
Concurrently  with  this  extension  of  Methodism  in  the  south- 
west a  similar  expansion  was  being  realized  in  the  north- 
west; and  in  1865  a  circuit  was  formed  at  Gwalla  Mine 
(Geraldton),  when  the  Rev.  T.  Laurance  commenced  there  his 
faithful  and  honoured  ministry.  The  Rev.  W.  Lowe  returned 
to  the  Perth  circuit  in  1866,  and  the  following  year  the  Rev. 
W,  Traylen  took  charge  of  York. 

Under  the  guidance  of  the  Rev.  W.  Lowe,  in  April  1867, 
the  Perth  trustees  purchased  land  at  the  corner  of  Hay  and 
William  Streets,  with  the  view  of  erecting  a  yet  more  com- 
modious sanctuary,  the  building  then  used,  after  twenty-five 
years'  service,  being  too  straitened  for  existing  demands. 
Plans  for  the  nave  of  a  new  church  of  commodious  dimensions 
and  Gothic  design  were  prepared,  and  building  operations 
commenced,  his  Excellency  the  Governor,  J.  S.  Hampton, 
Esq.,  laying  the  foundation-stone.  In  April  1870  the  Perth 
Wesley  Church  was  dedicated,  a  veritable  monument  of  the 
faith  and  enterprise,  the  loyalty  and  liberality,  of  a  generation 
whose  memory  cannot  willingly  be  permitted  to  die.  This 
portion  of  the  edifice  cost  ^4,000,  three-fourths  of  which  were 
immediately  raised,  the  Shenton  family  subscribing  ;^i,500, 
and  the  Hardey  family  ;^6oo. 

During  this  period  the  Church's  interests  at  York  and 
Geraldton  were  consolidated  and  extended ;  and  in  this  con- 
nexion a  vast  debt  of  obligation  must  be  acknowledged  to 
the  labours  of  laymen  like  John  Henry  Monger  and  Charles 
Crowthers,  as  well  as  the  successively  zealous  ministers.  In 
1871  Albany  was  made  a  mission  station,  and  the  Rev.  J.  B. 


WEST    AUSTRALIA  343 

Atkins,  of  the  Irish  Conference,  was  sent  by  the  Missionary 
Society  to  take  charge  of  the  infant  cause.  During  Mr. 
Atkins'  ministry  of  seven  years  the  church  was  enlarged  to 
accommodate  the  growing  congregation,  and  an  aborigines' 
mission  was  also  undertaken.  The  district  reported  for  the 
year  1872  the  following  returns  :  churches  10;  other  preaching- 
places  9 ;  ministers  4 ;  local  preachers  5 ;  class-leaders  9 ; 
teachers  71;  scholars  502;  attendants   1,380. 

Numerically,  at  least,  the  progress  made  during  the  forty 
years  following  the  inception  of  Methodism  in  West  Australia 
was,  apparently,  but  slight.  For  this,  perhaps,  reason  may 
be  found  partly  in  the  relatively  small  population  and  slow 
development  of  the  colony,  partly  in  the  difficulties  of 
administering  the  affairs  of  the  Connexion,  owing  to  the 
enormous  distances  by  which  the  circuits  were  separated — 
York  was  60  miles  east,  Albany  255  miles  south,  and  Gerald- 
ton  300  miles  north  of  the  metropolitan  centre — and  partly 
also  in  the  disabilities  involved  by  the  divided  control  of  the 
western  district,  which  was  under  the  English  Board  of  Mis- 
sions, and  so  remained  for  many  years  later;  but  was  at  the 
same  time,  in  a  vague  sort  of  way,  part  of  the  Australasian 
system  of  Methodism,  being  in  most  practical  matters 
governed  by  it. 

With  the  year  1873  began  a  new  condition  of  government 
in  Australasian  Methodism,  which,  while  not  of  the  same 
commanding  importance  to  West  Australia  as  to  the  several 
other  colonies,  was,  nevertheless,  of  considerable  significance, 
sufficient,  at  least,  to  create  the  sense  of  enlarged  ideals  and 
to  mark  the  initiation  of  fresh  enterprises.  The  Australasian 
Methodist  Church  had  from  1855  been  governed  by  one 
Annual  Conference,  meeting  in  the  principal  cities.  In 
1873  a  new  constitution  was  granted,  whereby  four  separate 
and  self-administering  conferences  were  created,  with  a 
General  Conference,  whose  functions  were  of  legislative  rather 
than  administrative  character,  meeting  every  three  or  four 
years.     West  Australia  was  attached  to  the  South  Australia 


344       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Conference,  but  the  association  was  not  of  precisely  the  same 
nature  as  in  the  cases  of  Queensland  and  Tasmania.  For  the 
unique  position  of  West  Australia  two  principal  facts  were 
accountable.  In  the  first  place,  separated  as  it  was  by  1,500 
miles  of  coastline  from  the  centre  and  seat  of  its  ecclesiastical 
government,  obviously  its  affairs  could  not  be  administered 
effectively  outside  its  own  borders.  Consequently,  from  the 
first  its  reports  and  statistics  were  kept  separately,  and,  in 
effect,  its  District  Meeting  was  practically  a  self-governing 
conference.  Only  formally,  and  for  legal  purposes,  did  its 
appointments  and  other  general  business  come  before  the 
South  Australia  Conference,  of  which,  in  the  new  consti- 
tution, it  was  technically  a  part.  A  second  differentiating 
factor  lay  in  the  somewhat  special  relation  of  West  Australian 
Methodism  to  the  English  Board  of  Missions,  in  accordance 
with  which  the  new  constitution  provided :  '  That  West 
Australia  stand  on  our  minutes  in  connexion  with  the  South 
Australia  Conference,  but  it  shall  be  understood  that  the 
expense  of  the  mission  shall  be  borne,  and  ministers  supplied 
to  it,  as  hitherto,  by  the  committee  in  England.' 

Nevertheless,  this  affiliation  to  the  South  Australia  Con- 
ference proved  productive  of  inestimable  good  to  western 
Methodism.  A  new  and  enlarged  sense  of  interest  in  West 
Australian  affairs  was  at  once  created,  which  rapidly  assumed 
most  generous  proportions  and  character.  The  stimulus 
afforded  to  Western  Methodism  by  the  establishment  of  these 
new  relations  is  reflected  in  the  quickened  devotion,  zeal,  and 
liberality  which  immediately  found  characteristic  demonstra- 
tion. In  Perth  the  Wesley  Church  debt,  which  at  the  time 
of  opening  (1870)  stood  at  ^,'1,000,  was  in  1874  entirely 
liquidated,  and  a  scheme  inaugurated  for  the  provision  of  a 
choir  gallery  and  pipe  organ,  completed  two  years  later  at 
a  cost  of  ;^6oo,  free  of  debt.  Geraldton  also  felt  the  impact 
of  a  new  spirit.  Under  Mr.  Werth's  arresting  ministry 
results  of  a  most  encouraging  nature  were  witnessed,  including 
a  large  acquisition  of  both  members  and  hearers,  the  erection 


WEST    AUSTRALIA  345 

of  a  new  church  at  Back  Flats,  and  the  securing  of  a  further 
site  of  land  for  Church  purposes.  Throughout  the  colony  the 
consciousness  of  Methodism  thrilled  and  throbbed  with  an 
instinct  of  rare  loyalty  and  noble  liberality,  in  the  presence 
of  which  every  fraction  of  Church  debt  disappeared.  Surely 
a  unique  situation  !  Concurrently  with  these  unparalleled 
gains,  the  year  1875  registered  an  irreparable  loss  in  the 
removal,  by  death,  of  Joseph  Hardey,  the  zealous  founder, 
sagacious  leader,  and  ardent  supporter  of  West  Australian 
Methodism.  On  the  morning  of  September  i  sudden  failure 
of  the  heart  prostrated  him,  from  which  he  never  rallied.  Yet 
his  reason  remained  unclouded  to  the  end,  and  with  admoni- 
tions and  counsels,  remarkable  for  their  patriarchal  character 
and  spiritual  content,  the  father  and  saint  crossed  the  river 
dry-shod.  No  man  ever  more  literally  illustrated  Charles 
Wesley's  obiter  dictum:  '  Our  people  die  well.'  Of  few  can 
it  be  said  with  greater  pertinence :  *  He  being  dead  yet 
speaketh.'  By  his  exemplary  piety,  his  strenuous  service,  his 
personal  and  posthumous  benefactions,  he  made  Methodism 
his  debtor  to  a  degree  not  yet  estimated. 

The  year  1878  saw  Mr.  Lowe  stationed  at  York,  Mr.  Traylen 
at  Perth,  with  Mr.  Laurance,  whose  return  to  the  western 
district  afforded  the  utmost  satisfaction  to  his  countless 
friends.  Albany,  which  for  seven  years  had  been  supplied 
by  Mr.  Atkins,  and  then  for  a  brief  period  by  Mr.  Higgins, 
was  now  hopefully  anticipating  the  appointment  of  the  Rev. 
T.  Bird  from  Scotland.  Upon  his  arrival,  however,  the 
exigencies  of  the  Geraldton  circuit  demanded  Mr.  Bird's 
service  in  the  north,  Mr.  Werth  being  removed  to  Perth 
in  consequence  of  a  physical  breakdown,  necessitating  Mr. 
Laurance's  temporary  superannuation.  It  was  not  until  two 
years  later,  therefore,  that  the  desire  of  Albany  for  a  resident 
minister,  independent  of  the  Missionary  Society,  was  realized. 
Nevertheless,  mainly  through  the  instrumentality  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  John  Robinson,  who,  settling  in  Albany  in  1878,  actively 
identified  themselves  with  the  Methodist  cause,   the  circuit 


346       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

was  immediately  constituted, solid  foundations  were  laid,  upon 
which  the  already  conceived  ideal  should  permanently  rest ; 
and  in  1880  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Mouland  took  charge  of  the 
circuit,  which  then  had  a  membership  of  eighteen.  It  is  little 
to  say  that  the  continuous  history  of  the  Church  in  Albany 
from  that  time  to  the  present  has  been  incalculably  influenced 
and  largely  determined  by  the  fleckless  devotion,  practical 
insight,  and  unstinted  liberality  of  Mr.  Robinson,  whose  deep 
and  contagious  interest  has  been  shared  by  a  strong  band  of 
worthy  co-workers,  notably  Messrs.  George  Thomas,  John 
Norman,  and  A.  H.  Dickson.  Electing  temporarily  to  reside 
at  Northampton,  Mr.  Laurance  greatly  assisted  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  Methodist  interests  there  in  1880.  His  physical 
rehabilitation  and  Connexional  changes,  however,  brought 
him,  with  Mr.  Mouland,  to  Perth  in  the  following  year, 
Mr.  Werth  removing  to  Albany. 

A  tangible  evidence  of  the  reality  of  the  Connexional  nexus, 
and  of  the  growing  interest  of  the  South  Australia  Conference 
in  the  western  district,  was  demonstrated  in  1881  in  the  visit 
of  the  President  of  the  Conference,  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Stephenson, 
whose  extended  tour  of  two  months  included  an  itinerary 
embracing  every  circuit  in  the  colony.  Not  least  among  the 
many  results  attained  by  this  official  visitation  was  the  creation 
of  a  new  perception  of  Methodism's  ecclesiastical  ideal  as  a 
practical  polity.  The  bonds  of  Connexionalism  were  imme- 
diately and  indefinitely  strengthened,  reciprocal  ties  were 
established,  and  henceforth  the  South  Australia  Conference 
manifested,  not  only  a  keen  appreciation  of  its  great  western 
district's  needs,  but  also  a  profound  sense  of  responsibility 
for  its  welfare. 

Following  upon  Mr.  Stephenson's  visit,  a  stimulus  to 
religious  activity  generally  was  imparted  by  the  mission  of 
Mr.  Matthew  Burnett,  which,  extending  over  a  period  of 
six  months,  exerted  a  powerful  influence  on  the  moral  and 
spiritual  sense  of  the  entire  community.  In  consequence  of 
the  continued  illness  of  the  Rev.  \V.  Lowe,  the  Synod  of  1883 


WEST    AUSTRALIA  347 

was  held  at  York,  when  Mr.  Lowe  intimated  his  intention  of 
retiring  from  active  work.    In  acceding  to  Mr.  Lowe's  request, 
the  succeeding  Conference  recognized  his  *  honourable  and 
useful  ministry,  extending  over  forty  years,  in  connexion  with 
Australian    Methodism  ' ;   and   recorded    *  its   deep   sense   of 
respect  for  his  blameless  character,  his  evangelical  labours, 
the  effective  administration  of  the  circuits  in  which  he  had 
travelled,  and  of  the  affairs  of  the  West  Australia  district.' 
The  Rev.  W.  Campbell  was  chosen  to  succeed  Mr.  Lowe  as 
chairman  of  the  district,  and  stationed  in  Perth.     His  advent 
had  the  utmost  significance  for  Methodism  in  the  colony  at 
this  juncture.    True  to  the  evangelical  instincts  of  his  Church, 
Mr.  Campbell  at  once  sought  fresh  fields  for  religious  opera- 
tion and  occupancy;  and  in  July  1884,  in  response  to  a  largely 
signed  petition,  he  dispatched  his  colleague,  Mr.  Mouland,  to 
organize  a  Methodist  cause  in  Bunbury.    In  this  new  venture 
Mr.  W.  Lowe  took  the  most  active  part,  and  has  ever  main- 
tained a   deep   and   loyal    interest   in   the   Church's   welfare, 
especially   throughout  the   south-west  of   the  colony,   where 
his  endeavours  have  been  ably  supported  by  Mr.  Gibbs  and 
a  host  of  others.     At  the  next  ensuing  Conference  Bunbury 
was  made  a  circuit,  and  from  this  centre  Augusta,  Bridge- 
town,  Preston,  Ferguson,  and  Brunswick  were  successfully 
missioned.     The  Bunbury  church  was  opened  on  April   11, 
1886,  by  the  Rev.  W.  Campbell,  and  its  subsequent  history 
has  proved  well  worthy  of  the  prophecies  then  indulged.     At 
various  other  centres  of  the  colony  consistent  progress  was 
being  made.     At  Fremantle,  under  the  vigorous  ministry  of 
the  Rev.  V.  Roberts,  an  enlargement  of  the  church  was  found 
necessary;  at  Guildford  a  new  church  was  erected,  to  which 
the  Rev.  C.  H.  Nield  was  appointed;  while  in  the  Geraldton 
circuit,  as  the  fruit  of  earnest  labour,  the  Rev.  M.  Bullas  saw 
a  new  church  opened  at  Dongara,  and  an  assistant  minister, 
the  Rev.  E.  Holliday,  stationed  thereat. 

By  an  inscrutable  providence,  Mr.  Campbell's  ministry  in 
West   Australia  was  of  brief  duration,   only   a  short  three 


348       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

years ;  still  sufficiently  long  to  stamp  the  personality  of  the 
man  on  all  the  institutions  with  which  he  had  to  do.  He 
discharged  his  onerous  duties  with  a  remarkable  diligence, 
and  achieved  a  large  measure  of  success.  A  man  of  consider- 
able intellectual  power,  of  vigorous  and  original  mind,  vision, 
clarity,  and  strength,  marked  his  administrative  labours  and 
public  utterances,  enforced  by  the  influence  of  his  private  life 
and  character.  His  sudden  death,  on  the  last  Sunday  of  1886, 
smote  the  community  with  a  sense  of  overwhelming  shock, 
and  created  a  profound  impression  on  the  public  mind.  A 
day  crowned  with  solemn  and  manifold  ministerial  services 
closed  as  usual,  but  the  servant  lay  down  to  die;  and  ere 
another  morning  dawned  Mr.  Campbell  was  not,  for  God 
had  need  of  him  elsewhere. 

The  vacancy  created  presented  a  problem  not  easy  of 
solution ;  but  the  Conference  generously  sent  the  Rev.  P.  C. 
Thomas,  whose  temperament  and  gifts  w-ell  fitted  him  for  the 
position.  Genial,  sympathetic,  industrious,  and  patient,  he 
quickly  won  a  place  of  high  regard.  To  the  general  regret 
of  all  concerned,  Mr.  Thomas  was  compelled,  by  a  physical 
prostration,  to  return  to  South  Australia  after  three  years' 
faithful  service.  Under  his  oversight,  in  1887,  the  Newcastle 
and  Northam  circuit  was  established,  and  the  Rev.  H.  Faull 
appointed  thereto ;  Fremantle,  with  Jarrahdale,  was  also 
divided  from  the  Perth  circuit ;  and  in  the  following  year  a 
new  church  was  built  at  the  thriving  port  at  a  cost  of  ^2,000. 
A  similar  enterprise  was  undertaken  at  York  at  a  cost  of 
£1,100,  and  parsonages  were  erected  at  Perth,  Guildford,  and 
Dongara,  the  latter  place,  owing  to  its  distance  from  Gerald- 
ton,  having  been  constituted  a  circuit.  The  statistical  returns 
presented  at  the  close  of  this  period  were  :  churches  12  ;  other 
preaching-places  32;  ministers  10;  local  preachers  8;  class- 
leaders  9;  members  242  ;  Sunday-school  teachers  139;  Sunday- 
school  scholars  1,174;  attendants  3,215.  Cost  of  Church 
property  ^18.364;  debt  ;^2,557. 

The  year   1890  was  an  annus  mirabilis  in   the  history  of 


WEST   AUSTRALIA  349 

West  Australia  generally,  and  its  Methodism  particularly. 
First,  it  was  signalized  by  the  proclamation  of  a  new  con- 
stitution for  the  colony.  The  discovery  of  gold  in  1885  had 
been  followed  by  the  opening  up  of  areas  of  auriferous 
country,  whose  enormous  wealth  speedily  attracted  thousands 
of  speculative  and  industrial  immigrants.  Vast  social  changes 
were  presaged  and  rapidly  realized.  What  the  future  held 
none  could  foresee  or  forecast ;  but  with  the  inauguration  of 
self-government,  the  new  political  and  providential  conditions 
combined  to  suggest  the  need  of  a  Forward  Methodist  move- 
ment. This  date  was  historic  also  as  the  occasion  of  Method- 
ism's Jubilee  celebration,  the  official  recognition  dating  from 
the  Church's  organization  by  the  Rev.  W.  Smithies  in  1840, 
although  its  services  had  commenced  ten  years  earlier. 

The  year  opened  with  the  arrival  of  the  Revs.  J.  Y. 
Simpson  and  W.  A.  Potts.  Mr.  Simpson  made  an  admirable 
successor  to  the  Rev.  P.  C.  Thomas,  from  whom  he  markedly 
differed  in  type,  but  whose  devotion  and  zeal  he  reproduced, 
with  commanding  ability  and  effectiveness,  in  a  ministry  of 
inestimable  value  to  the  entire  colony.  Under  his  direction 
the  Yilgarn  gold-fields  were  visited  by  the  Rev.  H.  C.  George 
of  York,  the  result  of  which  was  the  establishment  of  a  mission 
at  Southern  Cross,  with  Mr.  Carmichael  as  home  missionary. 
The  district  of  Beverley  and  Mount  Barker  was  also  con- 
stituted a  home  mission  station ;  and  the  following  District 
Meeting  appointed  the  Rev.  J.  N.  Mills  to  inspect  the 
Murchison  gold-fields,  with  a  view  to  this  centre  becoming 
also  a  Methodist  occupation.  The  isolation  of  hundreds  of 
miners  from  the  ordinances  of  religion  greatly  moved  the 
heart  of  Mr.  Mills,  and  his  long  journeyings  and  severe 
hardships  eloquently  testified  to  the  evangelistic  passion 
which  inspired  them.  A  serious  breakdown  in  health  was 
the  result,  and  two  years  later  this  heroic  servant  of  God 
laid  down  his  earthly  task. 

On  May  19,  1891,  the  Rev.  William  Lowe  passed  away,  in 
the  forty-seventh  year  of  his  ministry.     His  connexion  with 


350       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

West  Australia  began  in  1852.  A  subsequent  appoint- 
ment in  Tasmania  for  seven  years  was  followed  by  his  return, 
in  1866,  to  West  Australia,  where  he  spent  the  remainder 
of  his  days.  Twelve  years  of  his  ministry  were  devoted  to 
the  Perth  circuit,  and  the  remainder  to  York,  where,  after 
superannuation,  he  lived  and  died.  As  the  official  memoir 
said,  he  '  will  be  long  remembered  as  a  man  of  excellent 
disposition,  a  brother  and  friend,  a  good  and  faithful  servant 
of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.'  Mr.  Lowe  nobly  served  his  Church 
through  a  long  day  with  conspicuous  fidelity  and  fervency. 
His  preaching  was  earnest  and  spiritual,  marked  by  directness 
of  application,  and  invariably  of  practical  character.  He  ruled 
with  a  kind,  yet  firm  hand;  and  his  wise  administration 
abundantly  justified  his  singularly  lengthy  appointment  as 
chairman  of  the  western  district  for  seventeen  years.  A  few 
months  later  the  York  cause  was  again  afflicted,  in  the  death 
of  the  Hon.  J.  H.  Monger,  whose  long,  honourable,  and  gener- 
ous connexion  with  his  Church  remains  a  gracious  memory. 

At  this  time  the  interests  in  Perth  and  the  provinces  were 
steadily  consolidating,  and  new  churches  were  erected  at 
Brisbane  Street  (Perth),  Albany,  and  Northam.  The  Rev. 
A.  J.  Barclay's  timely  arrival  marked  the  commencement  at 
Dongara  of  a  ministry  of  gracious  effectiveness  and  abiding 
strength.  After  three  years'  service,  Mr.  Simpson's  return  to 
South  Australia  was  rendered  imperative  by  severe  domestic 
affliction.  Mr.  Simpson  was  immediately,  succeeded  by  the 
Rev.  G.  E.  Rowe,  who,  appreciating  to  the  full  the  peculiar 
conditions  operating  during  '  the  roaring  nineties,'  spared  no 
effort  to  make  Methodism  a  living  force  and  prominent  factor 
in  the  strangely  complicated  life  of  the  new  community. 
With  intuitive  discernment  and  penetrative  foresight,  Mr. 
Rowe  combined  a  bold  initiative,  a  wise  adaptation,  and 
statesmanlike  administration.  The  times  were  marked  by 
rapid  movement,  kaleidoscopic  change,  and  startling  surprise. 
A  unique  situation  had  been  suddenly  created,  presenting 
numerous  doors  of  service.    The  Methodist  community  shared 


WEST   AUSTRALIA  351 

Mr.  Rowe's  perception  of  the  strategy  of  the  opportunity, 
and  magnificently  responded  to  its  call.  John  Wesley's 
direction  :  '  Go  always,  not  only  to  those  who  want  you,  but 
to  those  who  want  you  most,'  found  a  striking  exposition; 
and  that  trait  of  the  Methodist  genius  produced  its  natural 
result.  Stationed  at  Perth,  where  the  pressure  of  the  new 
situation  was  most  acutely  felt,  Mr.  Rowe  sought  first  to 
strengthen  and  lengthen  the  central  Connexions.  Wesley 
Church  was  organized  upon  an  institutional  plan,  in  which 
no  means  were  spared  to  meet  the  spiritual  and  social  needs 
of  the  occasion ;  and  new  societies  were  formed,  thus  extend- 
ing the  circuit  boundaries.  A  suburban  Methodism  suddenly 
sprang  into  vigorous  being,  and  causes  like  Charles  Street 
and  Brisbane  Street  strengthened  and  consolidated;  while 
new  enterprises  like  Claremont,  Subiaco,  Victoria  Park, 
Cottesloe  Beach,  Leederville,  and  Ord  Street  were  established. 
I'he  gold-fields  problem  had,  by  this  time,  emerged  with  a 
pertinence  and  prominence  that  taxed  every  resource  of  the 
district  and  Conference  to  grapple  adequately  with  it.  In 
1893  the  Rev.  A.  C.  Plane  was  sent  to  the  Murchison;  while 
the  Rev.  T.  Trestrail  was  dispatched  to  blaze  the  track  to 
Coolgardie,  and  so  provide  the  miners  with  religious  ordi- 
nances. At  the  same  time,  the  tin-fields  at  Greenbushes,  and 
the  coal-fields  at  Collie,  were  visited  and  organized  for 
Methodist  enterprise  by  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Mitchell;  while  at 
the  timber-fields  of  Jarrahdale  and  Lion  Mills  home  missions 
were  established.  Events  moved  rapidly;  and  it  was  only  a 
matter  of  months,  and  services  were  provided  for  Kalgoorlie, 
Kanowna,  and  Great  Boulder,  with  other  adjacent  settlements. 
Before  the  close  of  1895  new  churches  were  built  at  Midland 
Junction,  North  Fremantle,  Southern  Cross,  Cue,  Day  Dawn, 
Jarrahdale,  Kalgoorlie,  Kanowna,  Great  Boulder,  and  Green 
Hills.  Of  necessity  a  new  embarrassment  was  born  of  this 
activity,  and  the  imperative  need  of  ministers  to  man  the  fresh 
fields  taken  up  became  increasingly  and  acutely  felt.  But 
nobly  did  South  Australia  respond  to  the  needs  of  her  sister 


352       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

colony ;  and  during  the  next  few  years  the  ranks  of  the  local 
ministry  were  reinforced  by  a  phalanx  of  new  men,  including 
the  Revs.  A.  S.  J.  Fry,  F.  S.  Finch,  O.  Stevenson,  R. 
Dunstan,  H.  Wilkinson,  W.  H.  Hodge,  A.  W.  Bray,  C.  A. 
Jenkins,  J.  G.  Jenkin,  W.  Corly  Butler,  A.  Sussex,  T.  A. 
James,  T.  Pollard  James,  G.  E.  Wheatley,  and  W.  A.  Hay. 
They  were  young,  strong  men,  whose  ideals  lay  in  front  of 
them,  and  to  whose  strenuous  labours  and  contagious  enthu- 
siasm as  pioneers  and  pathfinders,  as  ministers  and  organizers, 
the  present  position  of  Methodism  in  the  State  is  largely  due. 
The  ofiticial  life  of  the  Church  was  being  gradually  enriched, 
too,  by  the  infusion  of  fresh  blood,  as  supplied  by  the  arrival 
of  capable  laymen  like  Messrs.  T.  Hewitson,  E.  Pope,  J.  P. 
Walton,  I.  W.  Goss,  J.  S.  Battye,  and  F.  A.  Graham;  men 
of  Connexional  outlook  and  aptitudes,  and  who  at  once  shared 
the  responsible  burden  so  heroically  borne  hitherto  by  stal- 
warts like  Sir  George  Shenton,  Hon.  R.  W.  Hardey,  and 
Messrs.  R.  D.  Hardey,  G.  Johnson,  J.  Robinson,  A.  Helmich, 
T.  R.  Lowe,  J.  W.  Langsford,  G.  B.  Humble,  H.  E.  Mofiflin, 
W.  J.  Stewart,  and  A.  Gorrie. 

The  social  conditions  created  in  the  early  nineties  presented 
many  problems  to  the  Churches,  and  demanded  a  speedy, 
broad,  and  humane  solution.  The  inevitable  concomitants  of 
the  siege  furnish  a  by  no  means  extravagant  parallel  to  the 
situation  presented  for  a  time  in  both  the  metropolis  and  on 
the  gold-fields  of  the  western  colony.  Sickness  and  disease, 
waste  and  vice,  poverty  and  distress,  were  some  of  the  forms 
of  misery  which  accompanied  the  phenomenal  gold  discoveries 
and  their  subsequent  exploitation.  To  meet  such  exigencies, 
the  Church,  under  Mr.  Rowe's  leadership,  organized  various 
movements,  notably  a  sisterhood,  whose  aims  were  the  relief 
of  immediate  distress  and  the  nursing  of  the  sick  poor.  The 
need  of  the  work  was  matched  only  by  its  success.  In  less 
than  three  years  the  movement  was  represented  by  thirteen 
trained  nurses,  whose  service  was  gratuitously  given.  To- 
gether with  specialized  knowledge  and  skill,  they  went  with 


WEST    AUSTRALIA  353 

soulful  sympathy  and  practical  relief.  Apart  from  the  Sisters' 
Home  in  Perth,  branches  were  established  at  Fremantle, 
York,  Northam,  Southern  Cross,  Kalgoorlie,  Boulder, 
Menzies,  and  Cue,  and  maintained  by  voluntary  contributions. 

While  these  extraordinary  demands  were  being  met,  the 
ordinary  work  of  the  Church  was  prosecuted  with  enthusiasm 
and  unprecedented  result.  To  accommodate  the  worshippers 
at  Wesley  Church,  Perth,  extensions,  including  galleries,  were 
undertaken  at  a  cost  of  ^1,500.  A  new  church  was  also  built 
at  Claremont,  which  was  soon  to  become  head  of  a  flourishing 
circuit.  At  Albany,  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Jeffrey's  ministry  was 
crowned  with  most  encouraging  and  indubitable  signs  of 
divine  favour.  At  Fremantle,  the  Rev.  W.  A.  Potts  saw 
four  new  churches  built  within  the  bounds  of  that  circuit : 
Cottesloe  Beach,  North  Fremantle,  South  Fremantle,  and 
Plympton.  By  the  Conference  of  1896  Kalgoorlie  was  made 
a  circuit,  and  a  plan  of  federated  service  agreed  upon  between 
the  Wesleyan  Methodists,  the  Primitive  Methodists,  and  Bible 
Christian  Churches.  The  two  latter  communions,  at  the 
request  of  members  and  adherents  in  the  west,  had  sent  from 
South  Australia  the  Revs.  T.  Allan,  A.  J.  Burt,  and  J.  Dingle, 
who  established  churches  at  Norseman,  Kalgoorlie,  Cool- 
gardie,  Kanowna,  and  Bunbury.  Mr.  Burt  being  invalided 
home,  the  Rev.  R.  J.  Daddow  supplied  his  sphere  for  one 
year,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  J.  E.  Stone.  Later, 
Mr.  Dingle  was  exchanged  for  the  Rev.  J.  Tiller.  Happily 
for  Methodist  interests  generally,  Methodist  union  was  antici- 
pated ;  and  when  this  was  finally  consummated,  there  was,  in 
consequence  of  a  wise  provision  and  tactful  administration, 
little  to  adjust  and  nothing  to  undo. 

In  1896  Mr.  Rowe  inaugurated  a  mission  for  the  local 
Chinese,  with  the  Rev.  Paul  Soon  Quong  as  catechist.  This 
branch  of  much-needed  service  was,  and  continues  to  be,  not 
the  least  successful  of  the  many  agencies  of  Wesley  Church. 
During  the  same  year  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Jenkin  saw  a  com- 
modious church  erected  at  Menzies  amid  prospects  of  con- 


354       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

siderable  promise;  and  the  Rev.  R.  Dunstan,  then  at  Gerald- 
ton,  opened  Yalgoo  and  Mount  Magnet.  A  year  later,  and 
Guildford,  under  the  Rev.  T.  Bird,  erected  the  present 
handsome  sanctuary  at  a  cost  of  ;^2,ooo.  This  era  of  expan- 
sion and  experiment,  of  missionary  enterprise  and  church- 
building,  finds  its  consummation  in  the  adoption,  by  the 
Wesley  Church  trustees  and  Conference,  of  an  enterprise 
whose  magnitude  was  equalled  only  by  its  magnificence.  The 
purchase  of  the  last  remaining  vacant  block  of  land  in  William 
Street,  between  Hay  and  Murray  Streets,  secured  to  Wesley 
Church  one  of  the  finest  sites  in  the  city.  With  sanctified 
sagacity  the  trustees  then  initiated  a  progressive  building 
scheme,  which,  when  complete,  will  provide  for  the  adequate 
accommodation  and  efficient  equipment  of  a  modern  central 
mission. 

A  review  of  the  decade's  operations  is  fittingly  brought  to 
a  close  by  allusion  to  an  event,  the  historical  value  of  which 
is  of  the  utmost  importance,  though  by  no  means  yet  easy  to 
estimate.  The  Synod  of  1897  requested  the  General  Confer- 
ence to  constitute  West  Australia  a  separate,  self-govern- 
ing conference.  Without  traversing  the  grounds  on  which 
this  plea  was  based,  it  is  here  sufficient  to  say  that  the  General 
Conference,  which  that  year  assembled  in  Auckland,  acceded 
to  this  desire,  and  fixed  the  year  1900  as  the  date  for  the  new 
conference  of  West  Australia  to  come  into  existence. 

Some  estimate  of  the  work  accomplished  during  this  period 
is  suggested  by  the  following  statistical  returns,  as  supplied 
to  the  Conference  of  1900,  which  for  such  purpose  are  here 
compared  with  those  of  1890  : 


w 

u 

n3 

w 

^ 

4) 

"o 

c 
a 

S 

^2 

:5 

^ 

H 

J3 

V 

< 

1900 

57 

28 

105 

40 

1,945 

579 

5,723 

17,251 

1890 

12 

10 

8 

9 

242 

139 

1,174 

3,215 

Increase 

45 

18 

97 

31 

1,703 

440 

4,549 

14,036 

WEST   AUSTRALIA  355 

The  first  West  Australia  Conference  was  opened  on  March 
20,  1900,  by  the  Rev.  H.  T.  Burgess,  LL.D.,  President 
of  the  General  Conference,  whose  inspiring  presence  and 
public  utterances,  combined  with  his  special  knowledge  of 
Methodist  constitutional  law  and  history,  were  of  invaluable 
service  at  so  important  a  juncture.  The  Rev.  G.  E.  Rowe 
was  installed  as  President,  with  the  Rev.  T.  Bird  as  Secretary. 
The  new  era  was  ushered  in  amid  great  enthusiasm  and  with 
high  hopes,  hopes  which  the  succeeding  thirteen  years  have 
gone  far  towards  realizing.  So  near  to  hand,  however,  are 
the  events  of  this  period  that  only  a  general  survey  of  the 
position  attained  may  be  here  attempted.  The  primary  work 
of  extension  has  proceeded  with  undiminished  vigour  and 
unparalleled  result.  Within  the  metropolitan  district,  societies 
have  been  established  and  churches  erected  at  Bayswater, 
Maylands,  Rosalie,  North  Perth,  Ord  Street,  Hope  Street 
(Fremantle),  Caversham,  West  Guildford,  Mundijong,  Subi- 
aco,  Schafer  Street,  Jollimont,  West  Claremont,  Cannington, 
Welshpool,  and  Victoria  Park ;  and  new  circuits  formed  at 
West  Perth,  East  Perth,  East  Fremantle,  Claremont,  Subiaco, 
Maylands,  Victoria  Park,  Midland  Junction,  and  Cottesloe. 
On  the  gold-fields  the  work  has  been  prosecuted  with  no  less 
earnest  enterprise,  though  of  necessity  the  results  cannot  be 
of  such  permanent  nature  and  ultimate  value.  Tangible 
evidence  of  the  vitality  of  Methodism  in  the  mining  centres 
may  be  seen  in  the  churches  built  therein  during  this  period, 
among  which  must  be  instanced  Brown  Hill,  Burbanks,  Broad 
Arrow,  Mount  Morgan,  Laverton,  Day  Dawn,  East  Boulder, 
Lakeside,  Trafalge,  Norseman,  Lawlers,  Queens  (Boulder), 
Sandstone,  Lancefield,  Meekatharra,  Bullfinch,  Marvel  Loch, 
Hopetown,  Ravensthorpe,  with  Collie  in  the  coal-fields. 

Up  to  this  period  a  home  mission  had  been  largely  synono- 
mous  with  a  mining  centre;  but  with  the  settlement  of  stable 
mining  towns,  the  establishment  of  circuits  rapidly  succeeded. 
Then,  with  the  dawn  of  the  new  century,  the  point  of  incidence 
in  home  mission  operations  suddenly  changed.     A  new  line 


356       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  geographical  advance  was  struck.  The  opening  up  of  vast 
areas  of  rich,  fertile  land  revealed  the  possession  of  resources, 
the  potentialities  of  which  were  simply  incalculable.  Thou- 
sands of  selections  were  no  sooner  surveyed  and  thrown  open 
than  taken  up.  The  silence  of  the  bush  was  broken  by  the 
ring  of  the  settler's  axe,  and  its  solitude  made  social  by  rapidly 
rising  towns  and  hamlets.  A  new  impulse  seized  the  people; 
and  with  the  facilities  afforded  by  means  of  assisted  immigra- 
tion, there  commenced  that  steady  flow  of  English  agricul- 
turalists, artisans,  and  labourers,  which  for  many  years  to 
come  is  likely  to  know  no  diminution.  To  the  Methodist 
Church  the  new  development  brought  new  tasks ;  but  God, 
who  presents  His  problems  to  His  people,  finds  also  the 
solution.  And  to  follow  the  settler  with  the  ordinances  of 
religion  was  seen  to  be  a  plain,  imperative  duty,  which  could 
brook  no  dallying.  Accordingly,  the  home  mission  committee 
proposed  a  plan  of  campaign  additional  to  that  already  in 
operation,  the  strategic  wisdom  of  which  has  been  demon- 
strably justified.  An  enlarged  home  mission  policy  was  then 
adopted,  which  has  already  grown  to  a  significance  of 
numerical  and  spiritual  dimensions  not  only  historically 
gratifying,  but  prophetically  great.  The  consciousness  of 
Western  Methodism  was  seized  with  a  sense  of  new  responsi- 
bility, when,  after  a  tour  of  inspection,  including  the  whole  of 
the  great  southern  district,  the  Rev.  T.  Allan  urged  a  bold 
forward  policy.  The  Church,  thus  challenged,  rose  at  once 
to  the  demands  of  the  occasion ;  and  her  response  has  grown 
in  proportion  to  the  accelerating  momentum  of  the  need. 
Under  the  leadership  of  Mr.  Allan  and  his  successors,  the 
Revs.  F.  S.  Finch  and  A.  J.  Barclay,  a  network  of  circuits 
and  home  mission  stations  now  links  up  most  of  the  settled 
areas  with  religious  organizations.  In  this  activity  the 
labours  of  the  immediate  past  and  present  home  mission 
treasurers,  the  late  Mr.  T.  R.  Lowe  and  Mr.  J.  P.  Walton, 
have  been  both  quantatively  and  qualitatively  great. 

Some  suggestion  of  recent  undertakings  in  the  agricultural 


WEST    AUSTRALIA  357 

and  timber  districts  is  conveyed  by  a  glance  at  the  interests 
already  firmly  established,  and  the  well-equipped  churches 
built  within  the  last  thirteen  years  at  Northam,  Georgina, 
Mundijong,  Yarloop,  Moora,  Waroona,  and  Yardarino.  The 
occupation  of  the  great  southern  district  is  an  exploit  of 
intrepid  courage,  strenuous  toil,  and  marvellous  achievement. 
On  this  vast  area,  extending  from  Beverley  to  Mount  Barker, 
Methodism  was  represented  in  1902  by  one  solitary  minister. 
To-day  it  includes  seven  circuits,  Beverley,  Pingelly,  Brook- 
ton,  Narrogin,  Katanning,  Wagin,  and  Dumbleyong;  and 
five  home  mission  stations,  Tambelup,  Mount  Barker,  Wicke- 
pin,  Kojonup,  and  Denmark,  with  substantial  church  premises 
at  Narrogin,  Cuballing,  Tambelup,  Pingelly,  Katanning,  East 
Popanyinning,  Marwongo,  Wagin,  Brookton,  Mount  Barker, 
Dumbleyong,  and  Collannilling.  Such  is  the  present  outcome 
of  the  work  enterprised  by  the  Revs.  H.  Morrell,  J.  Weir, 
A.  J.  Lance,  W.  R.  Lang,  and  R.  R.  Fleming  in  1904.  A 
parallel  instance  is  supplied  by  the  central  district.  In  the 
year  1905  Kellerberrin  was  the  only  circuit  between  Northam 
and  Southern  Cross.  To-day  there  are  four  circuits,  Keller- 
berrin, Dangin,  Meckering,  and  Dowerin  ;  three  home  mis- 
sions, Goomalling,  Bruce  Rock,  and  Merriden  ;  with  churches 
at  Kellerberrin,  Wael,  Goomalling,  Meckering,  Kununoppin, 
Dangin,  Dowerin,  and  South  Carolling. 

Concurrently  with  these  developments  in  mission  extension 
and  circuit  consolidation,  the  work  of  Connexional  organiza- 
tion has  proceeded  in  various  directions.  In  1900  a  book 
d^pot  was  established,  and  a  growing  literary  need  is  being 
well  supplied.  A  Sunday-school  Union  was  formed  in  1903, 
and  is  achieving  most  excellent  results.  In  secondary  educa- 
tion a  long-felt  desire  was  gratified  when,  in  1908,  the 
Methodist  Ladies'  College  was  established.  Under  the  direc- 
tion of  Miss  Maud  Connell,  M.A.,  and  Miss  Gertrude  Walton, 
B.A.,  the  college  has  already  won  a  high  place  in  the  regard 
of  educationalists  and  the  public  generally.  The  obvious 
necessity  of  a  Methodist  newspaper  had  been  interpreted  in 


358        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

a  private  journalistic  undertaking  in  a  previous  decade.  In 
1909  the  Conference  commenced  the  pubHcation  of  The 
Western  Methodist,  which,  under  the  able  editorship  of  the 
Rev.  J.  Snell  and  his  successor,  the  Rev.  C.  A.  Jenkins,  has 
admirably  served  our  interests.  The  philanthropic  note  has 
never  been  wanting  in  Methodism's  evangel.  This  was 
specially  emphasized  in  191 1,  when  the  Methodist  home  for 
children  was  conceived.  Under  the  sympathetic  leadership 
of  the  Revs.  A.  W.  Bray  and  T.  Allan,  with  the  notable 
assistance  of  Mr.  J.  Robinson,  who  has  generously  donated 
;^5oo  to  the  fund,  and  Mr.  A.  Crawford,  treasurer,  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  home  is  immediately  assured.  The  insistent 
call  for  further  ministerial  training  found  some  answer  in 
191 2,  when  a  Provisional  Theological  Institution  was  estab- 
lished. Exigencies  of  Connexional  content  hitherto  difficult 
of  treatment  are  being  wisely  met  in  the  Rev.  A.  J.  Barclay's 
appointment  as  Connexional  agent.  In  this  connexion  may 
be  noticed  the  passing  of  the  Methodist  Church  Property 
Trust  Act,  and  the  Methodist  Church  Model  Deed  Act,  in 
191 2,  in  the  preparation  of  which  the  Rev.  H.  Youngman, 
D.D.,  whose  visit  to  the  State  afforded  the  utmost  gratification, 
rendered  generous  and  conspicuous  service. 

Appropriately  here,  though  in  briefest  word,  may  be  recog- 
nized the  various  funds  which  have  grown  into  prominence 
proportionately  with  interests  of  local  character.  In  addition 
to  the  purely  Connexional  funds  based  on  a  fixed  levy,  or 
the  funds  built  on  annual  subscription,  as  foreign  missions, 
home  missions,  &c.,  the  following  Conference  funds  have 
been  successively  established :  Twentieth  Century  Thanks- 
giving Fund,  Loan  Fund,  Sustentation  Fund,  and  a  fund  to 
aid  distressed  trusts. 

This  survey  would  be  obviously  incomplete  without  some 
reference  to  the  vicissitudes  and  losses  which  have  left  the 
mark  of  suffering  on  the  annals  of  this  period.  The  faith 
and  loyalty  of  Methodists  have  been  tested  by  the  emergence 
of  more  than  ordinarily  difficult  situations,  the  character  and 


WEST    AUSTRALIA 


359 


magnitude  of  which  have  at  times  overwhelmed  the  smitten 
Church.  Happily,  the  dismay  and  humiliation  of  the  hour 
have  been  followed  by  the  sense  of  a  great  triumph,  great 
peace,  and  great  hope.  The  Church  has  been  irreparably 
impoverished  by  the  death  of  some  of  her  noblest  sons.  The 
Revs.  T.  Bird  and  W.  Burridge  were  both  ex-presidents  and 
men  of  commanding  powers;  and  now  that  in  our  councils 
we  are  bereft  of  the  wise  leadership  and  loyal  comradeship 
of  laymen  like  the  late  Sir  George  Shenton,  Hon.  R.  W. 
Hardey,  T.  R.  Lowe,  and  J.  B.  Allen,  B.A.,  our  corporate 
life  is  much  the  poorer.  Be  it  remembered,  however,  that 
while  God  carries  oflf  His  workers,  He  carries  on  His  work. 
Herein  is  the  saying  true  :  '  Other  men  laboured,  and  ye  are 
entered  into  their  labours.'  While  chastened  by  the  losses 
of  the  past  thirteen  years,  with  devout  gratitude  do  we  recount 
its  gains,  as  represented  by  the  following  numerical  statement 
compiled  from  the  returns  as  furnished  to  the  Synods  of 
1913: 


V 

■6 

3 

ja 
0 

U 

.5 
S 

_S2 

•a 

Members. 

V 

H 

i 

■5 

c 

-a 

e 

< 

I9I3 

1900 

no 

57 

53 
28 

251 

68 
40 

5,012 

i»945 

981 

579 

9,711 
5,723 

34,348 
17,251 

Increase 

53 

25 

146 

28 

3,067 

402 

3,988 

17,097 

CHAPTER    V 

QUEENSLAND 

By   henry   YOUNGMAN,    D.D. 
Brisbane,  Ex-Prcsidcut  Methodist  Church  of  Australasia 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Description  of  State — A  Macedonian  cry — Moore — Brisbane — Ipswich 
— Queensland  District — Financial  independence — Central  Mission 
buildings  —  Queensland  Conference  —  Jubilee — Towards  union — 
Bible  Christians — Primitives — Harvey  Memorial — Union — Growth 
— Property — Home  Missions — King's  College — Numbers. 


CHAPTER    V 

QUEENSLAND 

The  State  of  Queensland,  situated  on  the  north-east  coast 
of  AustraHa,  is  the  third  largest  on  the  continent.  The 
coastline  is  upwards  of  2,000  miles,  and  includes  an  area  of 
670,500  square  miles.  The  northern  portion  is  well  within 
the  tropics  ;  but  even  here  there  are  stretches  of  elevated  table- 
land with  a  temperate  climate,  good  rainfall,  and  productive 
soil.  The  products  are  mainly  primary  of  many  sorts,  direct 
from  the  soil.  The  vast  western  areas  are  occupied  with 
ever-increasing  herds  of  cattle  and  horses  and  flocks  of  sheep. 
The  extensive  scrub  and  forests  supply  a  great  variety  of 
useful  and  beautiful  timbers  in  immense  quantities.  Coal 
is  abundant  and  widely  distributed.  Minerals  of  all  grades, 
precious  metals,  gold,  silver,  copper,  tin,  and  exquisite  gems 
of  several  kinds  are  freely  obtained.  On  the  coast  sugar- 
growing  is  largely  carried  on,  with  the  cultivation  of  tropical 
and  sub-tropical  fruits,  such  as  bananas,  pine-apples,  paw- 
paws, oranges,  and  lemons.  Maize  is  freely  grown  in  many 
districts,  dairying  is  a  large  and  growing  industry,  while 
considerable  areas  in  the  south  are  productive  of  wheat  and 
kindred  cereals.  The  varied  resources  of  the  State  are  only 
at  the  beginning  of  their  development,  and  are  the  earnest 
of  a  greatness  in  process  of  realization. 

The  present  population  is  about  640,000.  The  capital  city, 
Brisbane,  is  almost  at  the  extreme  south,  a  few  miles  up  the 
river.  Unlike  the  other  States,  there  are  several  large  coastal 
towns  which  do  their  own  trade  with  the  outer  world,  and 
are  gateways  to  extensive  hinterlands.  From  these  ports 
independent  systems  of  railway  have  reached  out,  and  these 

363 


364       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

are  now  being  linked  up,  botii  along  the  coast,  and  towards 
the  western  border.  A  good  system  of  free  education  has 
been  established,  with  frequent  High  and  Grammar  Schools, 
and  a  recently  constituted  University.  Good  order,  safety, 
and  peace  are  well  maintained  over  all  the  territory.  In 
earlier  years  Queensland  was  known  as  Moreton  Bay,  and 
formed  part  of  the  colony  of  New  South  Wales.  From  1826 
to  1840  it  was  used  as  a  convict  settlement.  Only  a  few 
lingering  traces  of  that  era  now  remain.  An  independent 
colony  was  constituted  in  1859,  when  the  population  was 
about  28,000.  Of  these  6,000  lived  in  Brisbane  and  the  neigh- 
bourhood, which  then  contained  twelve  churches,  the  same 
number  of  public-houses,  and  as  many  policemen. 

The  beginnings  of  Methodism  in  the  State  are  not  now 
traceable.  The  very  names  of  those  whose  warm  hearts 
enjoyed  the  experience  and  longed  for  the  fellowship  of 
Methodists  have  been  forgotten.  As  was  often  the  case,  there 
were  Methodists  among  the  soldiers,  and  a  certain  Corporal 
Fursman  may  be  identified  as  an  active  but  fading  figure  in 
the  mists.  A  young  man  of  ardent  and  sympathetic  spirit, 
pitying  the  condition  of  the  children,  gathered  some  of  them 
into  a  Sunday  school.  In  the  Minutes  of  the  Wesleyan 
Conference  of  1846  this  line  appears:  'Moreton  Bay;  One 
requested.'  What  longing  hearts  joined  in  the  utterance 
of  that  Macedonian  cry  is  written  among  the  secrets  to  be 
revealed.  The  desire  for  help  brought  its  fulfilment.  The 
call  was  heard. 

No  minister  was  available.  But  in  1847  a  young  married 
man  of  Windsor  (N.  S.  W.)  had  his  heart  deeply  stirred  by 
the  call  and  claims  of  Fiji,  and  while  waiting  for  his  com- 
mission as  a  missionary  consented  to  go  to  Moreton  Bay  as 
a  catechist.  William  Moore  arrived  with  his  wife,  who  is 
still  living,  towards  the  end  of  1847,  to  begin  a  work  involv- 
ing not  a  little  privation  and  hardship,  but  a  work  destined 
to  prosper.  Services  were  held  in  a  building  in  Queen 
Street,  near  the  present  Telegraph  newspaper  office.     These 


QUEENSLAND  365 

premises,  owned  by  Mr.  Little,  liad  been  used  as  an  auction 
mart.  The  first  tea  meeting  was  held  on  Boxing  Day  of 
that  year,  and  proved  a  great  event.  Prayer-meetings  were 
held,  and  a  class  established.  The  first  class-book,  treasured 
among  the  archives  and  recovered  from  Tasmania,  is  an 
interesting  possession.  A  grant  of  land  in  Albert  and 
Adelaide  Streets  was  obtained  from  the  Government,  and 
a  brick  church  built,  at  a  cost  of  ;^i50.  This  was  opened  in 
1849,  a  Presbyterian  minister  conducting  one  of  the  services. 
Later,  a  small  brick  cottage  of  four  rooms  was  erected  on 
the  same  site,  fronting  Burnett  Lane,  in  which  one  of  the 
stewards  lived  for  a  tim.e.  It  was  afterwards  occupied  by 
several  ministers  as  a  parsonage,  until  the  two-storied  build- 
ing was  erected  on  the  beautiful  site  on  Wickham  Terrace, 
acquired  by  the  Rev.  S.  Wilkinson. 

The  Rev.  W.  Moore  visited  Ipswich,  then  known  as  Lime- 
stone, and  commenced  services.  It  is  remembered  that  the 
first  Methodist  hymn  sung  there  was  sung  in  the  open  air 
under  a  tree — 

O  for  a  thousand  tongues  to  sing 

My  great  Redeemer's  praise, 
The  glories  of  my  God  and  King, 

The  triumphs  of  His  grace  ! 

From  Ipswich  the  cause  extended  to  Warwick  and  Too- 
woomba,  rising  towns  above  the  range  on  the  beautiful  and 
fertile  Darling  Downs.  When  Mr.  Moore  left  for  Fiji,  where 
he  became  a  famous  missionary,  he  was  followed  for  one  year 
by  the  Rev.  W.  Lightbody,  who  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev. 
John  Watsford,  who  had  just  returned  from  a  brief  term  in 
the  same  mission  field.  Mr.  Watsford,  a  native  of  Parra- 
matta,  had  a  notable  career  as  an  evangelist,  and  lived  long 
in  the  honour  and  affections  of  the  Connexion  as  the  venerable 
'  Father  Watsford.'  His  stay  in  Brisbane  was  short,  his 
place  being  supplied  by  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Millard,  his  colleague 
at  Ipswich. 

In  1856  a  new  church  was  built  at  Albert  Street,  Brisbane, 


366       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

and  in  1858  at  Ipswich.  These  buildings  were  spoken  of 
as  two  of  the  finest  then  held  by  the  Connexion,  Ipswich 
having  the  preference.  Much  assistance  was  given  to  the 
growing  cause  by  the  Rev.  G.  Poole,  a  retired  West  Indian 
missionary,  and  his  son,  a  chemist,  who  was  zealous  in  good 
works.  The  Rev.  Nathaniel  Turner,  a  former  successful 
missionary  in  New  Zealand  and  Tonga,  settled  in  Brisbane, 
where  members  of  his  family  already  resided.  For  many 
years  he  rendered  conspicuous  help  in  establishing  and 
extending  the  sacred  cause.  His  son,  Hon.  J.  S.  Turner, 
M.L.C.,  was  a  trustee  of  Albert  Street  Church,  and  long  acted 
as  organist. 

A  separate  Queensland  district  was  formed  in  1863,  with 
the  Rev.  Joseph  H.  Fletcher  as  chairman,  who  afterwards 
became  Principal  of  Newington  College.  He  was  a  minister 
of  rare  gifts,  culture,  and  devotion.  Three  circuits  only  were 
included  in  the  district,  viz.  Brisbane,  Ipswich,  and  Warwick. 
During  Mr.  Fletcher's  term,  the  Home  Mission  Society  was 
founded,  the  first  money  contributed  being  used  for  bringing 
three  young  ministers  from  England.  Maryborough  and 
Rockhampton,  opened  about  this  time,  have  had  continued 
progress.  The  Rev.  B.  Dixon,  one  of  the  new  men,  was 
sent  to  Bowen.  Ill  when  he  arrived,  he  preached  on  two 
Sundays  with  much  earnest  impressiveness,  and  then  died, 
his  grave  being  the  only  visible  memorial  of  that  brief 
beginning. 

Monetary  assistance  also  had  previously  been  received  from 
the  English  Missionary  Society.  It  was  felt  that  this  should 
now  cease,  and  the  Methodism  of  the  State  must  rely  upon 
itself.  It  was  proposed  to  give  a  final  amount  of  ;^  1,000 
to  form  a  permanent  fund,  on  condition  that  ;^5oo  be  added 
by  local  effort.  The  Hon.  F.  T.  Brentnall  was  then  the 
vigorous  and  efficient  chairman  of  the  district,  and  his 
Honour  Sir  Arthur  Rutledge,  K.C.,  the  eloquent  preacher  at 
the  Valley.  Their  appeal  brought  a  sum  of  ;{^55o,  ;{^25o  of 
which   was   devoted  to   ihe  establishment  of  a  book   d^pot, 


QUEENSLAND  367 

which   has  had  a  continuous  career   of   usefulness,    though 
troubled  at  times  by  the  depressions  of  business. 

The  valuable  Albert  Street  site,  in  the  heart  of  the  city, 
was  sold  in   1887  with  all  its  buildings,   to  make  room  for 
business  premises.     A  new  and  more  elevated  site,  a  little 
further  up  the  same  street,  on  the  opposite  side,  was  acquired, 
and  the  present  stately  and  beautiful  church  erected.     It  is 
acknowledged   to   be   the    most   beautiful   Methodist   church 
in    Australia.      The   site   cost   ^'10,000,    the   building   about 
;^i4,ooo,  organ  and  furniture  another  ^5,000.     The  accom- 
modation is  about  1,000.     It  is  comfortable  and  chaste.     At 
its  side  is  the  Albert  Hall,  a  two-storied  brick  building  costing 
^4,000,  and  used  for  a  variety  of  purposes.     And  there  is 
also  a  commodious  wooden  building,  which   did  duty  as  a 
temporary  church,  and   is  now  known   as  the  Social   Hall. 
These  fine  premises  are  the  home  of  the  Central  Methodist 
Mission,    whose   superintendent   is   the   Rev.    G.    E.  Rowe. 
For  eight  years  his  varied  capabilities,  energy,  and  resource 
have  been    rewarded   with   continued   success.     The  present 
Valley  church  was  built  about  the  same  time,  superseding  a 
smaller  and  plainer  building.     The  Rev.  J.  A.  Nolan  was 
then  superintendent  and  chairman  of  the  district.     The  Hon. 
James   Cowlishaw,    M.L.C.,   who   was    one   of   the   leading 
trustees,   has  in  many  ways  generously  contributed  to  the 
progress  of  that  Church.    In  1889  the  district  was  divided  into 
the  south  and   north   districts.     The   latter   included   Rock- 
hampton    with    Mount    Morgan,    Peak    Downs,    Townsville, 
Charters  Towers,  and  Croydon,  with  two  other  stations  yet 
to  occupy.     The  Rev.  C.  W.  Graham  was  appointed  chair- 
man. 

In  1893  the  Queensland  Conference  was  constituted,  having 
been  authorized  by  the  preceding  General  Conference  held 
in  Sydney  in  1891.  It  had  long  been  felt  that  the  colony  was 
too  extensive  and  too  far  remote  from  Sydney  to  permit  of  its 
growing  needs  being  sufficiently  known  to  receive  fair  treat- 
ment, and  that  larger  powers  of  self-government  would  be  to 


368       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  advantage  of  Methodism.  There  were  now  twenty  minis- 
ters, three  supernumeraries,  and  ten  probationers  on  the 
ground;  1,981  members,  with  eighty-six  on  trial;  eighty-five 
Sunday  schools  with  806  teachers  and  7,261  scholars;  and 
15,440  adherents.  The  Home  Mission  income  was  about 
^500,  the  enthusiastic  and  energetic  secretary  for  some  years 
previously  having  been  the  Rev.  W.  Halse  Rogers.  The 
Loan  Fund  had  been  increased  to  ;^2,635,  and  was  the  only 
means  through  which  Connexional  aid  could  be  given  to  the 
erection  of  churches  and  parsonages.  As  the  result  of  a 
Conference  Memorial  Fund,  about  £^^0  was  added  to  the 
capital  of  the  Loan  Fund.  The  Conference  was  opened  at  a 
time  of  great  rain.  Heavy  floods  swept  away  numerous 
houses  and  great  bridges.  Traffic  was  dislocated,  wide- 
spread devastation  was  caused,  and  for  a  while  it  was  ques- 
tioned whether  it  would  be  possible  for  the  Conference  to 
assemble.  The  Rev.  R.  Sellors,  D.D.,  an  ex-President  of 
the  Conference,  and  a  former  superintendent  of  Albert  Street 
circuit,  opened  the  Conference  in  place  of  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Kelynack,  President  of  the  General  Conference,  who  had 
died.  The  Rev.  H.  Youngman,  then  stationed  at  Too- 
woomba,  was  elected  President,  and  the  Rev.  J.  Bowes 
Secretary  of  the  first  Conference. 

The  Jubilee  of  Methodism  in  the  colony  was  celebrated  in 
1897.  It  was  made  possible  to  combine  with  that  event  the 
virtual  achievement  of  Methodist  union,  although  the  formal 
union  did  not  take  place  until  the  following  year.  The 
General  Conference  of  1894  had  adopted  a  basis  of  union, 
leaving  each  annual  conference  to  effect  union  on  that  basis  as 
it  became  practicable.  Queensland  was  the  first  of  the  Con- 
ferences to  take  complete  action,  although,  from  a  series  of 
mischances,  the  parliamentary  validation  of  the  union  was 
delayed  for  some  years,  creating  considerable  trouble.  But 
in  the  jubilee  year  the  matter  was  in  such  a  position  as  to 
make  a  united  celebration  possible.  A  strong  deputation 
from  the  south  came  to  assist.     The  Wesleyan  Church  was 


QUEENSLAND  369 

represented  by  the  Revs.  Dr.  Morley,  President  of  the 
General  Conference,  Dr.  H.  T.  Burgess,  Dr.  W.  H.  Fitchett, 
and  W.  G.  Taylor;  the  Primitive  Methodist  Church  by 
the  Revs.  T.  Copeland,  J.  Nairn,  and  Hon.  J.  Blanksby, 
M.L.C.  A  series  of  meetings  was  held,  reaching  a  large 
proportion  of  the  circuits,  the  work  generally  received  an 
impetus,  and  the  way  for  actual  union  was  greatly  prepared. 

Four  branches  of  Methodism  existed  in  Queensland, 
although  the  union  was  practically  confined  to  two.  A  Bible 
Christian  Mission  was  commenced  in  1866,  when  the  Rev. 
W.  Woolcock  arrived,  in  response  to  an  appeal  to  England 
from  certain  members  of  that  denomination.  The  neighbour- 
hood of  Red  Hill,  Brisbane,  became  the  centre  of  operations, 
and  a  few  small  churches  were  built  in  the  country.  Mr. 
Woolcock  resigned  after  some  years,  and  attached  himself  to 
the  Wesleyan  Church.  The  mission  did  not  prosper;  over- 
tures were  made  to  the  Wesleyan  Church  to  take  it  over,  and 
after  some  negotiation  this  was  done  in  1895.  There  were 
then  three  ministers,  the  eldest  of  whom  retired,  the  two 
younger  leaving  for  elsewhere. 

The  United  Free  Methodist  Churches  were  represented  by 
a  few  Churches  and  two  ministers  in  Brisbane  and  the  neigh- 
bourhood. These  Churches  acting  independently,  only  two 
small  ones  came  into  the  union.  Others  became  attached  to 
the  Congregationalists.  The  Rev.  W.  Osborne  Lilley,  the 
leading  minister,  retired  soon  after,  and  the  denomination 
ceased  to  exist. 

The  Primitive  Methodist  Church  had  its  beginning  in 
Queensland  at  the  end  of  i860.  Until  that  time  the  members 
in  the  colony  associated  with  the  Wesleyans.  An  advertise- 
ment in  one  of  the  papers  asked  these  members  to  make 
themselves  known  to  the  denominational  authorities  in 
Sydney.  In  response  to  the  urgent  request  of  the  members 
in  Brisbane,  the  Rev.  Thomas  CoUey  was  sent  to  gather  them 
together  and  to  minister  to  their  spiritual  needs.  The  signal 
gun  announcing  the  arrival  of  his  boat  was  heard  by  the 


370       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

congregation  at  worship  on  Sunday  morning,  and  some  of  its 
members  went  forth  to  meet  him.  The  first  services  were 
held  in  a  disused  Presbyterian  church  in  Creek  Street.  A 
Httle  later  Mr.  James  Graham  gave  land  in  Windmill  Street, 
the  Valley,  on  which  the  first  church  was  built.  It  cost  ;^200, 
and  was  entirely  paid  for.  In  1862  land  was  secured  in 
Adelaide  Street,  in  the  centre  of  the  city,  and  a  church  and 
parsonage  built.  Mr.  Colley  having  been  transferred  to 
Rockhampton  in  1863,  the  Rev.  J.  Buckle  succeeded  him  in 
Brisbane,  entering  upon  a  long  course  of  vigorous  and 
extensive  labour,  reaching  to  Ipswich,  Gympie,  and  Mary- 
borough. He  took  steps  to  build  the  Miner's  Bethel,  a  plain, 
bark  building,  the  first  church  on  the  Gympie  gold-fields. 
The  substantial  churches  at  Leichhardt  Street,  Spring  Hill, 
and  Brunswick  Street,  New  Farm,  Brisbane,  were  built  in 
following  years.  The  Rev.  Robert  Hartley,  who  won  a  name 
of  rare  renown  in  the  central  district  for  piety  and  unselfish 
devotion  to  the  people,  arrived  in  Rockhampton  in  October 
1864,  and  continued  there  until  he  died  in  1892. 

His  son,  Mr.  Stewart  Hartley,  became  one  of  the  leading 
citizens  of  that  prosperous  city,  and  was  ever  a  loyal  and 
liberal  supporter  of  the  Fitzroy  Street  Church.  That  church 
was  eventually  sold,  and  what  is  now  known  as  '  The  Hartley 
Memorial  Church  '  was  built  in  Archer  Street.  In  the  early 
years  heavy  property  debts  proved  a  troublesome  burden,  and 
only  now  are  they  becoming  less  distressing.  Additional 
ministers  were  introduced  from  England,  and  much  mis- 
sionary activity  was  displayed  along  the  central  railway  line, 
and  in  the  growing  towns  and  mining  centres  of  the  north. 
Rockhampton  was  the  natural  base  for  these  operations.  For 
some  time  the  Rev.  James  Williams  had  the  responsibility 
and  principal  share  of  the  work.  Churches  were  planted  at 
Charters  Towers,  Mackay,  Cairns,  Cooktown,  Herberton,  and 
further  north.  The  Rev.  William  Powell,  who  arrived  at 
an  early  period,  has  played  a  foremost  part  in  the  furtherance 
of  the  growth  and  extension  of  the  denomination.     The  first 


QUEENSLAND 


371 


District  Meeting  was  held  in  1874.  Until  the  consummation 
of  union,  the  Church  in  Queensland  was  an  integral  part 
of  the  Connexion  in  England,  and  received  a  considerable 
subsidy  from  its  missionary  society. 

The  relative  strength  of  the  two  Churches  at  the  time  of 
union  may  be  estimated  from  the  following  figures: 


Wesleyan 

Primitive 
Methodist 

Total 

Ministers 

33 

26 

59 

Members 

2,513 

2,335 

4,848 

Sabbath  Schools 

107 

84 

191 

Teachers  . 

980 

566 

1,546 

Scholars    .     .     . 

9,938 

6,059 

15,997 

Adherents      .     . 

19,177 

12,651 

31,828 

Immediately  after  union  adjustments  in  circuits  and  stations 
were  made,  and  amalgamations  took  effect.  Not  only  were 
circuits  united,  but  congregations  were  amalgamated,  making 
some  churches  superfluous.  These  have  either  been  removed 
or  sold  for  other  purposes.  One  denomination  being  in 
possession  of  the  whole  field  has  made  it  possible  to  do  away 
with  overlapping,  so  far  as  Methodism  is  concerned,  and  to 
use  the  available  resources  of  agents  and  money  to  greater 
advantage.  The  moral  effect  of  union  has  proved  beneficial 
within  the  Church  itself;  and  it  certainly  has  been  manifest 
in  the  community  at  large.  Since  union  there  has  been 
steady  and  constant  growth,  for  which  union  is  not  alto- 
gether responsible,  but  which  would  not  have  been  possible 
without  it.  There  have  been  not  a  few  grave  difficulties  to 
overcome;  but  they  are  now  practically  surmounted.  Part- 
ing with  the  aid  from  England  was  a  loss.  The  disparity 
between  ministerial  allowances  and  the  variation  of  usage 
formed  a  problem  in  more  than  one  direction.  The  greatest 
trouble  arose  in  connexion  with  the  Primitive  Methodist 
properties.  With  few  exceptions  these  properties  were  held 
by  a  corporation  instead  of  local  trustees,  as  in  the  case  of 


372       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

the  Wesleyans.  The  delay  in  getting  authority  for  the 
United  Church  to  handle  the  affairs  of  the  corporation  led 
to  an  increase  of  debt;  and  when  the  time  came  for  vesting 
the  properties  in  local  trustees,  in  many  cases  the  liability 
was  increased,  even  though  a  considerable  amount  was  dealt 
with  by  the  Connexion  as  a  whole.  That  work  being  com- 
plete, there  is  now  no  case  of  serious  difficulty  in  regard 
to  property  within  the  Conference.  For  the  last  few  years 
a  Connexional  Fire  Insurance  Fund  has  been  in  existence. 
Most  of  the  buildings  are  covered  by  the  fund,  and  a  reserve 
is  being  accumulated  which  gives  sure  promise  of  being  a 
boon  to  the  Connexion. 

The  growth  of  the  State  in  recent  years,  largely  by  the 
opening  up  of  agricultural  areas  and  the  dairying  industry, 
has  created  the  demand  for  vigorous  home  mission  enterprise. 
This  has  been  carried  out  by  helping  established  circuits  to 
extend  their  boundaries,  and  by  establishing  new  stations  to 
be  worked  independently,  until  they  are  strong  enough  to  be 
recognized  as  circuits.  The  Rev.  W.  H.  Harrison,  who 
has  been  the  energetic  and  efficient  general  secretary  for  many 
years,  has  been  for  some  time  set  apart  to  superintend  the 
operations  of  the  society.  He  travels  widely  and  continuously 
to  direct  the  work  and  to  secure  funds.  The  annual  income 
is  a  little  over  ;^2,ooo.  The  Church  Building  Loan  Fund 
has  now  a  capital  of  about  ;^7,ooo. 

The  Queen  Alexandra  Children's  Home  at  Hatherton, 
Coorparoo,  Brisbane,  was  commenced  at  Indooroopilly  a  few 
years  since  in  two  cottages  given  by  Mrs.  McConnell.  The 
location  was  inconvenient,  and  the  present  fine  house  being 
under  offer,  it  was  secured  and  furnished.  About  twenty 
children  are  now  being  cared  for.  A  committee  of  ladies,  with 
a  gentlemen's  advisory  committee,  manages  the  institution. 
A  book  d^pot  for  the  sale  of  literature  does  a  good  business 
in  the  name  of  the  Conference;  and  The  Methodist  Leader, 
a.  fortnightly  publication,  promotes  the  interests  of  the  Con- 
nexion   by    circulating    information    and    discussing    current 


QUEENSLAND  ZJZ 

questions  of  interest.  It  combined  the  two  previous  denomin- 
ational papers,  The  Christian  Witness  and  The  Christian 
Ensign . 

The  latest  institution  of  the  Church  is  King's  College, 
within  the  University.  When  the  University  was  founded, 
it  was  felt  that  the  time  had  come  to  do  something  more  for 
the  training  of  candidates  for  the  ministry,  and  to  provide  a 
residential  college  for  University  students.  The  matter  was 
discussed  during  the  presidency  of  the  Rev.  F.  Duesbury, 
the  Rev.  W.  H.  Harrison  acting  as  secretary  in  the  earlier 
stages.  A  scheme  was  prepared  for  consideration  by  the 
Synods  and  the  Conference  of  1912.  A  property  was  pur- 
chased at  River  Terrace,  South  Brisbane,  overlooking  the 
river,  the  Botanical  Gardens,  and  the  University  on  the  other 
side.  The  existing  house  has  become  the  master's  residence, 
and  a  two-storied  wing  has  been  built  for  the  accommodation 
of  students.  The  scheme  was  adopted  by  the  Conference, 
and  a  successful  appeal  made  for  ;^5,ooo,  including  gifts 
of  ;^5oo  each  from  the  family  of  the  late  Hon.  John  Archi- 
bald, M.L.C.,  and  the  Albert  Street  Church  trustees.  The 
Revs.  F.  Duesbury  and  Robert  Stewart  have  been  the  secre- 
taries, and  their  efforts  have  commanded  the  present  measure 
of  success.  The  master  and  principal  is  the  Rev.  M.  Scott 
Fletcher,  M.A.,  B.Litt.,  B.D.,  who  was  generously  trans- 
ferred by  the  New  South  Wales  Conference  to  occupy 
a  position  for  which  he  is  admirably  fitted.  The  college 
has  been  full  from  the  beginning.  It  was  formally  opened 
at  a  brilliant  ceremony  in  the  open  air  under  the  auspices 
of  the  General  Conference,  the  Governor,  His  Excellency 
Sir  W^illiam  MacGregor,  G.C.M.G.,  Chancellor  of  the 
University,   declaring  the  college  open. 

It  only  remains  now  to  state  that  the  present  strength  of 
the  Church  is  indicated  by  the  following  figures  presented 
to  the  Conference  of  1913.  Ministers  99;  home  missionaries 
48;  local  preachers  439;  members,  or  on  probation,  10,000; 
Sunday-school      teachers     2,041  ;      Sunday-school     scholars 


374       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

20,000;  adherents  54,000;  churches  267;  schoolrooms  21; 
parsonages  62.  The  organization  which  has  grown  to  these 
proportions  under  such  conditions  during  nearly  seventy 
years  of  its  history  may  be  confidently  expected,  by  the  bless- 
ing of  God,  to  become  stronger  and  more  widespread ;  and 
while  fitting  men  to  live  more  worthily  upon  earth,  make 
them  meet  for  the  abiding  inheritance  of  the  saints  in  light. 


#r 


CHAPTER    VI 
NEW  ZEALAND 

By  WILLIAM    MORLEY,    D.D. 

Melbourne  :  Ex-President,  Methodist  Church  of  Australasia 


\ 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Physical  and  political — Occupation  —  Missionaries — Auckland — Pitt 
Street  — Six  circuits  —  The  Peninsula — Waikato — Gold — Thames 
River  —  Primitives  — Wellington — United  Methodists — Masterton 
and  Wanganui — Rangitikei — Levin-Otaki —  Napier —  Hastings — 
Gisboume — Taranaki — New  Plymouth — Waimate  plains — Rivalry 
— Nelson — Richmond — Blenheim — Westland  —  Reefton  —  Christ- 
church — Durham  Street  —  South  Canterbury — Ashburton  —  Bible 
Christians — Otago — Presbyterians — Dunedin — Oamaru — Invercar- 
gill  —  Hardship  —  Primitives  —  Colleges  —  Funds  —  Missions — 
Deaconesses — Independence — Union. 


CHAPTER    VI 

NEW   ZEALAND 

The  tliree  principal  islands  of  New  Zealand  have  an  area 
of  103,241  square  miles.  Its  total  territory  is  one-seventh  less 
than  that  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  From  North  Cape 
to  Stewart  Island,  it  stretches  through  fourteen  degrees  of 
latitude,  the  total  length  of  the  coastline  being  4,430  miles. 
In  physical  configuration,  this  '  brighter  Britain  of  the 
south  '  differs  from  the  three  older  Australian  States.  Port 
Jackson  is  the  one  great  gateway  of  New  South  Wales,  Port 
Phillip  is  the  pride  of  Victoria,  and  Spencer  Gulf  the  entrance 
to  South  Australia.  Hence  Sydney,  Melbourne,  and  Adelaide 
are  without  rivals  in  their  respective  territories,  as  to 
population  and  influence.  They  were  also  the  places  from 
which  settlement  spread.  In  New  Zealand  it  is  not  so.  There 
are  eight  excellent  harbours,  and  population  has  been  more 
evenly  distributed.  For  years  her  four  chief  cities  ran  a  neck- 
and-neck  race  for  the  primacy.  There  are  now  two  dozen 
towns,  each  having  from  3,000  to  13,000  inhabitants,  and 
most  of  them  growing  rapidly. 

Prior  to  the  proclamation  of  the  colony  in  1841,  Europeans 
of  various  nationalities  found  their  way  thither.  A  few- 
escaped  convicts  crossed  from  Australia,  small  parties  of  free 
immigrants  started  settlements,  deserters  from  sailing  ships 
took  up  life  among  the  Maoris,  and  small  whaling  com- 
munities were  established  at  Kororarika,  Port  Nicholson, 
Cloudy  Bay,  Port  Cooper,  and  V^aikouaiti.  In  1838,  131 
vessels  entered  the  Bay  of  Islands.  The  white  population 
numbered  several  hundreds.  The  formal  British  occupation 
did  not  grow  from  one  centre.     The  six  original  provinces 

377 


378       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

were  founded  at  different  dates,  and  their  founders  had  varied 
ideals.  For  many  years  communication  between  them  was 
infrequent.  The  first  colonists  of  Australia  found  an  empty 
continent  with  scattered  tribes  of  aborigines,  to  whom  tillage 
was  unknown.  In  New  Zealand  it  was  different.  The  North 
Island  carried  a  large  Maori  population,  and  every  acre  had 
its  owner.  Native  land  laws  were  complicated  and  diflficult 
for  strangers  to  understand.  Thus  there  came  years  of  strife 
and  bloodshed,  by  which  settlement  was  retarded.  Each 
province  had  local  government,  and  the  various  communities 
developed  on  lines  of  their  own. 

These  factors  all  had  their  influence  in  determining  the 
places  at  which  the  first  congregations  gathered,  and  in 
helping  or  hindering  the  growth  of  organized  Church  life. 
Missionaries  were  glad  to  preach  the  gospel  to  their  own 
countrymen  settled  near  their  stations;  naturally  they  became 
their  pastors.  The  Missionary  Society,  with  commendable 
foresight  and  generosity,  sustained  these  ministers  in  the 
small  towns  which  sprang  up.  As  the  country  became  better 
known,  and  immigrants  from  Great  Britain  multiplied,  the 
later-born  Churches  sent  preachers  to  care  for  their  members, 
and  to  expound  their  views  of  Church  polity.  To  understand 
how  they  fared,  their  advantages  and  difficulties,  and  the 
result  of  their  toil  is  now  our  aim.  To  get  an  intelligible 
view,  we  must  follow  the  beginnings  in  the  several  provincial 
districts,  until  these  merged  into  the  larger  ideal  of  nationhood 
and  unity  in  Church  life. 

Auckland  was  much  the  largest  of  the  provinces,  com- 
prising nearly  half  the  North  Island,  and  containing  sixteen 
and  a  half  million  acres.  The  capital,  with  its  suburbs,  has  a 
population  of  over  one  hundred  thousand.  It  is  beautifully 
situated.  Owing  to  its  command  of  the  sea  on  either  side  of 
the  isthmus,  it  was  predestined  to  become  a  great  commercial 
centre.  It  was  the  first  seat  of  Government.  For  some  years 
the  population  was  small.    Within  the  first  year  of  its  history 


NEW    ZEALAND  379 

the  Rev.  J.  BuUer,  the  missionary  at  Kaipara,  visited  the 
settlement.  On  Sunday  morning  he  preached  in  a  sawpit 
at  Mechanic's  Bay,  and  in  the  evening  in  an  auction-room. 
A  few  Methodists  from  Australia  welcomed  him.  A  class  of 
thirteen  was  enrolled,  and  Mr.  Gardiner,  a  local  preacher, 
was  appointed  to  conduct  regular  services.  Before  the  first 
400  immigrants  from  England  arrived,  in  October  1842,  a 
site  was  secured,  a  weatherboard  church  40  feet  by  25  built 
thereon,  and  opened  in  1843,  the  whole  cost  being  met.  The 
quarterly  contributions  in  1845  were  £2  is.  (id.  Adding  the 
quarterly  collection  the  sum  increased  eighteen  months  later 
to  ^16  95.  2\d.  In  1844,  the  Rev.  Walter  Lawry,  then 
superintendent  of  missions,  arrived.  He  was  a  man  of  strong 
personality,  an  able  preacher,  and  a  statesman.  Next  year 
Rev.  Thomas  Buddie,  with  the  instincts  of  a  theologian,  the 
heart  of  a  pastor,  and  mighty  in  prayer,  became  his  colleague. 
Their  ministry  was  greatly  blessed.  The  church  was 
enlarged,  and  still  found  too  strait.  In  1858  a  brick  church 
was  built  in  High  Street,  For  eighteen  years  it  was  filled. 
The  preaching  staff  was  strengthened  by  the  Revs.  Joseph  H. 
Fletcher,  cultured  and  winning,  and  Alexander  Reid,  a 
Boanerges.  Conversions  were  frequent.  Meantime,  around 
the  city  other  services  were  started.  The  Rev.  Isaac  Harding 
became  superintendent  in  1858,  and  promoted  the  building 
of  churches  at  Freeman's  Bay  and  Hobson  Street. 

In  the  early  sixties,  population  poured  in,  and  the  city 
rapidly  expanded.  A  large  and  commanding  site  at  Pitt 
Street  was  acquired,  and  a  capacious  schoolroom  with  a  brick 
church  above  was  built.  The  Rev.  J.  Warren,  who  was  the 
moving  spirit  and  one  of  the  largest  contributors,  preached 
the  opening  sermon  in  1866.  The  total  outlay  was  ^"i  1,000. 
Commercial  depression  set  in,  and  a  debt  of  ^5,000  remained 
which  was  paid  off  eighteen  years  later.  For  forty-seven 
years  Pitt  Street  Church  has  been  the  cathedral  of  Auckland 
Methodism.  Probably  ^25,000  have  been  expended  on  it. 
A  church  was  also  erected  in  Grafton  Road.     Later,  at  the 


38o       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

suburbs  of  Mount  Albert,  Arch  Hill,  Kingsland,  Newmarket, 
Henderson,  Avondale,  and  at  Devonport,  Birkenhead, 
Takapuna,  Birkdale,  and  Northcote,  on  the  north  shore, 
churches  were  erected.  At  Ponsonby  a  church  was  built  in 
1877,  ^^^  the  present  attractive  church  took  its  place  four 
years  later.  At  Bayfield,  Mr.  Richard  Hobbs  built  a  church 
as  his  father's  memorial,  and  at  Remuera,  Mr.  Joseph  Wilson 
presented  one  as  a  thank-offering.  A  City  Mission,  started  in 
the  early  nineties  in  Union  Street  by  Messrs.  W.  H.  Smith, 
S.  Parker,  Beaumont,  and  others,  did  good  work.  Three 
years  ago  it  found  a  home  at  Newton.  Thus,  from  the  modest 
start  made  in  1841,  in  Auckland  City  and  its  suburbs  there 
are  six  circuits,  twenty-four  churches,  2,200  Church  members, 
and  congregations  numbering  over  eight  thousand. 

To  the  north  of  Auckland  is  a  peninsula  200  miles  long, 
with  country  rugged  and  broken,  and  large  tracts  covered 
with  dense  forests.  For  years  considerable  areas  were  only 
used  by  kauri  gum  diggers.  Settlers  were  induced  to  go 
there  by  free  grants  of  land,  but  the  want  of  roads  imposed 
severe  privations  on  the  pioneers.  In  that  area  there  are  now 
five  circuits  and  five  home  mission  stations.  To  Whangarie 
a  home  missionary  was  sent  in  1864,  and  the  first  churches 
were  built  three  years  later.  Whangarie  has  greatly  improved, 
and  the  coal  mines  at  Hikurangi  have  developed.  A  Non- 
conformist Association,  formed  in  England  in  1862,  brought 
out  a  number  of  immigrants  from  England,  and  placed 
them  at  Kaipara.  Mr.  Gittos,  the  missionary,  counselled, 
enheartened,  and  preached  to  them  for  many  years,  thus 
starting  Paparoa  circuit.  The  kauri  forests  near  Wairoa 
River,  and  the  facilities  of  the  river  for  navigation,  led  to 
the  establishment  of  great  saw-mills,  with  townships  at 
Dargaville  and  Aratapu.  Farmers  took  up  land,  and  a  circuit 
was  organized.  The  cement  works  at  Warkworth  brought 
population.  Helensville,  Bay  of  Islands,  W^hangaroa,  and 
Mongonui  have  still  small  populations,  amongst  whom  the 
home  missionaries  do  good  work. 


NEW    ZEALAND  381 

Onehunga,  Otahuhu,  Mangere,  and  Papakura  townships, 
on  the  shores  of  Manukau  Harbour,  were  constituted  a  circuit 
in  1850.  Much  of  their  prosperity  was  due  to  the  Revs.  Buttle, 
Warren,  and  W.  J.  Watkin,  who  settled  there.  Otahuhu, 
now  a  city  suburb,  was  made  the  head  of  a  circuit  in  1910. 
From  Manukau,  preachers  went  to  Pukekohe,  Waiuku, 
Bombay,  and  Pokeno.  In  1877  the  Franklin  circuit,  now  the 
largest  in  the  Dominion,  was  established.  At  the  close  of  the 
war  of  1864,  large  areas  of  Maori  land  were  confiscated  in  the 
Waikato,  and  military  settlers  placed  there.  Townships  were 
laid  out  and  farms  occupied  at  Cambridge,  Te  Awamutu,  and 
Hamilton.  The  Rev.  J.  S.  Rishworth  in  1865,  and  the  Rev. 
J.  Berry  in  1867,  did  faithful  and  successful  work.  In  that 
prosperous  agricultural  area  there  are  now  three  circuits.  The 
coal  mines  in  the  lower  Waikato  attracted  people,  and  in 
1Q06  Huntly  and  the  adjacent  places  were  constituted  a 
circuit. 

Captain  Cook  believed  the  Thames  River  would  be  the  site 
of  New  Zealand's  capital ;  hence  the  name.  But  until  the  rich 
gold  discoveries  of  1867,  the  residents  were  few.  Then  miners 
poured  in  by  thousands.  Grahamstow-n  and  Shortland 
became  large  towns,  and  churches  were  built  at  both  places. 
From  thence  the  gospel  was  carried  to  the  mining  districts  of 
Paeroa  and  Waihi.  Thames  township,  with  3,600  inhabitants, 
has  now  settled  to  its  normal  condition,  with  farms  around 
it.  A  minister  was  sent  to  Tauranga  in  1883.  The  upper 
Thames  circuit  owes  much  to  the  generous  support  of  Mr. 
W.  Shepherd  Allen,  who  resided  there  for  some  years.  To 
him  also  the  opening  of  Rotorua  as  a  Church  centre  is  due. 
Opotiki  was  long  difficult  of  access.  Three  years  since,  a 
minister  was  sent.  Te  Kuiti,  a  thriving  township  on  the 
railway  line,  and  Waimana,  are  the  latest  posts  occupied. 
The  progress  of  the  Wesleyan  Church  throughout  the 
province  may  be  roughly  gauged  by  the  following  figures. 
In  1874,  at  the  first  Conference,  there  were  twenty-seven 
churches,  with  573  Church  members,  and  5,351  adherents.    In 


382        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

191 2  the  churches  numbered  ninety-five,  members  4,134,  and 
adherents  19,580. 

Primitive  Methodism  did  good  work,  specially  in  and  around 
Auckland.  The  Rev.  R.  Ward  was  welcomed  as  a  visitor  in 
1849  by  members  who  had  come  from  England.  Two  years 
later  he  became  their  minister,  and  the  parent  church  in 
Edward  Street  was  built.  In  1865  Sheridan  Street  in 
Freeman's  Bay  was  opened,  to  be  superseded  by  Franklin 
Road  Church  some  years  later.  Minister  and  members  being 
zealous  for  extension,  Primitive  Methodist  churches  were  the 
first  buildings  for  public  worship  in  Newton,  Eden  Terrace, 
Morningside,  Waterview,  Mount  Roskill,  and  Hobsonville. 
Congregations  were  also  gathered  at  the  Thames  and  Waihi, 
and  later  at  Cambridge  and  Hamilton.  In  191 2  they  reported 
seven  circuits  and  3,494  worshippers.  To  Mr.  D.  Goldie 
much  credit  is  due.  For  many  years  he  has  thought  and 
toiled  for  the  Church,  the  Building  Fund  and  Connexional 
Insurance  Fund  being  organized  by  him.  The  United 
Methodist  Free  Church  was  started  in  1872,  its  first  minister, 
the  Rev.  G.  H.  Turner,  being  able  and  popular.  The  former 
Wesleyan  church  in  Hobson  Street  became  their  home.  A 
branch  church  was  built  at  Mount  Eden.  The  members 
united  with  the  Wesleyans  in  1896. 

For  forty  years  the  city  of  Wellington  has  been  the  head 
of  a  district,  comprising  a  majority  of  the  circuits  in  the 
former  Wellington  Province,  with  those  of  Hawke's  Bay  and 
Gisbourne.  Around  the  city  rugged  hills  stretch  for  40  miles. 
Beyond  the  Hutt  Valley  lies  the  Rimutaka  Range,  and  in 
Hawke's  Bay  the  Ruahine  Mountains.  The  remainder  of 
the  territory  is  agricultural  or  pastoral  country.  Since  the 
railways  were  built,  settlers  have  multiplied,  and  townships 
have  sprung  up  in  every  direction. 

Wellington  Methodism  dates  from  the  foundation  of  the 
Port  Nicholson  settlement.  On  January  25,  1840,  the  Rev.  J. 
Buller,  who  had  travelled  overland  from  Kaipara,  preached 


NEW    ZEALAND  383 

on  the  Aurora,  the  first  emigrant  vessel.  Mr.  Udy,  a  local 
preacher,  and  other  Cornish  Methodists  were  among  the 
passengers.  Mr.  C.  Hunt  and  Mr.  J.  Swan  came  next.  Their 
church  home  was  found  on  the  Te  Aro  flat,  at  the  corner  of 
Cuba  and  Manners  Streets.  Thither  came  the  Rev.  John 
Aldred,  the  first  minister.  A  wooden  church  was  built  by 
voluntary  labour.  In  1845  it  was  superseded  by  a  brick 
edifice,  at  the  dedication  of  which  all  the  town  was  present. 
Destroyed  by  earthquake  in  1850,  a  larger  building  of  wood 
took  its  place,  and  for  seventeen  years  the  people  worshipped 
there.  When  Wellington  became  the  colonial  capital,  in  1865, 
population  poured  in,  and  large  numbers  found  employment 
in  harbour  reclamation  and  building.  An  ornate  wooden 
church,  seating  800  persons,  with  a  conspicuous  spire,  was 
opened  in  1868.  Eleven  years  later  it  was  accidentally  burned. 
Land  was  purchased  in  Taranaki  Street,  and  the  present 
commodious  sanctuary,  with  its  extensive  and  well-planned 
school  buildings  erected.  The  Rev.  W.  Kirk,  the  superin- 
tendent when  the  two  last-named  churches  were  built,  was 
well  read,  exceedingly  energetic,  and  intensely  evangelistic. 
No  minister  was  more  beloved,  and  none  so  deeply  stamped 
his  impress  on  Wellington  Methodism.  Under  the  Rev.  T. 
Buddie's  superintendency  in  1872,  churches  were  built  at 
Thorndon  and  Adelaide  Road.  As  South  Wellington  grew, 
the  congregation  at  Adelaide  Road  sought  a  better  site,  and 
Newtown  church  was  built.  Kilburnie  followed  later.  Still 
the  population  was  in  advance  of  the  accommodation.  Seven 
years  since,  a  Church  Extension  Committee  was  formed,  the 
fruit  of  which  is  seen  in  the  neat  suburban  churches  of 
Brooklyn,  Karori,  and  Island  Bay.  A  Central  Mission,  with 
a  morning  service  in  Herbert  Street  and  an  evening  service 
in  the  theatre,  was  commenced  in  1909.  The  original  circuit 
is  now  five  circuits. 

The  Primitive  Methodists  have  been  active  in  the  city  and 
suburbs  since  the  year  1847.  Sydney  Street,  Thorndon,  the 
central  church  for  years,  was  very  prosperous,     ^^'ebb  Street, 


384       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Te  Aro,  the  first  outgrowth,  soon  became  the  most  important. 
Its  alert  office-bearers  acquired  sites  in  Newtown  and  several 
of  the  Bays  beyond  and  opened  churches.  Not  a  little  of  their 
success  was  due  to  the  enterprise  of  the  Rev.  J.  Dawson,  and 
the  financial  help  and  statesmanship  of  the  Hon.  CM.  Luke. 
In  February  1913  the  denomination  brought  into  the  union 
three  Wellington  circuits.  The  United  Free  Methodist 
Church,  organized  in  1876  in  Courtenay  Place,  continued  for 
twenty  years,  with  the  Rev.  H.  B.  Redstone  as  minister. 
Admirably  situated  in  one  of  Wellington's  broadest  streets, 
it  was  an  ideal  site  for  the  Central  Mission  Hall.  Unfortu- 
nately, when  the  Free  Methodists  joined  the  Wesleyans  in 
1896,  the  property  was  sold,  and  the  members  joined  the 
Taranaki  Street  congregation. 

In  the  Hutt,  where  the  first  settlers  prospered,  churches 
were  built  in  the  early  forties  at  Lower  Hutt  and  Taita.  In 
1865  a  church  was  opened  in  Wainuiomata,  and  some  years 
later  another  at  Whiteman's.  The  erection  of  woollen  mills 
and  refrigerating  works  brought  a  large  population  to  Petone. 
Services  were  at  once  organized,  and  with  the  growth  of  the 
town,  which  now  has  a  population  of  6,600,  the  Church 
prospered.    A  minister  was  located  at  the  Hutt  in  1842. 

During  the  fifties,  enterprising  men  travelled  round  the 
coast,  and  established  sheep  stations  on  the  fertile  Wairarapa 
plains.  Small  farms  were  surveyed,  and  in  the  bush  at 
Masterton,  Carterton,  and  Greytown,  and  on  the  plains  at 
Featherstone,  townships  sprang  up.  In  1867  the  Rev.  ].  S. 
Rishworth  became  the  first  minister.  Success  crowned  his 
efforts.  Masterton  is  now  a  prosperous  town  of  5,000  people. 
Eketahuna  circuit  was  opened  by  Methodists  from  Masterton. 
In  the  midst  of  a  forest,  the  Bayliss  brothers,  both  local 
preachers,  preached  in  their  own  house.  Helpers  and 
residents  also  went  from  Masterton.  The  first  church  was 
opened  in  1889.  The  town  of  Wanganui  has  a  population 
of  12,000.  In  1848,  the  Revs.  Stannard  and  Kirk,  on 
their  way  to  Maori  stations,  accompanied  by  John   Hobbs, 


NEW    ZEALAND  385 

were  wrecked  at  the  mouth  of  the  river.  They  preached  to 
the  few  townspeople  on  the  Sunday.  The  first  church  was 
opened  at  Ridgway  Street  in  i860,  the  site  being  levelled  by 
the  voluntary  labour  of  soldiers  of  the  65th  Regiment.  By  a 
gift  of  ;^700  from  the  mission  funds,  the  excellent  site  in  the 
Avenue  was  secured,  and  in  1S73  Trinity  Church  was  erected. 
The  plant  is  now  very  complete.  During  the  seventies, 
services  were  started  at  Brunswick,  Kai  Iwi,  Springvale,  and 
Upokongaro.  Aramoho  becoming  a  railway  centre  and  the 
site  of  the  freezing  works,  a  church  and  parsonage  were  built. 
A  Primitive  Methodist  church  was  also  erected  in  the  town, 
and  another  at  Easttown. 

Forty-five  years  since,  the  Rangitikei  district  was  dense 
bush  or  tio-tio-covered  plains.  In  187 1  a  minister  was 
appointed  there;  and  within  six  years  three  churches  were 
built.  The  attractive  church  at  Marton,  opened  in  1893,  is 
largely  due  to  the  Rev.  T.  Fee's  energy.  For  some  years  the 
circuit  was  a  struggling  one,  but  Marton  is  now  the  centre 
of  a  prosperous  wheat-growing  district.  The  building  of  the 
Auckland  railway  has  opened  up  the  upper  reaches  of  the 
Rangitikei  River.  The  forest  has  been  felled,  and  Taihape, 
Waimarino,  and  Taumaranui  have  become  prosperous 
townships,  with  good  farms  around. 

Three    circuits   and    a    home    mission    station    have    been 

organized  in  the  fertile  country  between  the  Rangitikei  and 

Manawatu    rivers.      In    the    early    seventies    a    number    of 

Wellington,  Hutt,  and  Richmond  residents  acquired  a  block 

of  land  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Rangitikei,  and  led  by  Mr. 

Sanson,    a    local    preacher,    they    founded    the    township    of 

Sanson  and  Rongotea.     An  English  company,  known  as  the 

Manchester  Association,  purchased  a  large  area,  and  Feilding, 

the  principal    town,    rapidly   sprang   into   importance.     The 

opening    of    a    road    from    Masterton    through    the    70-mile 

bush,      and      the      Wellington-Manawatu      railway      made 

Palmerston    North   the   largest   town   of   the  district,    with  a 

population    of    11,000.      The    Primitive    Methodists   were    at 
c  c 


386       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

work  in  the  same  locality.  In  1874  they  started  services 
at  Foxton,  and  extending  to  Feilding,  Halcombe,  and 
Hunterville.  In  1892  the  Bible  Christians  sent  a  minister  to 
Palmerston  North,  and  a  church  was  built  in  Cuba  Street. 
Palmerston  has  now  two  good  circuits;  while  Feilding, 
Foxton,  Sanson,  and  Kimbolton  are  all  progressive. 

The  Levin-Otaki  circuit  represents  rapid  but  substantial 
growth.  The  directors  of  the  Manawatu  railway,  who  wisely 
secured  the  fee  simple  of  the  land,  threw  it  open  for  selection. 
Saw-millers  were  soon  at  work,  and  farmers  took  up  land. 
The  Methodists  among  the  first  arrivals  were  enterprising  and 
liberal.  Within  six  years  from  1891  churches  were  opened  at 
Otaki,  Levin,  Manakau,  and  Paraparauma,  three  being  dedi- 
cated by  the  Rev.  G.  S.  Harper,  then  a  supernumerary  at 
Palmerston.  In  Hawke's  Bay  sheep-farmers  took  up  stations, 
and  in  1855  the  town  of  Napier  was  laid  out.  Two  years  later 
an  acre  in  Clive  Square  was  bought  as  a  church  site  for  £2$. 
Thirty  years  later  it  was  worth  ^,'2,000.  The  attempt  to  form 
a  circuit  in  1861  proved  abortive,  and  the  half-finished  church 
was  sold.  Ten  years  later  the  Rev.  H.  B.  Redstone  of  the 
United  Methodist  Free  Church  built  a  church  and  gathered  a 
congregation  in  Emerson  Street.  The  Wesleyans  still 
pressing  for  a  minister,  the  Rev.  J.  S.  Smalley  was  appointed 
in  1874,  and  a  church  was  opened  in  January. 

Services  were  begun  at  Hastings  in  1878,  and  the  town  now 
rivals  Napier  in  population.  Three  other  circuits  were  com- 
menced by  the  United  Methodist  Free  Church.  At  Waipawa 
the  foundation  was  laid  by  the  Rev.  Robert  Taylor  in  1870,  at 
VVoodville  by  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Worboys,  and  the  Rev.  J.  W. 
Griffin  was  the  first  minister  at  Pahiatua.  The  first  settlers 
were  poor.  The  Hicks  Fund  (the  gift  of  a  Cornish  gentleman) 
was  used  to  help  in  church  building.  Dannevirke  was  a  little 
bush  township  in  the  midst  of  a  forest.  Mr.  Worboys  visited 
it  when  the  roads  were  knee-deep  in  mud.  The  Wesleyan 
Conference  sent  Mr.  M.  K.  Gilmour,  now  chairman  of  the 
Papuan  district,  there  in  1899.     He  laid  a  good  foundation, 


NEW   ZEALAND  387 

and  built  a  church.  Dannevirke  and  Norsewood,  as  their 
names  indicate,  were  started  by  Scandinavian  immigrants  in 
the  seventies.  Soon  after  Mr.  Smalley's  appointment  to 
Napier,  Mr.  G.  W.  Russell  went  to  Poverty  Bay  as  a  home 
missionary,  where  he  held  services  with  good  results. 
Gisbourne  was  then  a  small  town,  but  its  importance  was 
foreseen.  Frequent  changes  of  ministers,  nine  in  twelve 
years,  prevented  progress.  During  the  Rev.  Josiah  Ward's 
term,  the  position  was  retrieved.  A  new  church  and  parsonage 
were  built,  and  the  past  five  years  have  shown  a  decided 
advance.  With  a  population  of  8,000  in  Gisbourne  itself, 
and  with  excellent  land  around,  further  rapid  growth  may  be 
expected. 

Not  without  warrant,  Taranaki  claims  the  title  of  the  Garden 
of  New  Zealand.  As  pasture  country  for  sheep  and  cattle  the 
coast  districts  are  unrivalled,  while  the  inland  downs  are 
fitted  for  the  growth  of  cereals.  For  thirty-five  years  there 
were  serious  Maori  troubles.  Around  New  Plymouth  the 
settlers  had  more  than  once  to  vacate  their  farms.  All  through 
the  province  they  had  to  fight  for  their  hearths  and  homes. 
This,  and  the  want  of  roads,  retarded  progress.  New 
Plymouth  was  founded  by  immigrants  from  Devon  and 
Cornwall,  of  whom  a  goodly  proportion  had  been  connected 
with  Methodism  in  the  fatherland.  Mr.  H.  Gilbert,  a  Bible 
Christian  and  a  local  preacher,  who  came  by  the  first  vessel, 
was  welcomed  by  the  Rev.  C.  Creed,  and  preached  the 
following  Sunday.  Desiring  Christian  fellowship,  he 
attended  a  class-meeting  in  Mr.  Creed's  house.  Within 
twelve  months  the  class  was  so  large  that  it  was  divided. 
Services  were  started  in  a  raupo  hut.  In  1843  a  stone  church, 
built  by  the  Congregationalists,  was  purchased.  In  1856  the 
Liardet  Street  site  was  secured,  and  the  Rev.  Samuel  Ironside 
opened  the  church  there.  For  two  years  prior  to  the  war,  the 
congregation  enjoyed  the  preaching  of  the  Rev.  Joseph  H. 
Fletcher.     When   peace   was  restored,    the   Rev.   Alexander 


388       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Reid  became  the  minister.  The  church  was  enlarged,  a  pipe 
organ  obtained,  and  additions  made  to  the  schoolroom.  Great 
revivals  were  witnessed  during  the  superintendency  of  the 
Revs.  W.  Kirk  and  F.  W.  Isitt.  In  1898  the  present  hand- 
some sanctuary  was  built,  at  a  cost  of  ;^2,300.  In  honour  of 
the  beloved  missionary  who  had  lived  there  for  ten  years,  and 
was  shot  by  the  Maoris,  it  is  known  as  the  Whiteley 
Memorial  Church.  A  second  church  in  the  town  has  since 
been  built.  Of  the  town  population  nearly  one-fifth  are 
adherents  of  the  Church. 

Waitara  residents  hoped  that  the  river  there  would  become 
the  port  of  Taranaki.  That  hope  has  been  only  partially 
realized.  The  Rev.  J.  Crump  preached  at  Waitara  in  1872. 
In  1875  a  small  church  from  Bell  Road  was  removed  there. 
Subsecjuently,  a  better  site  was  secured  and  a  new  church 
built.  At  Inglewood  one  Monday  morning  in  the  year  1876, 
a  number  of  workers  from  New  Plymouth  and  Waitara,  aided 
by  local  residents,  began  the  building  of  a  church.  It  was 
opened  the  following  Sunday.  The  roads  were  so  bad  that 
some  of  the  congregation  preferred  to  go  barefooted  till  near 
the  building.  Five  years  later  a  new  and  larger  church  took 
its  place.  Lepperton,  Midhurst,  Huirangi,  Waipuku,  and 
other  places  soon  obtained  sanctuaries  of  their  own.  The 
evangelistic  spirit  has  always  prevailed.  Eighty  persons 
found  peace  at  Waitara  in  1884,  and  eleven  years  later  there 
was  a  revival  through  the  whole  district.  At  the  southern 
end  of  the  province,  the  Wanganui  ministers  held  the  first 
Methodist  services.  At  Carlyle,  now  known  as  Patea,  Mr. 
Harding  preached  in  1867.  After  the  failure  of  Titokowaru's 
raid,  the  Rev.  W.  Morley  and  Mr.  Stannard  paid  monthly 
visits,  preaching  also  at  the  blockhouses  at  Waitotara, 
Waverley,  and  Kakaramea.  Patea  church  was  built  in  1875, 
and  a  minister  resided  there  for  twelve  years.  The  town  has 
not  fulfilled  its  early  promise,  and  it  is  now  a  home  mission 
station. 

On  the  famous  Waimate  plains,  many  thousands  of  acres 


NEW    ZEALAND  389 

of  rich  land  were  confiscated  after  the  native  rebelHon,  and 
the  Hawera  township  was  founded.  Its  growth  has  been 
steady  and  continuous.  The  Patea  minister  and  the  Rev. 
T.  G.  Hammond  cared  for  the  spiritual  needs  of  its  early 
residents,  and  for  those  of  the  townships  near  by.  The  Church 
has  always  had  its  devoted  members,  generous  givers,  and  able 
local  preachers.  At  Manaia,  Okaiawa,  Kaponga,  Otakeho, 
Normanby,  Opunake,  and  other  places  churches  were 
organized.  Three  other  circuits,  Manaia,  Kaponga,  and  Cape 
Egmont,  have  been  carved  out  of  the  ground  thus  occupied. 
Stratford  and  Eltham  are  later  developments.  Stratford  was 
a  very  small  settlement  in  a  heavily  timbered  district.  The 
key  to  a  large  tract  of  country  stretching  up  to  the  Wanganui 
River,  and  an  important  railway  centre,  it  soon  attracted  the 
attention  of  dairy  farmers.  The  Rev.  J.  T.  Pinfold  conducted 
services  therein  i889,butunfortunately  they  were  discontinued. 
A  circuit,  however,  was  formed  in  1894  and  a  church  built. 
In  other  townships  near  by  congregations  were  gathered, 
Eltham  claiming  attention.  Both  towns  are  now  prosperous. 
Among  the  first  arrivals  in  New^  Plymouth  were  a  number 
of  Primitive  Methodists,  some  of  whom  gained  considerable 
worldly  substance.  They  found  their  way  into  the  newly 
settled  districts.  Ardently  attached  to  their  Church,  they 
sought  to  extend  it,  and  for  twenty-five  years  there  was  some- 
times keen  rivalry  between  them  and  the  Wesleyans.  The 
Rev.  R.  Ward  on  his  arrival  in  1884  found  a  number  of  Bible 
Christians,  who  had  commenced  services  in  the  open  air. 
They  had  already  sent  to  England  for  a  minister,  but'recog- 
nizing  in  Mr.  Ward  a  kindred  spirit,  five  local  preachers  and 
all  the  members  joined  the  Primitive  Methodists.  Thus 
reinforced,  the  New  Plymouth  Church  increased  in  importance 
and  became  a  denominational  stronghold.  Mr.  Bellringer, 
for  many  years  prominent  among  ils  members,  is  of  high 
standing  in  the  community,  successfully  filling  many  civic 
offices.  At  Bell  Block,  Tataraimaka,  and  other  settlements, 
services  were  begun.    After  the  war,  churches  were  started  at 


390       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Waitara  and  Inglewood.  Their  preachers  held  the  first 
services  at  Stratford,  Eltham,  and  other  places.  Itinerant  and 
local  preachers  vied  in  spreading  the  evangel,  and  success 
crowned  their  efforts.  When  in  March  1913  these  places 
became  part  of  the  Methodist  Church  of  the  Dominion,  they 
brought  into  it  in  Taranaki  fourteen  churches  and  2,130 
hearers. 

Nelson  City,  with  Dun  Mountain  in  the  rear,  watered  by 
the  Maitai  River,  is  pleasantly  situated,  and  has  always  been 
a  favourite  place  of  residence.    Founded  by  the  New  Zealand 
Company,  the  Fifeshire  brought  surveyors  and  labourers  in 
February    1841.     Two   other  vessels  shortly  after   landed  a 
number  of  immigrants.    To-day,  within  the  city  limits,  there 
is  a  population  of  8,000.     The  Rev.  S.  Ironside  came  from 
Cloudy  Bay  mission  in  1842,  to  be  welcomed  by  Mr.  Green, 
Mr.  Hough,  a  local  preacher,  having  already  held  services. 
Mr.  Ironside  preached  on  the  river  bank,  and  as  he  preached, 
the  people  shouted  for  joy.     The  Company  gave  an  acre  of 
land  near  the  present  Custom  House,  and  a  church  seating 
200  people  was  built.     Within  six  years,  services  were  estab- 
lished  at    Wakapuaka  and   the   villages   of   Waimea.      Mr. 
Ironside  took  charge  in  1849,  to  be  followed  by  the  Rev.  John 
Warren    eight   years   later,    whose   choice   diction    and   able 
sermons    attracted    large    congregations.      The    old    church, 
damaged  by  earthquake,  was  sold,  and  a  new  church,  costing 
;^2,i97,   was  opened   in    1858.     Conversions  were   frequent. 
Robert  Lucas,   trained  in  Bristol   Methodism,   was  an  ideal 
steward.     After  forty  years,  the  first  church  was  replaced  by 
the  present  elegant  one,  and  later  the  parsonage  and  school- 
rooms were  added.     For  thirty-two  years,  the  Nelson  pastor 
has  had  charge  of  the  one  congregation. 

On  the  Waimea  plains  townships  were  laid  out,  and  in 
the  early  days  of  Stoke,  Waimea  Village,  Spring  Grove, 
and  Wakefield,  where  the  best  features  of  English  village 
Methodism    were    reproduced.     With    the    newer    places    of 


NEW    ZEALAND  391 

Appleby,  Hope,  Ranzau,  and  Foxhill,  these  were  detached 
from  Nelson  in  1881,  and  constituted  the  Richmond  circuit. 
Fruit  culture  has  largely  displaced  farming.  At  Richmond 
in  1913  a  modern  and  attractive-looking  church  took  the 
place  of  one  built  in  1S76.  Across  the  bay  are  fertile  lands 
formerly  used  for  hop-growing,  while  hills  previously  deemed 
barren  are  covered  with  orchards.  A  small  church,  built  in 
1844  at  jMotueka,  was  supplied  by  '  Father  '  Andrews  for 
many  years.  The  Motueka  circuit  from  i86g  has  had  a 
chequered  history,  but  the  flag  has  been  kept  flying. 

Early  arrivals  in  Nelson  took  up  land  on  the  rich  and 
well-watered  Wairau  plains.  In  1859  that  territory,  with 
but  1,000  residents,  became  the  province  of  Marlborough. 
At  Blenheim,  its  capital,  Methodist  families,  who  were  among 
the  first  residents,  were  loyal  to  their  Church,  and  '  strength- 
ened each  other's  hands  in  God.'  The  Rev.  J.  W.  Wallis 
was  appointed  in  1865,  and  the  church  built  six  months  later 
was  removed  to  Sinclair  Street  on  account  of  floods.  Sinclair 
Street  site  being  resumed  by  the  Government  for  railway 
purposes,  a  third  church,  much  larger,  was  built.  It  was 
destroyed  by  fire  when  near  completion.  Meanwhile,  two 
acres  in  High  Street  had  been  acquired,  and  on  that  site, 
the  best  in  the  town,  the  present  commodious  sanctuary  was 
built  in  1881.  Blenheim,  with  a  population  of  3,700,  has 
now  one  of  the  best  suites  of  church  buildings  in  the 
Dominion.  At  the  growing  town  of  Picton  an  attractive 
church  took  the  place  of  the  earlier  structure.  At  Seddon, 
30  miles  south  of  Blenheim,  a  church  has  also  been  built, 
and  a  home  missionary  stationed.  Half-way  between 
Blenheim  and  Nelson  small  townships  were  started  many 
years  since,  which  also  have  churches. 

Before  the  year  i860  Westland  was  almost  a  terra  incognita, 
the  settlers  being  few  and  scattered.  The  rich  gold  finds 
of  1865  changed  that;  for  within  a  few  months  40,000 
people  landed.  In  Revell  Street,  Hokitika,  it  was  said  '  every 
other  building  was  a  store,  and  the  alternate  one  an  hotel.' 


392        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Three  men  unearthed  ^^4,000  worth  of  gold  in  one  day,  and 
the  excitement  became  intense.  At  Mr.  Buller's  sugges- 
tion the  Christchurch  circuit  Hberated  the  Rev.  G.  S.  Harper 
for  service  there.  Young,  enthusiastic,  a  good  open-air 
preacher,  he  did  splendid  work,  and  in  five  months  churches 
were  built  at  Hokitika,  Ross,  and  Kanieri.  Rich  finds  near 
Greymouth  necessitated  prompt  action  there,  and  Mr.  Cannell 
was  placed  in  charge,  and  a  church  was  opened  in  January 
1868.  The  following  year  Hokitika  and  Greymouth  each 
had  a  married  minister.  For  a  dozen  years  these  circuits 
were  most  prosperous.  Amongst  the  converts  were  two 
young  men,  Mr.  P.  C.  Thomas  and  Mr.  P.  W.  Fairclough, 
both  of  whom  became  ministers  and  eventually  Presidents  of 
their  Conference.  As  gold  mining  languished,  coal  mining 
and  a  large  timber  trade  made  Greymouth  a  busy  port. 
Hokitika,  with  a  diminished  population,  still  holds  its  own. 

The  United  Methodist  Free  Church  did  good  work  in 
Westland  during  the  sixties  and  early  seventies.  The 
pioneer,  the  Rev.  Joseph  White,  advised  by  Mr.  Harper, 
began  work  among  the  3,000  miners  at  Charleston  and 
Brighton.  After  a  few  years  those  fields  were  deserted.  But 
Westport  coal  mines  had  been  started,  and  with  the  harbour 
facilities  a  prosperous  town  grew  up,  to  which  Mr.  White 
removed.  A  Wesleyan  minister  being  sent  in  1894,  the  two 
congregations  were  combined.  At  Reefton  four  Wesleyans 
held  services  in  1872,  and  built  a  church.  No  minister  being 
available,  the  building  was  purchased  by  the  Free  Methodists. 
After  the  union  Mr.  Pinfold  cared  for  the  properties,  and 
provided  for  the  liquidation  of  the  debt.  Reefton  circuit, 
which  has  had  the  fluctuations  of  a  mining  community,  is 
now  prosperous.  The  coal  deposits  in  Westland  are  valuable 
and  widespread.  On  the  opening  of  the  mines  at  Denniston 
Hill,  a  considerable  population  was  attracted  there,  amongst 
them  being  several  Primitive  Methodist  families.  A  circuit 
was  formed  in  1892,  and  since  then  there  have  been  further 
extensions. 


NEW    ZEALAND  393 

Canterbury  Province  is  a  rectan<^iilar  block  stretching  from 
the  Hurunui  River  to  the  Waitaki,  and  from  the  sea  on 
the  east  to  the  Alpine  range  on  the  west.  Nine  million  acres 
of  land,  much  of  it  rich  and  nearly  all  cultivable,  made  it 
a  tempting  field  for  colonization.  Enterprising  men  took  up 
sheep  and  cattle  stations  on  Bank's  Peninsula  in  the  early- 
forties,  and  there  was  a  French  settlement  in  Akaroa.  In 
1S48  the  Canterbury  Association,  formed  in  England,  pur- 
chased the  New  Zealand  and  French  company's  rights,  and 
in  December  1850  the  first  immigrants  landed.  Lyttleton 
and  Christchurch  had  already  been  laid  out,  and  the  cultiva- 
tion of  the  soil  was  at  once  commenced.  Eight  years  later, 
with  7,000  people,  the  public  revenue  was  ;^96,ooo.  When 
the  task  of  making  the  Lyttleton  tunnel  was  undertaken 
there  were  20,000  people  only.  The  opening  of  this  tunnel 
increased  the  grain  exports  fourteenfold  in  one  year.  In  no 
part  of  the  Dominion  has  there  been  more  steady  and 
substantial  progress  than  here. 

It  was  intended  to  make  the  settlement  a  Church  of 
England  preserve,  and  to  this  end  every  immigrant  had  to 
secure  a  certificate  from  his  parish  clergyman.  Notwith- 
standing this  proviso,  some  Methodists  were  in  the  first 
ships,  who,  during  the  voyage  and  on  arrival,  sang  hymns 
and  held  prayer-meetings.  Some  petty  persecution  was 
attempted,  but  the  Methodists  claimed  the  right  of  Britons 
to  worship  God  in  their  own  way.  Mr.  H.  Flavell,  a  local 
preacher,  preached  the  first  Methodist  sermon  in  Christ- 
church  in  1851.  The  same  year  the  Rev.  James  Watkin 
came  from  Wellington,  holding  services  in  a  carpenter's 
shop  in  Lyttleton  and  in  Mr.  J.  Philpott's  hut  at  Christ- 
church.  At  Christchurch  preaching  services  were  also  held 
in  the  house  of  Mr.  D.  Lewis.  On  his  way  to  Waikouaiti 
the  Rev.  W.  Kirk  being  detained  in  Lyttleton  while  his 
vessel  was  under  repair,  Mr.  Watkin  consented  to  his 
detention  for  a  few  months,  when  he  edified  the  faithful, 
and  saw  many  brought  to  God. 


394       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

Mr.  John  Broughton,  one  of  the  converts,  presented  an 
excellent  site  in  High  Street,  Christchurch ;  and  in  a  stable, 
the  only  place  available,  cleansed  and  whitewashed  for  the 
occasion,  the  foundation  stone-laying  was  celebrated.  On 
Easter  Sunday,  in  the  year  1854,  ^I^*  Aldred  opened  the 
church,  then  the  largest  building  in  the  city.  At  Lyttleton, 
where  Mr.  Kirk  had  been  working,  the  church  was  com- 
pleted in  1855.  At  Riccarton  and  Kaiapoi  services  were 
also  commenced,  and  congregations  were  gathered  at 
Papanui,  Woodend,  and  Ellis's  Island.  A  handsome 
wooden  church  took  the  place  of  the  earlier  one  in  High 
Street  in  1859,  ^rid  it  was  soon  filled. 

The  P^ev.  J.  Duller,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Aldred  in  i860, 
was  robust,  energetic,  and  hopeful,  with  a  capacity  for 
leadership.  He  soon  made  his  influence  felt.  Immigrants, 
then  arriving  in  large  numbers,  were  welcomed  and  coun- 
selled, prayer  bands  were  organized,  young  men  were  trained 
as  local  preachers,  and  many  other  places  occupied.  Mr. 
Buller's  crowning  work  in  the  '  city  of  the  plains  '  was  the 
erection  of  Durham  Street  Church.  The  church  at  High 
Street,  then  too  small,  was  sold,  and  a  contract  let  for  a 
handsome  stone  church  with  schoolroom  attached  to  seat 
1,200  persons,  and  to  cost  ;^  12,000.  One-fourth  of  this 
amount  was  borrowed  at  15  per  cent.  The  undertaking  was 
heroic;  but  it  was  wise,  and  it  was  successfully  carried  out. 
The  church  was  opened  on  Christmas  Day,  1864,  "^^ith  great 
rejoicing.  This  property  has  been  the  pride  and  joy  of 
Canterbury  Methodism.  It  is  the  great  gathering-place  on 
special  occasions,  and  it  is  a  place  of  holy  memories.  The 
spacious  schoolroom  was  added  in  1874,  and  the  church  has 
been  renovated,  the  interior  remodelled,  and  a  more  powerful 
organ  obtained.  Altogether  the  sum  of  ;^30,ooo  has  been 
expended.  Well  filled  in  the  morning,  and  crowded  in 
the  evening,  suburban  churches  subsequently  depleted  the 
congregation.  These  altered  conditions  have  now  been 
recognized,  and  the  historic  building  is  again  being  filled. 


NEW    ZEALAND  395 

In  the  earlier  years  at  Durham  Street  there  were  several 
able  and  generous  laymen,  who,  backed  by  a  strong  body 
of  trustees,  were  always  ready  to  help  in  forward  movements. 
This  church  has  been  the  scene  of  many  wonderful  revivals, 
which  gather  around  the  names  of  Bishop  Taylor  and  the 
resident  ministers  in  1871,  1878,  and  1881.  The  Rev. 
T.  Buddie,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Buller,  was  a  great  organizer. 
Circuit  divisions  were  made,  suburban  churches  multiplied, 
and  better  buildings  replaced  those  first  erected.  At  Lyttle- 
ton  an  attractive  church  was  built.  In  Sydenham,  Waltham 
and  Harper  Street  churches  became  one  in  the  central  stone 
church  in  Colombo  Road.  East  Belt  was  replaced  by  a 
larger  brick  church  in  1S82.  The  beautiful  sanctuary  built 
on  land  given  by  Mr.  Peacock  succeeded  the  primitive  church 
at  St.  Albans,  and  this  was  superseded  by  the  handsome 
church  in  Papanui  Road.  Churches  were  also  built  at 
Papanui,  Knightstown,  Shirley,  Riccarton,  Riccarton 
Village,  Freiston,  Woolston,  and  Heathcote  Valley.  In  the 
five  circuits  in  Christchurch  there  were  twenty-six  churches 
in  1912,  with  8,000  persons  as  worshippers.  That  means 
one  in  ten  in  the  city  and  suburbs,  with  every  fourth  name 
out  of  the  ten  on  the  membership  roll. 

Country  Methodists  emulated  the  zeal  of  the  city.  A 
good  church  was  built  at  Kaiapoi  in  i860,  where  the  present 
Sunday  school  stands.  Ten  years  later  a  new  one  took  its 
place.  The  Rev.  G.  S.  Harper,  the  first  minister,  saw  many 
conversions.  The  Kaiapoi  congregation  cared  for  the 
children.  It  built  the  first  modern  Sunday  school  in  the 
province,  with  provision  for  separate  class-rooms.  Woodend 
church  was  almost  coeval  with  Kaiapoi.  Ohoka,  Swannanoa, 
Clarkville,  Raithby,  Southbrook,  Ashley  Bank,  Leithfield, 
and  Amberley  churches  marked  the  onward  march  ; 
Rangiora,  Sefton,  Horreville,  Waikuku,  and  Cheviot 
coming  afterwards.  The  Free  Methodists  of  Rangiora, 
Oxford,  and  Cust  amalgamated  with  the  Wesleyans  in  i8g6. 
In  the  villages  south  of  Christchurch  there  are  three  strong 


396       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

circuits,  Springston,  Tai  Tapu,  and  Leeston.  Three 
Methodist  farmers  bought  land  near  the  Springs  station  in 
1864,  and  at  once  started  services.  Not  content  to  '  eat  their 
morsel  alone,'  the  local  preachers  went  far  and  wide,  and 
in  two  years  seven  churches  were  erected.  New  and  better 
buildings  have  since  taken  the  place  of  the  earlier  ones. 
Bible  Christian  churches  were  opened  at  Kimberley,  Prebble- 
ton,  Templeton,  and  Halswell.  Many  years  ago  they  became 
part  of  the  circuits  already  in  existence. 

Some  circuits  in  South  Canterbury  had  not  the  stimulus 
that  the  northern  circuits  enjoyed  in  their  formative  period. 
From  the  Rangitata  River  to  the  Waitaki  was  a  wide  stretch 
of  treeless  plain.  Cobb's  coach  was  the  only  means  of 
communication  with  Christchurch.  A  small  steamer  traded 
to  Timaru,  which  was  then  a  small  town.  Now  there  is  a 
well-protected  harbour  where  the  open  roadstead  existed. 
Waimate,  Temaka,  and  Geraldine,  now  borough  towns,  were 
then  remote  outposts.  Happily,  in  each  place  there  were 
devoted  men  who  held  meetings  for  Christian  fellowship, 
while  the  local  preachers  proclaimed  the  gospel.  In  1865 
the  Rev.  J.  B.  Richardson  was  sent  to  Timaru.  He  found 
*a  people  prepared  of  the  Lord,'  and  was  soon  known 
throughout  a  circuit  50  miles  long.  Ten  years  later  six 
churches  had  been  built.  Pareora,  Fairview,  Kingsdown, 
Waimataitai,  around  Timaru,  Nukuroa  near  Waimate,  and 
Waitohi,  5  miles  from  Temuka,  all  have  places  of  worship. 
Temuka  and  Waimate  soon  became  circuits. 

Originally  taken  up  as  sheep  runs,  the  opening  of  the 
railway  from  Christchurch  to  Dunedin  inauguraied  a  new 
era  in  central  Canterbury.  The  leases  of  station  areas 
expiring  in  1875,  the  stations  were  divided  into  farms,  which 
were  eagerly  competed  for.  Business  men,  farmers,  and 
school  teachers,  earnest  workers  and  Methodists,  settled  in 
the  country  and  at  Ashburton.  Ministers  and  local  preachers 
from  Christchurch  conducted  services,  and  the  work  was  so 
promising  that  a  minister  was  appointed,  and  churches  and 


NEW    ZEALAND  397 

parsonages  were  built  at  Ashburton  and  Willowby.  Com- 
mercial depression  came  with  heavy  debts,  and  for  a  time 
there  was  a  struggle.  But  the  people  did  not  lose  heart ; 
and  under  the  leadership  of  the  Rev.  W.  Keall  the  difficulties 
were  surmounted,  and  great  activity  and  blessing  followed. 
Churches  have  been  erected  at  Wakanui,  Waterton,  Low- 
clilTe,  Hinds,  and  Tinwald  and  further  afield;  and  Methven 
and  ]\Iayfield  now  have  churches  of  their  own.  The  church 
and  schoolroom  at  Baring  Square  are  on  the  best  site  in 
Ashburton.  Ashburton  is  the  centre  of  a  prohibition 
district.  Prohibition  is  reported  to  be  of  much  advantage 
to  business. 

Though  Christchurch  has  always  been  a  strong  Wesleyan 
centre,  the  minor  Methodist  churches  were  established  there. 
Mr.  George  Booth,  of  the  United  Methodist  Free  Church, 
commenced  services  in  i860,  and  built  a  church  in  Rangiora. 
Removing  to  Addington  three  years  later,  his  co-religionists 
gathered  round  him,  founding  churches  there  and  at 
Richmond  and  Lincoln  Road.  The  Rev.  M.  Baxter,  who 
came  from  England  as  superintendent,  was  followed  by  the 
Rev.  S.  Macfarlane,  and  at  St.  Asaph  Street,  Christchurch, 
two  churches  were  built  in  succession.  When  the  last  was 
destroyed  by  fire,  the  church  in  Durham  Street  South  took  its 
place.  An  honoured  local  preacher,  Mr.  E.  Reed,  organized  a 
Bible  Christian  Church  in  1877,  the  first  services  being  held 
in  a  hall.  A  small  church  was  built  in  Lower  High  Street, 
and  the  first  ministers  were  the  Revs.  Keast,  Crewes,  and 
Wilson.  In  1886  the  Rev.  John  Orchard,  a  tireless  worker, 
took  charge,  and  aided  by  funds  from  England,  the  Lower 
High  Street  church  was  erected.  Churches  were  also  built 
at  Addington,  Belfast,  Marshlands,  and  Little  River.  With 
the  union  of  1896  these  became  part  of  the  Durham  Street 
and  Sydenham  circuits. 

The  Primitive  Methodists  worshipped  with  the  Wesleyans 
for  many  years.  But  they  cherished  their  early  attachments, 
and  when  a  large  contingent  of  members  arrived  with  the 


398       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

immigrants  they  resolved  to  secure  their  own  Church 
organization.  In  the  year  1872  the  Rev.  R.  Ward  came 
to  Christchurch  as  their  minister,  and  Cambridge  Terrace 
Church  was  their  head  quarters.  Great  activity  was  shown. 
The  members  of  the  Rudd  family,  who  settled  at  Greendale, 
were  earnest  and  devout,  and  laid  the  foundations  of  a  good 
circuit.  Josiah  Ward  also  made  a  good  beginning  at  Timaru 
and  Temuka,  and  two  circuits  were  the  result.  At  Geraldine 
the  Wesleyan  congregation  was  absorbed,  and  there  was  a 
small  congregation  in  Waimate.  They  were  the  first  to 
hold  services  in  the  Ashburton  district. 

The  province  of  Otago  is  in  perfect  contrast  to  Canterbury. 
Its  great  lakes  and  the  west  coast  fiords  present  strong  scenic 
attractions.  From  the  Waitaki  River  to  Palmerston  is  a 
stretch  of  country  eminently  suitable  for  wheat  growing. 
Beyond  the  hills,  which,  from  Blueskin  southwards,  encircle 
Port  Chalmers  harbour  and  Dunedin  City,  are  the  fertile 
Taieri  and  Clutha  plains.  The  greater  portion  of  Southland 
is  also  an  extensive  plain,  and  considerable  portions  of  it 
were  heavily  timbered.  Inland,  the  country  is  broken.  The 
great  rivers  are  also  an  outstanding  feature,  and  the 
Wakatipu  plateau  is  a  natural  sanatorium.  This  settlement 
was  planned  by  a  committee  of  laymen  belonging  to  the 
Free  Church  of  Scotland.  This  committee  purchased  400,000 
acres  from  the  New  Zealand  Company.  The  first  immi- 
grants arrived  in  1848.  At  the  end  of  ten  years  the  popula- 
tion only  totalled  7,500.  The  settlers  had  many  hardships, 
and  so  primitive  was  the  community  that  for  seven  years 
postage  stamps  were  unknown.  The  aim  of  the  promoters 
was  to  make  this  area  another  Scotland,  with  true-blue 
Presbyterians  only.  In  this  they  failed;  but  the  land  and 
money  coming  to  the  Presbyterian  Church  from  the  proceeds 
of  land  reserves  gave  it  means  of  support  and  extension 
which  no  other  denomination  can  hope  for. 

The  Methodists,  however,  claim  priority.    The  Rev.  James 


NEW   ZEALAND  399 

Watkin  opened  a  Maori  mission  station  at  Waikouaiti  in 
1840,  travelling  as  far  as  Clutha  to  preach  to  the  few  white 
residents;  and  when  the  Philip  Laing  dropped  anchor  in 
Port  Chalmers,  the  Rev.  Charles  Creed,  the  Wesleyan 
missionary,  was  there  to  welcome  the  Scottish  strangers, 
and  to  preach  to  them  the  next  evening.  Mr.  Wright,  a 
Ludlow  local  preacher,  also  arrived  in  1857,  ^^^  i^i  his  house 
in  George  Street,  Dunedin,  the  first  class-meeting  was  held. 
Aided  by  Mr.  Bacon,  a  Primitive  Methodist,  public  services 
were  also  held  at  Dunedin,  Port  Chalmers,  and  Pelichet  Bay. 
The  Waikouaiti  missionaries  fostered  the  infant  Church. 
Since  then  Methodism  has  had  a  place,  a  name,  and  a  history 
in  Otago  of  which  there  is  no  reason  to  be  ashamed. 

The  gold  discoveries  of  1861  brought  rapid  and  startling 
changes.  Miners  crowded  every  steamer  from  Australia, 
3,000  landing  one  day.  They  tramped  to  Gabriel's 
Gully,  to  Dunstan,  Wakatipu,  and  elsewhere,  being  known 
for  a  time  as  the  '  new  iniquities,'  to  distinguish  them  from 
the  '  old  identities.'  Dunedin  became  a  bustling  city  with 
a  cosmopolitan  population.  The  Rev.  J.  Buller,  who  visited 
and  preached  there,  accepted  a  church  site  on  Bell  Hill, 
Dowling  Street,  and  organized  services  until  the  Rev.  Isaac 
Harding,  the  first  minister,  arrived  from  Auckland  in  1862. 
Full  of  energy,  and  an  attractive  speaker,  he  drew  large 
congregations.  The  morning  services  were  held  in  a  tent 
in  Stafford  Street,  and  the  evening  services  in  Old  Knox 
Church.  A  heavy  gale  wrecked  the  church  when  near 
completion.  Nothing  daunted,  another  contract  was  let, 
and  the  church  was  duly  opened.  Mr.  Harding  seemed 
ubiquitous.  He  preached  at  Oamaru,  Gabriel's  Gully,  and 
Invercargill.  Within  six  months  he  and  his  young  colleague 
at  Port  Chalmers  had  a  circuit  extending  from  Tuapeka  to 
Waikouaiti.  It  was  a  great  blow  to  Otago  Methodism  when 
Mr.  Harding  was  removed  to  Wellington  after  two  years' 
service.  His  successor,  Mr.  Aldred,  unceasing  in  toil,  soon 
broke  dowm.     The  Rev.  A.  R.  Fitchett,  appointed  in   1867, 


400       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

was  young,  popular,  and  resourceful.  The  Dowling  Street 
cutting  had  left  the  church  perched  on  a  hill.  Obviously 
the  place  was  unsuitable,  and  Moray  Street  site  was  there- 
fore acquired,  and  Trinity  Church  and  schoolroom  built, 
at  a  cost  of  ;^5,ooo.  Though  a  heavy  debt  was  left,  the 
scheme  was  a  success.  For  forty-five  years  it  has  been  the 
chief  church  of  Otago  Methodism,  and  no  congregation  has 
been  more  loyal  or  generous.  A  small  church  at  Port 
Chalmers,  built  in  1855,  was  reopened  and  enlarged  by  the 
Rev.  R.  S.  Bunn.  Mr.  Fitchett,  who  was  eager  for  exten- 
sion, commenced  services  at  Broad  Bay,  Caversham,  Blueskin, 
Merton,  Palmerston,  and  Naseby,  in  which  he  was  assisted 
by  the  Revs.  H.  Bull  and  D.  McNicoll,  his  colleagues  for 
a  year.  The  circuit  was  then  divided,  and  they  were  placed 
in  charge  of  Port  Chalmers  and  Waikouaiti. 

For  some  years  Dunedin  had  one  church  only  and  a 
preaching  station  at  North-east  Valley.  In  1876  Mornington 
was  occupied,  and  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Lewis  took  charge,  also 
holding  services  at  Linden  and  Roslyn.  During  the  Rev. 
J.  Berry's  time  South  Dunedin  grew  rapidly,  and  the  Sunday 
school  flourished  greatly.  The  church  at  Opoho  was 
removed  to  Cargill  Road,  where  the  Sunday  school  now 
stands.  The  corner  site  opposite  the  church  was  purchased, 
and  the  mission  hall  built  in  1893.  Mornington  made  rapid 
strides.  First  a  transept  was  added  to  the  church,  and  this 
was  superseded  by  a  brick  church ;  several  other  places  also 
built  churches.  More  recently  a  church,  school,  and 
parsonage  have  been  built  at  St.  Kilda,  and  the  minister 
there  has  charge  of  Broad  Bay.  In  1890  the  Rev.  W.  Ready 
opened  the  Bible  Christian  Mission  in  Dunedin.  From  open- 
air  services  he  and  his  hearers  moved  to  a  hall  in  Stafford 
Street.  Mr.  Ready's  work  was  so  successful  that  during 
the  latter  part  of  his  nine  years'  term  an  evening  congrega- 
tion of  1,800  filled  the  Garrison  Hall.  His  successors  also 
laboured  diligently.  Recently  the  congregation  moved  into 
a  large  hall  in  the  Octagon.     The  fifty  years'  work  is  now 


NEW    ZEALAND  401 

represented  by  five  circuits,  seven  ministers,  ten  churches, 
and  4,790  worshippers. 

Oamaru,  the  business  centre  of  a  thriving  district,  is  a 
pleasant  and  prosperous  town.  Its  growth  was  intermittent, 
commercial  crises  retarded  it,  and  Church  movements  have 
been  chequered.  In  Mr.  Thomas  Ferens'  house  at  Sotford, 
on  March  10,  1863,  Mr.  Harding  preached  in  the  morning, 
and  at  Oamaru  in  the  evening.  The  first  church  was  built 
in  South  Oamaru,  and  when  that  was  sold,  the  present  site 
in  Eden  Street  was  acquired,  and  the  church  opened  in  1S75. 
Parsonage  and  schoolroom  followed.  But  heavy  financial 
burdens  were  incurred,  with  which  the  members  heroically 
struggled.  Special  help  was  given  from  the  Loan  Fund, 
and  after  long  years  the  debt  was  discharged.  The  jubilee 
services  were  held  amid  great  rejoicings  in  1913.  Enfield 
church  has  since  been  opened. 

In  1S61  the  1,500  people  south  of  the  Mataura  demanded 
local  self-government.  The  demand  was  granted,  and  South- 
land became  a  province,  with  Invercargill  as  the  capital  city. 
Sheep  runs  gave  place  to  farms,  and  saw-millers  came  and 
established  a  large  timber  trade.  Gold  at  Wakatipu,  the 
Shotover,  and  Kawarau  brought  the  miners.  Invercargill 
now  has  a  population  01  15,000  in  a  'No-License'  district. 
The  Rev.  L.  Harding,  the  first  Wesleyan  minister,  arranged 
services,  secured  a  site  on  the  North  Road,  and  opened  a 
church  on  Christmas  Day,  1863.  In  1867  an  Independent 
Anglican  church  was  purchased  in  Leet  Street,  and  North 
Road  Church  removed  there  for  school  purposes.  Fifteen 
years  later  the  new  brick  church  of  St.  Paul's  took  the  place 
of  the  weather-board  structure.  Services  were  held  at  the 
Bluff  in  the  sixties.  The  surrounding  townships  were  visited, 
and  in  1885  there  were  fifteen  places  on  the  circuit  plan. 
Unfortunately,  many  of  these  were  subsequently  abandoned. 
Riverton  was  well  worked  from  the  town.  At  South  Inver- 
cargill, Teviot  Street  Church,  opened  in  1906,  has  become  very 
prosperous. 

D  D 


402       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

The  town  of  Gore,  which  now  has  a  population  of  3,000, 
was  a  village  only  in  1882.  The  Rev.  J.  N.  Buttle,  who  was 
stationed  there,  saw  a  church  built.  Some  years  later  a  more 
central  site  was  obtained,  and  a  larger  church  and  parsonage 
erected.  Gore  is  now  a  thriving  circuit.  Otautau,  with  the 
townships  around,  has  also  prospered.  Around  Wakatipu, 
drawn  by  the  flush  of  gold-mining,  there  were  many  Method- 
ists, some  of  whom  remain.  There  are  churches  also  at 
Queenstown  and  Arrowtown.  Milton,  Balclutha,  Lawrence, 
Roxburgh,  Cromwell,  and  Mosgiel  are  the  other  centres  of 
the  Church's  work.  The  smallest  of  these  is  Cromwell,  with 
600  people,  and  Mosgiel,  with  three  times  that  number,  is 
the  largest.  In  each  place  there  are  worshippers  who  are 
strong  in  their  attachment  to  Methodism  and  liberal  in  their 
support.  Heroic  work  was  done  in  these  localities  in  the 
early  days.  At  Teviot,  for  example,  the  Rev.  W.  B. 
Marten  worked  in  a  circuit  with  five  preaching-places  and 
an  area  of  68  miles  by  45.  In  winter  the  tracks  w-ere 
almost  impassable.  The  first  quarter's  receipts  were  ^8  iSs. 
Living  in  a  miner's  sod  hut,  his  generous  host  would  accept 
no  payment  for  board  and  lodging,  and  thus  he  was  able  to 
subsist.  He  saw  many  remarkable  conversions.  The  people 
of  Balclutha  and  Milton  enjoyed  religion,  and  were  ready  for 
every  good  work.  Cromwell  was  opened  by  the  Bible 
Christians  in  1887.  Through  the  establishment  of  woollen 
mills,  Mosgiel  has  become  very  prosperous.  These  circuits 
are  moderate  in  size,  and  they  well  repay  attention.  No 
better  training  ground  for  young  ministers  could  be  found. 

In  and  around  Dunedin  and  Invercargill  the  Primitive 
Methodists  provoked  the  Wesleyans  *  to  love  and  good 
works.'  Mr.  G.  Froggatt  was  one  of  the  stalwarts  in  Inver- 
cargill. In  conjunction  with  Mr.  Perkins  he  started  services, 
and  the  Rev.  B.  J.  Westbrook  was  appointed  minister  in 
1872.  The  following  year  Don  Street  Church  was  opened. 
Well  worked  and  centrally  situated,  it  carried  the  gospel  to 
the  outlying  settlements.     At  the   Bfuff  a  church  was  built 


NEW    ZEALAND  403 

in  1879,  and  it  is  now  a  self-supporting  circuit.  In  South 
Invercargill  the  EUis  Road  Church  has  a  membership  exceed- 
ing that  of  the  parent  congregation.  Edendale,  with  six 
adjacent  places,  became  a  circuit  in  igo8.  Dunedin  was  not 
entered  until  Dr.  Antliff's  visit  in  1875,  when  a  class  of  fifteen 
members  was  organized.  The  Rev.  Josiah  Ward,  the  first 
minister,  cheerful  and  indefatigable,  gathered  members  and 
workers.  Unfortunately,  the  debt  on  St.  John's  Church  was 
too  heavy,  and  the  church  was  sold.  Dundas  Street,  North 
Dunedin,  always  had  a  strong  and  prosperous  congregation. 
At  Ravensbourne,  Kew,  Caversham,  and  Green  Island,  there 
was  response,  and  churches  were  built.  The  old  Wesleyan 
centre  at  Waikouaiti  was  re-occupied,  and  six  smaller  places 
associated  therewith. 

For  more  than  two  generations,  from  Mongonui  in  the 
north  to  the  Bluff  in  the  south,  the  message  of  '  a  free,  full, 
and  present  salvation  '  has  been  proclaimed.  The  churches 
have  been  watered  with  the  dew  of  Heaven.  Hundreds  from 
the  various  congregations  have  been  removed  '  to  the  general 
assembly  and  Church  of  the  first-born  above.'  Their  children 
carry  on  the  work  their  fathers  began.  The  Dominion's 
population  is  now  1,000,000.  Of  that  number  one  in  every 
ten  is  associated  with  a  Methodist  congregation. 

The  Wesleyan  ministers  in  Australia  and  the  missionaries 
in  the  islands  formed  a  proprietary  company  in  1848  to  build 
a  college  for  their  children's  education.  Eight  and  a  half 
acres  of  land  were  purchased  in  the  centre  of  Auckland,  and 
Wesley  College  was  built.  Ministers'  children  were  boarders, 
but  day  scholars  from  the  city  also  attended.  For  the  thirty- 
five  years  the  college  was  in  operation  it  did  excellent  services. 
The  Rev.  J.  H.  Fletcher  was  the  first  head  master.  The  land 
and  buildings  were  given  by  the  owners  to  the  Church  for  the 
purpose  of  higher  education.  In  the  year  1865  half  the  pro- 
perty was  sold,  and  the  debt  remaining  was  extiniruished.  In 
the  eighties  the  college  was  let  as  a  private  school ;  but  having 


404       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

been  enlarged  and  repaired,  it  was  re-opened  in  1895  as  Prince 
Albert  College.  The  year  following  a  girls'  college  was 
erected,  and  both  colleges  were  successful  educationally.  But 
the  ;^7,ooo  required  for  building  and  alteration  was  bor- 
rowed, and  to  the  regret  of  many  the  colleges  were  compelled 
to  close.  They  were  let  as  boarding-houses.  As  the  sites 
are  valuable,  the  Queen  Street  frontages  have  been  leased 
for  the  erection  of  buildings.  The  proceeds,  after  providing 
for  interest  and  a  sinking  fund,  are  held  sacred  for  the 
purpose  of  the  trust. 

From  the  year  1876  the  theological  students  for  the  ministry 
have  been  trained,  first  at  Three  Kings'  College,  subsequently 
at  Prince  Albert  College,  and  latterly  in  rented  premises  at 
Auckland.  The  interest  of  a  noble  bequest  of  ^12,000  by 
Mr.  Probert  of  Auckland,  given  in  the  year  1893,  together 
with  ;^i,500  given  by  Mr.  Emsly,  a  Yorkshire  Methodist, 
provides  the  greater  part  of  the  funds  necessary  for  main- 
tenance. The  Rev.  C.  H.  Garland  has  been  set  apart  as  theo- 
logical tutor,  and  steps  are  now  being  taken  towards  the 
erection  of  a  Probert  Hall  in  Auckland.  The  sum  of  ^3,400 
has  already  been  subscribed. 

The  duty  of  initiating  a  Church  Building  and  Loan  Fund 
devolved  upon  the  Rev.  W.  Morley  in  1883,  and  ;^6,ooo  was 
raised.  The  Auckland  Jubilee  Fund  added  /,"  1,000,  and 
;^i,50o  came  from  the  Emsly  bequest.  Seven  years  later 
/^2,39o  more  was  raised,  and  the  capital  is  now  ;^i  1,871. 
The  benefits  from  this  fund  have  been  incalculable.  The 
capital  of  the  fund  in  the  Primitive  Methodist  Church  stands 
at  ;^i,532.  In  the  year  1899  guarantees  for  a  Fire  Insurance 
Fund  were  obtained  from  members  of  the  Church,  and  the 
Loan  Fund  was  made  responsible  for  the  sum  of  ;^2,ooo. 
The  fund  has  been  successfully  worked,  paying  working 
expenses  and  accumulating  a  capital  of  ;^4,477.  The  Primi- 
tive Methodist  Fund  has  a  capital  of  ;^2,i53. 

All  the  Wesleyan  ministers  resident  in  New  Zealand  were 
members  of  the  Australasian  Supernumerary  Fund.     For  the 


NEW   ZEALAND  405 

benefit  of  the  great  majority  who  have  joined  the  newly 
formed  Supernumerary  Fund  in  New  Zealand,  the  sum  of 
;^6o,4i3  165.  is  to  be  paid  to  the  New  Zealand  Fund  as  its 
share  of  the  assets.  The  Primitive  Methodist  Church  had 
its  own  fund.  The  capital  of  this  fund,  supplemented  by 
private  contributions,  will  be  used  to  purchase  for  the  minis- 
ters or  their  widows  the  benefits  of  the  New  Zealand  Fund. 
The  interest  of  a  legacy  of  ;^  1,000,  left  by  Mr.  Plampin  of 
Wanganui,  to  aid  specially  needy  cases,  is  also  available. 

Home  missions  are  a  prime  necessity  in  a  growing  country. 
The  demands  increase  yearly.  A  strong  fund  has  been  built 
up,  and  the  Rev.  T.  G.  Brooke  has  been  set  apart  as  secre- 
tary. In  the  year  191 2,  after  paying  ;^2,i76  towards  the 
maintenance  of  the  Maori  mission,  ;^2,8oo  was  voted  to 
aid  the  dependent  circuits  and  home  mission  stations.  The 
ex-Primitive  Methodist  Church  Home  Mission  income  was 
^714.  Foreign  missions  have  always  had  a  warm  place  in 
the  affections  of  New  Zealand  Methodists.  The  Revs.  Dr. 
George  Brown,  W.  Fletcher,  B.A.,  J.  W.  and  T.  J.  Wallis, 
J.  Rosewarne,  J.  H.  Simmonds,  W.  Slade,  J.  A.  Crump, 
S.  B.  Fellows,  and  J.  W.  Burton  have  gone  from  New- 
Zealand  circuits  to  the  island  groups  of  the  Pacific.  The 
Revs.  M.  K.  Gilmour,  W.  W.  Avery,  F.  Copeland,  and 
W.  J.  Enticott  are  the  present  representatives  in  the  mission 
field.  The  annual  contributions  increased  from  /^  1,235  in 
1909  to  ;^3,625  in  191 2.  The  Rev.  J.  N.  Buttle,  the  secre- 
tary, anticipates  considerable  help  from  the  former  Primitive 
Methodist  Churches. 

Deaconess  work  has  been  recognized  as  a  necessity  in 
Church  life.  Eleven  sisters  are  now  employed.  Three  of 
these  were  trained  at  the  home  provided  by  the  Methodists  of 
Christchurch,  and  three  are  now  in  residence.  Methodism 
has  lagged  behind  the  Anglican,  Roman  Catholic,  and  Pres- 
byterian Churches  in  the  provision  made  for  orphans  and 
neglected  children.  At  the  Jubilee  celebrations,  donations 
were  received  for  the  founding  of  an  orphanage.     The  dona- 


4o6       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

tions  then  received,  with  interest  added,  now  amount  to  ;^900. 
A  legacy  of  ;^5oo,  from  Mrs.  Knox  of  Auckland,  has  also 
been  received.  In  March  19 12  it  was  determined  that  the 
work  should  begin  forthwith.  A  suitable  house  and  grounds 
at  Mount  Albert,  Auckland,  worth  ^3,000,  have  since  been 
given  by  a  brother  and  sister,  both  members  of  the  Church. 
Steps  are  now  being  taken  to  give  a  worthy  start  to  the  scheme 
projected  at  Christchurch. 

Many  years  ago  New  Zealand's  distance  from  Australia, 
the  time  and  cost  of  adequate  representation  at  the  General 
Conference,  and  the  desire  to  unite  the  various  branches  of 
Methodism  in  one  strong  Church,  led  to  an  agitation  for 
independence.  A  proposal  to  this  effect  was  defeated  in  the 
General  Conference  of  1881  by  six  votes  only.  Two  years 
later  the  four  Methodist  Churches,  agreeing  unanimously 
that  union  was  desirable,  drafted  a  constitution.  This  con- 
stitution was  rejected  by  the  General  Conference,  on  the 
twofold  ground  that  it  was  too  democratic,  and  that  New 
Zealand's  influence  was  needed  in  the  Australasian  Church. 
Meanwhile,  the  changes  in  policy  sought  by  New  Zealand 
were  made.  In  Australia  the  union  sentiment  grew,  and 
the  General  Conference  of  1894  prepared  a  basis  for  union. 
This  basis  was  accepted  by  the  United  Methodist  Free  Church 
and  the  Bible  Christian  Churches  in  New  Zealand,  and  also 
by  the  Primitive  Methodists  in  the  Australian  States.  But 
the  Primitive  Methodists  of  New  Zealand,  averse  to  union 
with  Australia,  and  desiring  other  constitutional  changes,  slill 
held  aloof.  Negotiations  were,  however,  resumed  in  1910, 
and  a  constitution  almost  identical  with  that  proposed  in 
1883  was  agreed  upon.  The  constitution  provides  that  the 
admission,  probation,  and  attainments  of  ministers  in  Synod 
and  Conference  be  dealt  with  by  a  ministerial  committee;  that 
the  stationing  of  the  ministers  be  remitted  entirely  to  the 
Representative  Conference;  that  a  layman  be  elected  annually 
as    Vice-President,    and    that    hasty    legislation    be    guarded 


NEW    ZEALAND  407 

against  by  sending  all  new  proposals  to  Synod,  and  thence 
for  further  reconsideration  to  the  succeeding  Conference.  On 
this  basis  the  General  Conference  of  1910,  held  in  Adelaide, 
granted  absolute  independence,  and  the  English  Primitive 
Methodist  Conference  assented  thereto. 

The  official  courts  of  the  two  Churches  in  the  Dominion 
voted  for  union  on  these  terms  by  overwhelming  majorities. 
On  February  18,  1913,  seventy-five  ministers  and  laymen  of 
the  Primitive  Methodist  Church,  and  193  of  the  Methodist 
Church  met  in  their  respective  Conferences  at  Wellington  and 
ratified  the  contract.  At  a  large  public  meeting,  at  which  the 
Governor  presided,  the  formal  resolution  was  signed  by  the 
appointed  representatives,  and  union  immediately  took  effect. 
The  statistics  of  the  uniting  Churches  were  as  follows : 
Methodist,  372  churches,  594  other  preaching-places;  156 
ministers;  23,896  members,  and  76,419  adherents.  Primitive 
Methodist,  churches  81,  other  preaching-places  91  ;  ministers 
43;  members  3,685;  adherents  16,217.  Total  :  ministers  199; 
churches  453;  adherents  92,636. 

Being  duly  constituted,  the  United  Conference  essayed  the 
onerous  task  of  rearranging  the  boundaries  of  forty-one 
circuits,  and  arranging  for  the  number  of  ministers  to  be 
employed  therein.  Ten  Synod  districts  were  made,  the 
circuits  in  each  district  being  enumerated,  and  the  ministers 
duly  stationed.  The  utmost  harmony  prevailed  throughout. 
With  great  expectations,  it  was  resolved  that  a  mission  of 
inspiration  and  appeal  should  be  held  in  all  the  churches,  and 
that  an  outpouring  of  the  Holy  Spirit  should  be  sought. 
Their  co-religionists  the  world  over  will  unite  in  pleading 
that  for  the  Methodists  of  New  Zealand  the  prayer  of  Moses 
for  Israel  may  be  fulfilled  :  '  The  Lord  God  of  your  fathers 
make  you  a  thousand  times  so  many  more  as  ye  are,  and 
bless  you  as  He  hath  promised.' 


PART    IV 

MISSIONARY 


CHAPTER  I 
TOIJGA 

Bt  J.  EGAN  MOULTON,  B.A. 


SYNOPSIS    OF    CHAPTER 

Wonders — Handed  over — The  islands — The  people — Discovery — 
Hebrews? — Pvcligion — Political  system— Women — Morals — Lon- 
don Missionary  Society — Methodists — Nukualofa — Thomas — 
Tamaha  converted — Revival — Tongatabu— Civil  war — Waterhouse 
— George  Tubou — Peace — Progress — Tongan  Bible — Moulton — 
Tubou  College — Bible  revision — Baker — The  Free  Church — Reign 
of  terror — Banished — Baker  deported — Death  of  King — Recent 
work — Death  of  Moulton — British  Protectorate. 


CHAPTER    I 

TONGA 

The  record  of  a  hundred  years  reveals  the  transformini^ 
power  of  the  gospel  in  India  China,  and  other  lands.  But 
the  evangelization  of  these  places  is  far  from  complete,  for 
the  difficulties  seem  to  increase  with  the  advance  of  time 
and  the  growth  of  education.  The  story  of  mission  enter- 
prise and  success  in  Tonga  is  second  to  none  in  its  revelation 
of  the  power  of  the  gospel,  whereby  a  whilom  heathen  nation 
with  the  temperament  of,  and  bias  to,  brutality  and  cruelty, 
became  Christianized,  as  it  were,  in  a  day.  It  is  not  yet  a 
hundred  years  since  the  gospel  was  first  taken  to  these  lovely 
islands  of  the  fronded  palm.  It  is  but  ninety-one  years  since 
the  Rev.  Walter  Lawry  commenced  his  ministerial  labour.  And 
yet  it  is  quite  sixty  years  since  the  group  as  a  whole  accepted 
Christianity  and  heathenism  was  abolished.  What  wonders 
have  been  wrought  within  the  short  compass  of  thirty  years  ! 

And  this  field,  the  first  of  importance  in  Polynesian  mis- 
sionary effort,  has  itself  proved  a  centre  of  gospel  dissemina- 
tion. Fiji,  Samoa,  Rotumah,  New  Guinea,  and  the  Solomon 
Islands  all  admit  their  obligation  to  Tonga  for  help  received. 
In  the  former  three,  Tonga  took  the  initiative  and  paved  the 
way  for  more  extended  and  effective  work,  in  the  gracious 
results  of  which  we  rejoice  to-day.  The  corollary  of  the 
disputed  theory  ex  nihiJo  nihil  fit  finds  its  corroboration  in  the 
mission  field,  where  the  divine  embryo  acts  under  the  dynamo 
of  love.  Life  produces  spiritual  life,  and  the  Source  of  such 
life  condescends  to  use  the  willing  heart  and  humble  effort 
of  His  coloured  followers.  Of  the  truth  of  this,  Tonga  stands 
as  a  striking  example. 

The   British   Conference   was  directly  responsible   for   the 

411 


412        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

founding  of  this  important  mission  ;  but  it  worked  at  great 
disadvantage  because  of  its  remoteness.  It  was  found  oppor- 
tune, therefore,  as  soon  as  the  Conference  was  estabHshed  in 
AustraHa,  to  hand  over  this  island  missionary  enterprise  to 
its  oversight.  This  it  did  through  the  Rev.  Robert  Young, 
who  visited  AustraHa  in  1853,  making  a  tour  of  the  mission 
fields.  Nor  has  its  judgement  proved  abortive,  as  subsequent 
results  show.  The  following  pages  give  a  bird's-eye  view 
of  the  history  of  this  interesting  people  in  their  passage  '  from 
death  unto  life,  from  the  power  of  Satan  unto  God.' 

Far  from  the  ken  of  civilized  man,  buried  away  in  the 
Pacific  Ocean,  a  mere  cluster  of  tiny  specks  on  the  map, 
standing  between  18°  and  23°  south  lat.,  and  173°  and  176° 
west  long.,  lies  a  group  known  as  the  Friendly  Islands,  now 
termed  Tonga.  It  comprises  more  than  a  hundred  and  fifty 
islands,  of  which  fifteen  rise  to  a  considerable  height,  thirty- 
five  are  moderately  elevated,  and  the  remainder  low.  There 
are  three  principal  groups,  Tonga  or  Tongatabu,  with  its 
elevated,  picturesque,  and  fertile  adjunct,  Eua,  situated  to 
the  south ;  Ha'abai  in  the  centre ;  and  Ila'afuluhao,  known 
as  Vava'u,  in  the  north.  Taking  a  direct  line  from  Eua  to 
Vava'u,  the  whole  covers  a  distance  of  200  miles,  and  contains 
200  square  miles.  There  are  two  other  small  but  interesting 
islands  lying  outside  this  area,  Niua  Fo'ou  (Keppel's),  and 
Niua  Tobutabu  (Boscawen),  in  a  northerly  direction;  while 
Plystaart  Island  limits  the  extent  of  the  Tongan  kingdom  to 
the  south.  The  soil  is  prolific,  though  the  climate  is  humid 
and  enervating,  especially  between  December  and  March, 
the  hurricane  season.  Otherwise,  from  April  to  September, 
fanned  by  the  pleasant  trade-wind,  life  is  enjoyable,  especially 
in  Tongatabu.  It  is  a  land  of  the  graceful  and  beneficent 
coco-nut  palm.  Yams,  kumalas  (the  sweet  potato),  and  all 
tropical  fruits  grow  in  abundance.  A  visitor  cannot  but  be 
struck  with  the  luxuriant  growth,  the  exquisite  variety,  the 
blaze  of  colour,  of  trees  and  flowering  shrubs.  Land  and  sea 
are  a  picture  of  inexpressible  beauty. 


TONGA  413 

The  people  are  joyous  and  light-hearted,  with  no  care 
apparently  to  distress.  Well  made,  pleasant  in  feature,  and 
dignified,  both  men  and  women  show  a  quiet  courtesy  of 
manner  unlike  the  idea  in  vogue  of  a  pagan  and  heathen 
people  !  The  sound  of  the  church-bells  on  the  Sabbath  and 
week-day ;  the  hearty  singing  of  well-known  tunes ;  the  halo 
of  peace;  the  wharf-stacked  produce  waiting  shipment  to  some 
European  port;  the  stores  on  the  beach;  the  uniform  of 
officials,  and  the  small  trucks  plying  up  and  down  from  the 
custom-house  to  the  wharf — these  signs  all  betoken  the 
passing  of  heathen  days. 

How  long  the  Tongan  had  been  in  possession  of  his  island 
habitat  before  his  emergence  from  the  dim  past,  it  is  im- 
possible to  say.  The  first  notice  of  him  appears  in  the 
journal  of  Tasman,  who  touched  at  Torigatabu  in  1643.  He 
saw  no  weapons  of  warfare.  The  people  apparently  lived  in 
comparative  peace.  But  earlier  even  than  Tasman,  Schouten 
and  Lemaire,  with  their  high-pooped  Dutch  vessels,  anchored 
off  Niua  Tobutabu  and  repulsed  an  attack  made  by  natives. 
In  1797  Wallis  touched  at  Niua.  But  these  latter  navigators 
do  not  seem  to  have  done  more  than  pay  a  passing  visit. 

It  was  left  to  Captain  Cook  to  give  wider  knowledge  of 
the  islands  and  people.  Cook  anchored  in  Maria  Bay  in 
1773,  and  named  the  group  the  Friendly  Islands.  In  the 
choice  of  this  name  this  intrepid  navigator  showed  misguided 
judgement,  for  behind  their  simulated  friendship  they  were 
preparing  to  club  him.  In  1777  he  paid  a  second  visit.  But 
the  results  of  his  first  visit  had  a  much  higher  issue  than  that 
for  which  his  exploration  was  planned.  In  the  providence  of 
God  it  was  made  the  medium  of  spiritual  results.  It  led 
to  the  evangelization  of  a  heathen  people. 

It  is  difficult  to  fix  satisfactorily  to  what  race  the  Tongans 
belong.  Ethnologically  there  is  a  wide  difference  between 
the  Fijian  and  the  Tongan,  so  that  the  latter  cannot  belong 
to  the  great  Melanesian  race.  While  there  is  a  sprinkling 
of  the  Malayan  in  the  Tongan  feature  and  caste,  it  is  not  a 


414       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

suitable  term.  So  also  the  term  Polynesian.  Thus  the  two 
have  been  hyphened — Malayo-Polynesian.  But  the  latest 
cognomen  of  this  race  is  Sawaiori,  a  word  combining  a 
syllable  from  each  of  the  outstanding  peoples  so  difficult 
to  designate  ethnologically,  viz.  .Samoa,  Hsiivai,  and 
Maori. 

In  the  writings  of  the  early  missionaries  to  Tonga,  the 
resemblance  of  many  Tongans  in  feature,  custom,  and  prac- 
tice to  the  Hebrew  nation  was  noticed.  The  institution  of 
the  tabu,  of  first-fruits,  of  the  priesthood,  the  division  of 
the  year  into  months,  the  intercalary  being  included,  to  which 
could  be  added  the  tradition  of  the  flood,  the  identity  of  their 
great  god  Mau'i  with  Noah,  and  of  one  of  the  family  of 
Tangaloa,  another  of  their  deities,  with  Tubal-Cain,  suggest 
a  pristine  connexion  with  the  Hebrew  race.  Whence  came 
such  ideas  and  records  ?  History  was  handed  down  by  word 
of  mouth.  The  Tongan  priest  was  the  representative  of  the 
Levite,  and  was  confined,  like  the  physician,  to  certain 
families.  So  also  with  the  bard,  whose  duty  it  was  to  hand 
down  the  ballads  and  traditions  sacredly  guarded. 

And  the  argument  of  language  is  conclusive.  When  the 
Bible  was  translated  the  second  time,  Dr.  Moulton,  the 
translator,  was  struck  with  the  resemblance  of  Tongan  with 
Hebrew,  a  resemblance  that  amounted  to  identity,  the  only 
difference  being  that  the  Tongan  appeared  to  be  the  older 
form.  When  this  discovery  was  afterwards  referred  to  a 
Hebrew  authority  in  England,  he  frankly  acknowledged  it 
to  be  the  case.  This  admission  corroborated  what  the  trans- 
lator had  long  felt,  that  the  Tongans  were  of  the  Hebrew 
race,  and  that  they  had  come  originally  from  the  south  of 
Arabia. 

The  religion  of  Tonga,  as  first  known  to  the  civilized  world, 
'  incorporated  no  abstract  principles  of  belief.  It  was  rather 
a  system  of  despotism,  in  which  deities,  ceremonies,  and 
restrictions  had  been  indefinitely  multiplied,  till  it  presented 
a    chaos    of    dark    superstition,    into    which    the    population 


TONGA  415 

plunged  headlong  through  slavish  fear  and  ignorance.  .  .  . 
No  spirit  of  benevolence  pervaded  the  system.  It  abounded 
in  punishments  for  the  present  life,  and  in  dark  threatenings 
for  the  future  '  (Note,  West's  Polynesia,  p.  255).  Bulotu, 
the  Tongan  paradise,  was  reserved  for  the  spirits  of  the 
departed  chiefs  and  persons  of  rank,  who  became  in  turn  the 
servants  of  the  presiding  genius  of  Bulotu.  Of  the  fate  of 
the  poor  tu'a  (commoner),  '  there  was  no  certainty  whatever ; 
it  was  doubtful  whether  they  had  any  souls  at  all '  (Note  ibid.). 
'  Savage  rites  and  deities  who  delighted  in  mischief  and 
blood ;  a  cruel  and  rapacious  priesthood ;  a  despotic  and 
oppressive  government ;  inhuman  faiths  and  absurd  super- 
stitions— under  these  the  people  w^ere  held  in  abject  bondage. 
It  was  emphatically  "a  land  of  darkness  and  of  the  shadow 
of  death  "  '  (Note  ibid.).  She  had  her  '  gods  many  and  lords 
many,'  and  they  were  continually  being  added  to  by  the  most 
trivial  circumstances.  The  four  principal  were  Alau'i, 
Hiule'o  his  younger  brother,  Tangaloa  (the  thunder-and- 
lightning-sender),  and  Hea-moana-'uli'uli  (god  of  the  sea). 
(Note. — For  a  detailed  account  of  these  deities  see  Lawry's 
Journal,  Farmer's  Tonga,  and  West's  Polynesia.) 

The  higher  gods  did  not  consider  lying,  theft,  adultery,  or 
murder  as  crimes.  These  '  things  of  the  world  '  were  left 
for  inferior  gods  to  attend  to.  The  only  crime  was  sacrilege 
committed  either  on  their  temples  or  in  an  improper  use  of 
offerings.  Until  Christianity  swept  away  the  old  beliefs  with 
their  institutions,  there  was  a  spiritual  and  a  temporal  king. 
The  former,  the  Tu'itonga,  was  '  lord  of  the  soil,  and  enjoyed 
divine  honours  in  virtue  of  his  immortal  origin  ;  but  he  had 
an  ever-diminishing  share  in  the  government,  and  he  could 
take  no  part  in  any  civil  quarrel  ...  he  was,  in  fact,  the 
heaven-appointed  sovereign  in  a  limited  monarchy.  He 
was  thus  lord  of  the  soil  and  of  the  men  and  of  the  first- 
fruits;  and  to  no  other  chief  was  tribute  paid  but  to  the  Tui 
Toga  alone  '  (Note  in  Thomson's  Diversions  of  a  Prime 
Minister,  pp.  291,  293).     He  was  environed  by  :i  most  rigid 


4i6       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

tabu.  His  son  was  heir,  but  his  daughter  had  even  higher 
rank  than  father  or  brother.  She  was  the  Tu'i  tonga  feline 
(female  Tu'itonga),  and  her  daughter  became  the  Tamaha 
— the  highest  dignitary  of  all.  The  latter,  the  temporal 
sovereign,  was  the  Tu'i  Kanokubolu.  He  was  burdened 
with  the  civil  government,  wielded  the  power  of  life  and 
death,  and  ordered  the  tribute  to  be  paid  to  the  Tu'itonga. 
None  but  the  son  or  grandson  of  the  Tu'itonga  could  succeed 
to  that  dignity,  and  his  mother  must  be  the  daughter  of  the 
Tu'i  Kanokubolu. 

In  the  early  days  Ha'abai  and  Vava'u  and  the  two  Niuas 
had  their  temporal  kings.  It  was  not  until  King  George  I 
had  consolidated  the  groups  under  his  sole  rule  that  the 
authority  of  the  Tu'i  Kanokubolu  was  supreme  for  any  con- 
siderable space  of  time.  The  sacred  line  has  now  passed, 
and  the  Tamaha  is  no  longer.  The  high  rank  of  the  female 
issue  has,  no  doubt,  struck  the  reader.  It  is  not  hard,  there- 
fore, to  explain  the  respect  shown  to  woman.  It  is  unmanly 
not  to  show  consideration.  Hence  women  are  not  subject  to 
menial  work  or  hard  labour.  Old  age  in  both  sexes  is  highly 
reverenced.  '  It  is  said  that  there  is  hardly  an  instance  in 
these  islands  of  old  age  being  wantonly  insulted  '  (Note. 
Lawry's  Journal). 

Next  to  the  king  come  the  Hou'eiki  (chiefs),  high  and 
low ;  the  Mu'a,  who  occupy  an  intermediary  rank  between 
the  Matabule  and  Hou'eiki.  The  Matabule,  like  our  Master 
of  Ceremonies,  was  in  great  evidence  on  feast-days.  The 
Tu'a  (commoner)  was  next,  being  the  lowest  rank,  save  the 
bobula  (serf),  over  whom  the  chief  had  power  of  life  and 
death.  The  latter  has  long  been  abolished.  In  times  of 
peace  the  men  followed  agriculture,  fishing,  sinnet-plaiting, 
canoe  house-building,  and  voyaging ;  the  women  made 
native  cloth  (ngatu),  obtained  by  beating  out  the  bark  of 
the  paper  mulberry,  fashioning  it  by  adhesion  into  one  piece, 
and  marking  it  into  fancy  patterns  with  pigment  obtained 
from  the  boiled  bark  of  a  tree.    They  also  plaited  baskets  and 


TONGA  417 

mats.  Feasts,  dances,  and  games  were  indulged  in.  Boxing, 
club-fighting,  and  wrestling  matches  were  highly  popular, 
the  latter  often  ending  seriously. 

The  ceremonies  connected  with  the  death  of  any  prominent 
person  were  barbarous.  The  mourner's  hair  was  shaved,  and 
parts  of  the  body  were  cut,  bruised,  or  burned.  The  greater 
the  afTection,  the  greater  the  affliction.  Feasts  were  invari- 
ably held  after  interment.  Relatives  and  friends  brought 
gifts,  which  were  thrown  into  the  common  stock  and  dis- 
tributed, and  which  were  often  a  source  of  bitter  quarrel  and 
family  feud.  The  morals  of  the  Tongan,  though  not  so 
debasing  as  those  of  other  groups,  were  low  enough.  Poly- 
gamy was  common.  Infanticide  was  not  practised.  Children 
and  aged  people  were  treated  with  affection  and  respect, 
unknown  elsewhere.  Yet  there  was  much  lasciviousness  and 
want  of  natural  afTection.  Cannibalism  was  not  characteristic 
of  the  Tongan.  Instances  of  its  practice  point  to  the  baneful 
influence  of  association  with  Fiji.  Taking  the  highest  level 
of  excellence  that  devotees  of  the  Tongan  race  may  claim, 
there  was  still  an  appalling  degree  of  the  savage  and  barbaric. 
The  character  of  the  gods  worshipped ;  the  arbitrariness  of 
the  king  and  chiefs;  the  rites  in  sacrifice,  sometimes  of  a 
human  being;  the  power  of  superstition  and  sorcery — all 
paint  a  dark  picture.  As  the  visitor  views  the  change  in 
this  people,  he  well  may  ask  :  '  How  has  this  been  effected  ?  ' 
What  follows  will  give  the  answer. 

The  first  Christian  mission  to  Tonga  was  organized  by 
the  London  Missionary  Society.  The  Duff  sailed  from  Eng- 
land in  1796.  Of  the  thirty  missionaries  on  board,  the 
majority  were  landed  in  Tahiti.  Ten  only  had  been  allotted 
to  Tonga,  and  they  reached  the  island  on  April  12,  1797. 
From  the  character  of  its  organization  the  mission  was 
doomed  to  failure.  Nearly  all  were  mechanics,  and  arts  and 
science  are  poor  weapons  to  influence  a  people  possessing 
gods  and  traditions.  In  1800,  after  having  passed  through 
severe  trials,  the  five  remaining  were  glad  to  leave.     Three 

E  E 


4i8       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

of  the  party  were  killed,   Veeson  deserted,   and   Nobbs  left 
earlier  on  account  of  ill  health. 

The  second  effort  was  made  by  the  Methodist  Missionary 
Society.  It  thought  with  sorrow  of  the  forsaken  Friendly 
Islanders,  and  determined  to  revive  the  mission.  But,  before 
plans  could  be  matured,  the  Rev.  Walter  Lawry,  who  then 
resided  in  New  South  Wales,  made  a  similar  experiment. 
He  landed  in  1822,  but  though  well  received,  made  little 
headway.  He  found  the  natives  fickle  and  unreliable.  After 
fourteen  months'  stay,  as  there  seemed  little  hope  of  success, 
and  Mrs.  Lawry 's  health  had  failed,  he  returned  to  New  South 
Wales.  Once  again  the  islands  were  isolated  from  religious 
influences. 

Lawry  appealed  to  the  Missionary  Society  in  England,  and 
in  1825  the  Rev.  John  Thomas  was  sent  out,  landing  in 
June  1826.  He  was  a  pioneer  to  these  heathen  people,  labour- 
ing there  for  a  quarter  of  a  century,  and  seeing  them  emerge 
from  gloom  into  glorious  dawn.  When  he  arrived  there  was 
not  a  believer;  when  he  left  in  1851  nearly  the  whole  group 
was  nominally  Christian.  What  other  mission  in  so  short  a 
time  shows  such  growth  ?  But,  at  the  first,  it  seemed  a 
'  forlorn  hope.'  'Ata,  the  chief  of  Hihifo,  where  Mr.  Thomas 
resided,  though  feigning  kindness,  refused  to  accept  the 
gospel.  For  nearly  three  years  the  only  result  was  one  con- 
version, that  of  Lolohea,  a  chief  of  importance,  who  was 
baptized  by  Mr.  Thomas  on  January  29,  1829.  Mr.  Turner 
also  baptized  six  converts  the  same  year. 

The  point  of  least  resistance  seems  to  have  been  Nuku- 
'alofa.  It  was  here  that,  two  months  before  Mr.  Thomas's 
arrival,  two  Tahitian  native  converts,  en  route  for  Fiji,  had 
been  left,  their  vessel  having  sprung  a  leak.  Their  influence 
aroused  inquiry.  Tubou,  the  chief,  renounced  his  gods,  built 
a  church  for  Christian  worship,  and  gave  liberty  of  attend- 
ance to  his  subjects.  His  brother  chiefs  were  irritated  by 
this  action,  and  persuaded  him  to  return  to  his  old  faith  by 
the  promise  that  they  would  make  him  the  Tu'i   Kanoku- 


TONGA  419 

bolu.  In  November  1827  the  Revs.  Nathaniel  Turner  and 
William  Cross  arrived,  took  up  their  residence  in  Nuku- 
'alofa,  and  commenced  a  school  for  adults  and  children. 
Mr.  Thomas  followed  at  Hihifo  amid  much  opposition. 
The  king  was  induced  to  return,  and  many  persons  followed 
his  example. 

The  chiefs  of  neighbouring  islands  begged  for  mission- 
aries. Finau  in  Vava'u,  and  Taufa'ahau  in  Ha'abai,  were 
eager  for  help.  The  missionaries  considered  the  advisability 
of  Mr.  Thomas  remaining  at  Hihifo,  when  *Ata  was  so 
obdurate  and  Ha'abai  was  urgently  calling.  They  pleaded 
for  further  help.  But  there  was  financial  shortage,  and 
additional  men  could  not  be  found.  Mr.  Thomas,  therefore, 
sent  a  native,  Peter  Vi,  who  was  ungraciously  accepted 
by  Taufa'ahau.  Congregations  increased,  and  in  1830 
Taufa'ahau,  with  his  wife  and  children,  were  publicly 
baptized. 

An  unexpected  incident  gave  encouragement.  A  box 
washed  up  on  the  beach,  the  only  remnant  of  an  ill-fated 
schooner  wrecked  between  Sydney  and  New  Zealand,  con- 
tained letters  to  the  effect  that  reinforcements  were  coming  and 
that  Mr.  Thomas  might  proceed  at  once  to  Ha'abai.  How- 
wonderful  are  the  ways  of  Providence  !  He  forthwith  went 
and  found  that  great  things  had  been  done.  Taufa'ahau  was 
a  mighty  power  for  good.  Only  three  out  of  the  eighteen 
islands  had  not  embraced  Christianity.  The  general  change 
made  work  heavy,  and  Mr.  Thomas'  health  broke  down  under 
the  strain.  But  he  recovered,  and  in  1831  the  Revs.  Peter 
Turner  and  James  Watkin  arrived.  They  then  turned  their 
attention  to  Vava'u,  where  the  spirit  of  inquiry  had  been 
aw^akened  by  converts  from  Ha'abai.  Taufa'ahau 's  visit 
brought  a  climax.  He  persuaded  Finau,  who  had  returned 
to  heathenism  after  his  request  for  help  had  been  refused, 
to  accept  the  lotu.  He  destroyed  his  idols,  as  Taufa'ahau 
had  previously  done,  and  burnt  eighteen  of  their  sacred 
houses.     The  opposition  of  his  brother,   who  resented  this 


420       A   CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

action,   was  quelled   by   Taufa'ahau   without   bloodshed — an 
unheard-of  experience. 

Tongatabu  was  slow  in  its  religious  progress,  but  the  dilapi- 
dated idol-houses  and  enclosures  was  a  fact  of  no  small 
significance.  Mr.  Woon,  lately  arrived  with  Mr.  Watkin, 
was  busy  with  the  new  printing-press,  and  there  was  much 
to  gladden  the  heart.  But  there  was  much  also  to  sadden. 
Nathaniel  Turner's  removal  on  account  of  ill-health  was  a 
severe  blow;  the  canoe  disaster  in  1832,  when  Mrs.  Cross 
and  twenty  natives  lost  their  lives,  cast  a  dark  shadow ;  and 
the  hurricane,  with  devastation  and  famine  in  its  wake, 
increased  the  strain.  From  1831  to  1833  steady  progress  was 
reported.  The  year  1834  ^^^s  marked  by  the  conversion 
of  the  Tamaha.  This  was  the  final  blow  to  idolatry.  One 
hundred  embraced  the  gospel  with  her.  Vava'u  was  equally 
satisfactory.  Through  the  death  of  Finau  in  1833,  the  door 
was  opened  for  the  entry  of  Taufa'ahau,  a  much  stronger 
personality.  It  was  the  wish  of  the  dying  monarch  that  he 
should  succeed  him,  and  the  new  king  threw  the  weight  of 
his  influence  on  the  side  of  Christianity.  And  yet,  while 
Christianity  was  said  to  have  been  'embraced,'  true  con- 
version was  wanting.  And  this  was  a  matter  of  concern  to 
the   missionaries. 

In  1834  t^^  '  baptism  from  above  '  came.  Vava'u,  the  last 
to  receive  the  messenger,  was  the  first  to  receive  the 
showers.  Prayer-meetings  gave  impetus  to  the  spiritual 
life  of  the  members.  The  daily  prayer  of  leaders  at  noon 
helped.  On  July  23  the  congregation  at  Utui  cried  for 
mercy  and  refused  to  leave  the  building  all  night.  Other 
villages  were  similarly  affected.  In  one  day  1,000  souls 
were  converted.  The  whole  island  moved  as  with  one 
impulse.  School  was  abandoned,  and  six  prayer-meetings 
were  held  each  day.  As  one  result,  2,362  were  added  to  the 
membership,  amongst  them  being  Taufa'ahau,  the  King  of 
Ha'abai  and  Vava'u,  and  his  wife.  Before  the  news  reached 
Ha'abai,  signs  had  been  manifest  there  also.     Nothing  could 


TONGA  421 

withstand  the  power.  '  Chapel  and  yard  '  were  '  crowded 
with  seeking  souls.  One  thousand  bowing-  before  God.' 
What  a  glorious  sight !  The  highest  chiefs  felt  the  spell. 
Every  day  there  were  conversions.  More  than  2,000  were 
converted  in  Ha'abai.  Last  of  all  the  revival  reached  Tonga- 
tabu.  The  story  told  of  Ha'abai  by  one,  Joel  Mafileo,  spread. 
A  gracious  outpouring  was  the  immediate  result,  though 
numerically  not  as  great  as  in  the  other  two  islands.  The 
after-effects  were  a  deeper  spiritual  life,  a  warmer  attachment 
to  the  missionaries  and  the  work  of  God,  the  Sabbath  kept 
as  a  holy  day,  with  better  houses  and  improved  land.  The 
people  were  becoming  '  more  civilized,  industrious,  econo- 
mical, and  obedient.' 

We  can  now  leave  Ha'abai  and  Vava'u,  for  the  work  there 
was  one  of  progress.  Taufa'ahau,  who  was  more  than  ever 
a  power  for  good,  became  a  class-leader  and  a  most  accept- 
able local  preacher.  In  1835  he  freed  his  slaves  (bobula), 
and  built  a  magnificent  church  in  Lifuka  (Ha'abai),  an 
interesting  feature  being  the  communion-rail  composed  of 
handsomely  carved  spears,  heirlooms  of  his  family.  At  the 
foot  of  the  pulpit  stairs  two  beautifully  carved  clubs  found 
their  significant  habitat.  Their  day  of  toil  was  done.  The 
prosperity  of  this  island  was  disturbed  by  two  successive 
hurricanes  of  terrific  force,  again  bringing  famine  and  sick- 
ness. But  the  Church  grew.  Vava'u,  too,  was  progressing, 
the  people  being  taught  by  Mr,  Thomas  to  do  something 
for  the  support  of  the  work.  To  both  these  islands  Taufa- 
'ahau gave  a  code  of  laws,  which,  though  imperfect,  were  a 
check  on  the  arbitrary  rule  of  the  chief.  Having  a  Christian 
basis,  they  aided  the  missionaries  in  enforcing  a  pure  morality. 

While  Ha'abai  and  Vava'u  were  progressive,  in  Tongatabu 
a  strong  reaction  amongst  the  aged  chiefs  and  the  priests,  in 
their  intense  hatred  for  the  changes,  had  taken  place.  This 
opposition  circled  around  Bea  and  Houma.  Both  had 
relaxed  their  hostility  to  the  lotu.  Tu'ivakano's  acceptance 
of  Christianity,  which  he  had  previously  renounced,  brought 


422       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

matters  to  a  crisis.  He  was  suddenly  deposed,  and  such  treat- 
ment was  meted  out  to  him  by  his  foes  that  all  Tonga  was 
moved.  War  was  imminent.  The  missionaries  removed 
to  Vava'u,  Cross  and  Cargill  having  gone  to  Fiji,  and 
Peter  Turner  to  Samoa.  The  crisis  was  delayed  during  1836 
through  shortage  of  food,  but  in  1837  the  long-threatening 
cloud  burst.  The  object  was  to  uproot  Christianity  and 
depose  the  king  whom  they  hated.  Unable  to  cope  with  the 
larger  forces  of  the  enemy,  Tubou  sent  for  Taufa'ahau,  his 
relative,  and  it  was  mainly  due  to  his  efforts  that  the  rebels 
were  defeated.  The  war  retarded  the  spiritual  growth  of  the 
Christians,  but  it  had  a  beneficial  effect  on  the  heathen  party, 
for  they  acknowledged  the  power  of  God  in  the  victory. 
Once  more  peace  reigned  until  1840,  when  hostilities  broke 
out  afresh. 

In  the  interim  the  mission  recorded  success.  'Ata  was 
still  a  thorn  in  the  flesh  in  Hihifo,  where  Stephen  Rabone 
was  bravely  labouring,  for  he  broke  one  of  the  clauses  in 
the  peace  conditions  that  no  one  should  be  persecuted  for 
his  religion.  Notwithstanding  this,  a  royal  wedding  took 
place  at  Nuku'alofa — the  first  of  a  Christian  nature,  when 
two  kings  and  queens,  the  Tamaha,  and  the  highest  chiefs 
of  the  land  were  present.  Princess  Charlotte,  Taufa'ahau's 
daughter,  was  married  to  Tu'ibelehake,  a  chief  of  high  rank 
and  a  local  preacher. 

Matters,  however,  were  in  an  unsatisfactory  state.  In 
1839  there  was  a  plot  to  murder  the  king,  but  it  was  frus- 
trated. The  war-cloud  was  swiftly  gathering.  An  unwar- 
ranted attack  on  some  helpless  Christians  while  at  work 
precipitated  matters.  Taufa'ahau,  therefore,  was  again  sent 
for,  and  further  overtures  for  peace  were  abortive.  A  plot 
against  the  Ha'abai  king  was  discovered.  With  commend- 
able patience  Taufa'ahau  delayed  to  strike,  affording  every 
opportunity  to  lay  down  arms,  but  without  avail.  Early 
one  morning  the  attacking  king  was  in  possession  of  Fo'ui. 
The  victory  struck  terror  to  the  hearts  of  the  enemy,  and  the 


TONGA  423 

clemency  which  could  pardon  500  prisoners  did  not  minimize 
the  effect.  But  hostilities  were  continued.  Taufa'ahau,  how- 
ever, did  not  follow  up  his  victory;  he  tried  mild  measures 
to  bring  about  peace. 

At  this  juncture  Commodore  Wilkes  of  the  United  States 
Exploring  Party  arrived.  He  attempted  a  conference  of 
chiefs,  but  it  miscarried;  the  opposing  party  failed  to  appear, 
sending  a  runaway  convict  instead.  Guerilla  warfare  for  six 
months  ensued.  Help  was  obtained  from  a  British  warship 
in  command  of  Captain  Croker.  His  tombstone  on  the  sea- 
ward side  of  Zion  Hill  tells  of  a  defective  knowledge  of  native 
character,  for  which  he  paid  the  penalty,  not  with  his  own  life 
alone,  but  also  of  that  of  some  officers  and  men.  The  visit 
of  Mr.  Thomas  and  Mr.  Tucker  to  the  rebel  fortress  brought 
peace ;  which,  if  not  all  that  could  be  desired,  was  on  a  more 
permanent  basis  than  that  previously  obtained.  As  a  con- 
sequence of  the  war,  food  was  again  scarce,  and  the  Tongan 
Christian  had  to  pass  through  the  fire.  It  speaks  well  for  the 
depth  of  his  religion  when  it  could  be  reported  that  there 
was  '  a  goodly  population  who  stood  the  test  and  who  came 
forth  from  the  refining  fire  of  affliction  purified  as  gold  and 
silver.'  And  Commodore  Wilkes,  no  flatterer  of  missions, 
spoke  well  of  the  schools. 

In  1841  the  Rev.  John  Waterhouse,  to  whom  had  been 
delegated  the  oversight  of  the  missions,  visited  Tonga.  He 
brought  about  reconciliation  between  the  king  and  Fatu, 
the  treacherous  chief  of  Mu'a.  Fatu  w^as  afraid  to  go  to 
Tubou,  but  if  Tubou  would  come  to  him  he  would  humble 
himself.  Tubou  went,  and  the  kava-ring  was  the  last  act 
that  ratified  submission.  The  king  granted  a  free  pardon. 
Mr.  Waterhouse  was  obliged  to  leave  before  a  meeting  of 
Tubou  with  the  chief  of  Bea  could  be  arranged.  He  passed 
through  other  groups  of  the  Tongan  kingdom,  taking  with 
him  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Tucker,  who  had  been  compelled  to  leave 
on  account  of  health- — a  serious  loss  from  an  educational 
standpoint  especially.     With  them,  and  with  native  teachers 


424        A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

from  Niua  Fo'ou,  he  passed  to  Rotumah  and  commenced  the 
mission  there.  This  island  is  now  included  in  the  Fijian 
district. 

While  pleased  with  the  progress  in  the  islands  of  the  group, 
Mr.  Waterhouse  pointed  out  to  the  authorities  the  small 
progress  in  useful  arts,  and  the  need  of  better  training  for  the 
native  teachers.  As  a  result  of  his  visit,  the  next  District 
Meeting  resolved  to  commence  a  training  institution,  the  Rev. 
Francis  Wilson  being  in  charge.  Here  he  worked  for  some 
few  years,  remodelling  the  schools.  In  addition  to  creating 
a  keen  desire  for  reading,  the  institution  was  able  to  send 
young  men  to  Niua  Tobutabu,  Niua  Fo'ou,  and  Wallis 
Island.  But  this  demand  proved  too  much  for  Mr.  Wilson, 
for  his  health  gave  way,  and  in  March  1846  he  died.  He 
had  the  joy  of  knowing  that  another  revival,  similar  to  that 
of  1834,  was  in  progress. 

Prior  to  this  an  important  change  had  taken  place.  King 
Josiah  Tubou  died  in  1845,  and  Taufa'ahau,  whom  the  king 
desired  to  succeed,  had  no  rival.  He  now  became  George 
Tubou,  the  Tu'i  Kanokubolu.  This  was  the  last  blow  to 
the  heathen  party  in  Tongatabu,  for  the  new  king  took  up 
his  permanent  residence  in  Nuku'alofa.  The  chiefs  of  one 
or  two  heathen  forts  refused  to  pay  respect  in  the  customary 
fashion — that  of  bringing  gifts.  Peace  reigned  for  a  while, 
though  not  for  long.  The  refractory  chiefs  would  not  accept 
the  change  without  an  effort.  They  were  determined  to  fight 
to  the  bitter  end.  It  was  the  last  stand  of  the  party.  Fortifi- 
cations were  repaired  and  culprits  found  in  them  a  shelter. 
It  was  clear  that  their  design  was  to  overthrow  the  Govern- 
ment. Both  king  and  missionaries  used  every  effort  to  avoid 
collision.  Constant  visits  were  made  to  the  rebels'  camp, 
but  all  to  no  purpose.  W^ar  was  inevitable.  Bea  and  Houma 
were  the  delinquents.  They  refused  to  level  the  fortifications 
and  to  live  in  towns  and  villages.  It  was  open  rebellion 
against  the  ruling  authority,  and  religion  had  no  part  in  the 
dispute.     Heathens  and  Romanists  were  in  the  king's  army 


TONGA  425 

and  that  of  the  rebels.  In  his  desire  for  peace  and  to  avoid 
bloodshed,  the  king  long  delayed  before  making  direct 
assault.  He  had  a  force  at  his  command  10,000  strong,  fully 
equal  to  the  work  of  storming  the  fort  and  inflicting  a  crush- 
ing defeat  upon  the  enemy.  Ilouma  yielded  at  last.  The 
king's  heralds  proclaimed  a  free  pardon  '  for  the  sake  of 
the  lotu.'     This  had  a  powerful  effect  on  Vaea  the  chief. 

Bea  was  still  obstinate.  For  five  weeks  after  Houma's 
surrender  the  siege  lasted.  The  king,  on  five  occasions, 
offered  terms  of  peace.  He  took  advantage  of  the  arrival  of 
Sir  Everard  Home  of  H.IM.S.  Calliope,  and  solicited  his 
help.  A  further  offer  of  peace  was  made  and  practically 
refused,  for  the  rebels  demanded  a  missionary  and  the  king's 
son  as  hostages.  The  king,  however,  was  firm.  After  a 
little  delay  the  chiefs  submitted  and  were  detained  for  the 
night.  The  next  morning  the  Vavuans  entered  the  fort. 
The  king  and  Sir  Everard  arrived  in  hot  haste  and  saved 
the  lives  of  all.  The  fort  was  sacked,  but  the  king  was 
merciful  and  kind.  The  attempt  to  obtain  retribution  for 
damage  to  the  priest's  property,  in  the  inquiry  conducted 
by  Captain  Belland  a  few^  months  later,  absolutely  failed. 

Thus  ended  the  war  on  August  10,  1852.  It  was  the  last 
stand  of  its  kind.  The  authority  of  the  king,  never  again 
challenged,  was  now  firmly  established,  and  the  way  was 
opened  for  progressive  work.  The  visit  of  the  Rev.  Walter 
Lawry  in  1847,  twenty-five  years  after  his  first  arrival,  was 
welcome  to  the  brethren.  What  a  change  he  found  !  He 
brought  with  him  the  Revs.  Daniel,  Amos,  and  Davis  with 
their  wives.  They  were  an  acceptable  reinforcement.  The 
conversion  of  Tugi  in  1850  was  the  most  striking  inci- 
dent of  the  year.  With  him  came  200  of  his  subjects. 
This  was  a  great  blow  to  the  heathen  party.  Between  1852 
and  1865  the  records  show  unimpeded  progress.  After 
twenty-five  years  of  noble  toil  the  veteran,  the  Rev.  John 
Thomas,  was  obliged  to  leave.  No  tribute,  however  eloquent, 
can  correctly  state  the  value  of  the  services  of  this  pioneer 


426       A    CENTURY    IN    THE    PACIFIC 

missionary.  His  retirement  to  England  was  for  a  few  years 
only,  when  he  returned  to  the  sphere  of  his  former  labours. 
His  strength,  however,  was  not  equal  to  more  than  a  few 
years'  effort,  and  he  finally  retired  in  1858.  He  died  at  Stour- 
bridge in  I 88 I. 

The  year  1862  is  marked  by  the  granting  of  a  constitution. 
Hawaii  possessed  one,  and  perhaps  it  was  influence  from 
that  quarter  that  was  responsible  for  a  similar  state  of  things 
in  Tonga.  By  some  the  step  was  considered  premature. 
But  it  came,  nevertheless,  and  it  legally  freed  the  commoner 
from  the  tyranny  of  his  chief.  A  review  of  this  period  (1822- 
65)  shows  remarkable  advance  in  education.  Schools  were 
carried  on,  notwithstanding  the  horrors  of  war  and  depleted 
numbers.  Literary  work,  as  a  necessary  aid,  was  to  the 
fore  also.  Much  tedious  manuscript-work  was  saved  by  the 
printing-press,  with  competent  men  to  manage  it.  The 
book  most  coveted,  when  Christianity  was  established,  was 
the  Bible.  In  1848  the  New  Testament  was  printed  in 
Vava'u.  In  1853  the  Rev.  Robert  Young  brought  with  him 
from  England  10,000  copies  of  the  same,  revised  by  the  Rev. 
G.  Kevern,  and  printed  under  his  direction- — the  gift  of  the 
British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society.  What  is  now  known  as 
'  Mr.  Thomas's  Bible,'  although  the  work  of  several  mission- 
aries, was  published  in  1862,  and  10,000  copies  sent  to  Tonga 
free  of  cost,  through  the  liberality  of  the  same  noble  institu- 
tion. School  and  other  elementary  primers  and  hymn-books 
were  printed  by  the  mission  press. 

Despite  the  educational  efforts  made  by  previous  mission- 
aries. King  George  preached  a  sermon  based  on  Hosea  iv.  6, 
'  My  people  are  destroyed  for  lack  of  knowledge.'  In  his 
opinion  the  educational  standard  of  his  people  was  too  low. 
Years  passed,  when  he  heard  through  one  of  the  missionaries 
that  the  long-looked-for  man  was  at  hand.  His  request  to 
the  Conference  was  effective,  and  the  Rev.  J.  Egan  Moulton, 
not  long  from  England,  and  employed  in  educational  work 
at  Newington  College,  while  waiting  a  Conference  appoint- 


TONGA  427 

ment  to  Fiji,  was  sent  to  Tonga,  landing  there  with  his  wife 
in  May  1865.  His  association  with  island  and  educational 
work  extended  over  forty-one  years,  leaving  the  indelible 
mark  of  life-long  devotion.  Mr.  Moulton's  forte  was  teach- 
ing, and  to  that  he  applied  himself  with  the  greatest  vigour. 
Tubou  College,  named  after  the  king,  was  inaugurated  in 
1866.  Its  main  object  was  the  education  of  the  young  chiefs. 
The  land  was  now  at  peace,  and  the  foundation  of  Christianity 
had  been  firmly  laid.  Upon  that  foundation,  the  time  had 
now  arrived  for  a  superstructure  to  be  built,  in  which  intel- 
lectual enlightenment  should  be  interwoven  with  religious 
fervour.  The  experiment  was  worth  the  attempt.  The 
objects  of  the  institution  were  comprehensive.  Church  and 
State  were  to  benefit  thereby.  The  ranks  of  the  ministry  and 
appointments  in  the  Government  were  to  be  filled  from  its 
alumni.  The  schools  were  to  draw  their  teachers  from  the 
same  source.  The  energetic  young  head  master  would  have 
no  other  ideal  than  that  of  the  great  public  schools.  And  the 
Tongan  monarch  supported  him  in  all  he  suggested. 

The  curriculum  was  two-sided — educational  and  practical. 
It  was  natural  that  Mr.  Moulton  should  adopt  the  same  system 
as  that  of  Kingswood  School,  with  adaptations  to  suit  the 
native  temperament.  It  is  astonishing  to  find  the  wide 
range  of  subjects  constituting  the  work  of  the  students.  The 
second  annual  report  lies  before  the  writer.  There  were 
thirteen  students  entering  upon  their  third  year  of  residence. 
Five  distinguished  themselves,  and  were  placed  in  class  with 
the  appellation  of  matemalika  (mathematics),  one  acting  as 
assistant  tutor.  The  report  states :  '  The  subjects  for  the 
examination  of  matematika  next  June  are,  Euclid  (ist  and 
2nd  books) ;  algebra  (to  simple  equations) ;  arithmetic  (to 
vulgar  fractions  and  decimals) ;  mensuration  (surfaces  and 
solids) ;  histories  of  the  ancient  monarchies  (Egypt,  Assyria, 
Babylon),  with  outlines  of  the  history  of  England  and  France; 
religious  knowledge  (the  life  of  Christ,  history  of  the  Hebrew 
monarchy,   and  evidences  of   Christianity) ;   also  papers  on 


428       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

geography,  grammar,  chemistry,  and  astronomy.'  The 
enthusiastic  teacher  had  the  cream  of  the  young  men  of 
Tonga,  and  he  wanted  to  test  their  mental  capacity.  The 
same  curriculum  practically  obtains  to-day.  In  mental 
arithmetic  they  excelled,  as  Dr.  Fison  testified. 

The  practical  side  was  not  forgotten.     Every  student  was 
residential,    and    the    college    enclosure    resembled    a    small 
village.     This    involved   a   systematic   time-table,    for    there 
was  planting  to  be  done,  and  the  plantation  to  be  attended 
to.     With     the    constitution    came    the    poll     tax.     Tubou 
College  students  were  not  exempt  from  the  payment  of  £2 
per  head  per  annum.     All  work  was  done  in  a  systematic 
manner,    and    neglect    of    the    plantation    or    other    work 
brought    well-merited    punishment    upon    the    offender.      A 
slur    has    been    cast    on    the    system.      '  There   are    natives 
who   can    recite    Lycidas   and  work   out    problems    in    pure 
mathematics — and  then   they  dig   their   lands  with  a  burnt 
stick  !  '     This  is  contrary  to   fact.     Had  the  writer  of    The 
Call  of  the  Pacific  visited  the  island  in  question,  he  could 
not  have  been  guilty  of  such  a  flight  of  the  imagination. 
While  the  industrial  side,  to  the  regret  of  those  in  charge, 
could  not  be  extended  as  they  wished,   owing   to  financial 
stress,  the  institution  had  its  carpenters,  painters,  and  printers. 
Some  of  the  most  capable  of  the  Government  officials  were 
trained  at  Tubou  College.     The  monitor  in  charge  is  expected 
daily   to  observe  and  record  the  reading  of  meteorological 
instruments.     For  over  forty-five  years  these  readings  have 
been    taken.      Then    came    the  telescope,    and  some    of   the 
advanced   students   were   introduced   to   the   marvels   of   the 
heavens. 

The  modus  operandi  of  the  college  discipline  was  the 
monitors'  meeting,  held  after  the  weekly  prayer-meeting. 
The  monitors,  who  were  chosen  from  the  matematika  form, 
joined  the  teaching  staff  in  a  review  of  the  week's  work. 
Mr.  Moulton  left  the  tutors  and  monitors  unhampered;  but 
the  weekly  report  was  submiued  to  his  scrutiny.     The  head 


TONGA  429 

master  rarely  revoked  a  decision.  Only  serious  cases  had  to 
run  the  gauntlet  of  his  interference.  Mr.  Moulton  attributed 
his  success  to  the  work  of  this  meeting. 

The  school  books  were  all  the  work  of  his  brain  and  pen. 
Where  had  the  printed  books  of  his  predecessors  vanished? 
It  is  hard  to  say.  A  reading-book,  bearing  the  name  of  Mr. 
West,  with  a  dilapidated  copy  or  two  of  his  Ecclesia,  alone 
remained.  Mr.  Moulton  began  afresh.  A  remonstrance 
from  Sydney  was  not  unnecessary,  for  the  high  pressure  at 
which  he  was  working  meant  eighteen  hours  a  day,  leaving 
little  time  for  sleep.  A  printing-press  was  greatly  needed. 
The  mission  office  could  not  give  one,  but  Mr.  Moulton 
found  the  ruins  of  an  old  Albion,  with  type  all  in  '  pie,' 
which  he  procured.  He  taught  himself  the  art  of  printing 
and  moulding  rollers,  and  came  out  victorious.  He  taught 
the  boys  the  art,  and  thus  was  enabled  to  turn  out  work  for 
school  use.  Later  he  had  improved  machines,  and  the  work 
they  did  was  a  rich  legacy  to  the  mission.  The  natural  ability 
of  the  natives  in  music  gave  him  the  opportunity  to  use  his 
own  gifts  in  this  direction.  The  Tonic  Sol-fa  system  he 
found  useless,  after  the  first  attempt  to  teach  it.  He  dis- 
covered a  method  by  which  any  vocal  score  could  be  instantly 
transferred.  When  in  use  some  little  time  the  students  were 
easily  able  to  read  it.  Oratorio  gems,  besides  anthem  music 
and  hymn  tunes,  found  their  way  into  the  college  tune-books. 
Mr.  Moulton 's  method  was  to  use  the  ordinary  numerals  from 
3  to  9  inclusive.  The  Tongan  Church  also  benefited  greatly 
by  his  efforts  in  hymnology.  His  hymns  were  marked  by 
spiritual  fire  and  metrical  polish  ;  and  as  a  medium  of  religious 
fervour  and  power,  come  second  only  to  the  Bible  as  a 
compilation  of  intrinsic  worth.  The  collection  numbers  264 
hymns,  a  not  unworthy  contribution  from  a  single  pen. 

It  is  admitted  that  in  the  educational  work  he  was  permitted 
to  do,  Mr.  Moulton  had  no  compeer.  Into  the  depths  of  a 
rich  native  language  he  plunged  with  the  keen  relish  of  a 
student,    and    rescued    from    oblivion    the    choicest    literary 


430       A   CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

idioms,  that,  but  for  his  efforts,  would  have  been  lost.  It 
only  remains  to  say  that  the  educational  experiment  proved  a 
success.  Its  fame  reached  the  ears  of  a  competent  critic  in 
Fiji,  who  seized  the  first  opportunity  to  test  the  truth  of  the 
reports.  The  school  was  handed  over  to  the  Rev.  Lorimer 
Fison,  M.A.,  who  subjected  it  to  a  crucial  test.  He  regretted 
that  he  had  not  further  time  to  give  to  a  task  which  had 
aroused  his  interest.  His  high  eulogy  of  the  institution  and 
its  head  appeared  in  The  Sydney  Morning  Herald.  The 
mental  capacity  and  development  of  the  Tongan  staggered 
him.  It  was  fortunate  for  Mr.  Moulton  that  King  George 
was  such  a  stand-by  in  the  early  days.  His  influence  removed 
the  great  barrier  between  chief  and  commoner  within  the 
college  precincts,  without  which  progress  would  have  been 
impeded.  Prospects  of  further  development  were  before  the 
head  master,  when  a  sudden  development  intervened. 

It  was  apparent  to  the  District  Meeting  that  to  none  better 
qualified  than  Mr.  Moulton  could  the  revision  of  the  Bible 
be  entrusted.  A  resolution  was  unanimously  passed  with  a 
view  to  Mr.  Moulton  visiting  England  to  see  the  publication 
through  the  press.  It  was  work  that  the  translator  revelled 
in;  and  in  1877  he  left  with  his  family  for  England.  With 
him  went  the  Rev.  David  Finau  as  his  pundit.  He  rendered 
mvaluable  assistance  in  translation.  In  two  and  a  half  years 
it  was  finished.  It  was  unfortunate  that  there  should  be  a 
difficulty  raised  by  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society 
over  the  printing.  Mr.  Moulton  could  not  accept  their  con- 
dition as  to  the  text  of  the  original.  He  struck  out  a  course 
of  his  own.  But  the  work  is  a  monument  of  pure  and 
idiomatic  Tongan.  News  from  Tonga  checked  further  work 
on  the  Old  Testament.  Clouds  were  gathering,  and  his 
presence  was  needed  in  Tonga.  He  left  England  in  April 
1880  to  face  the  impending  storm. 

On  his  return  Mr.  Moulton  found  that  great  changes  had 
taken  place.  The  chairman,  the  Rev.  Shirley  Baker,  who 
had   been    instrumental    in    sending    him    to    England,    was 


TONGA  431 

Prime  Minister  of  Tonga.  The  relation  between  king  and 
Church,  so  friendly  before  his  departure,  was  now  strained. 
He  who  had  presented  to  his  departing  friend  the  historic 
club  of  storied  fame  as  a  condition  of  his  return,  would 
scarcely  see  him.  The  suggestion  that  Mr.  Moulton  was 
using  his  power  to  bring  about  an  annexation  of  Tonga  by 
England,  was  accountable  for  this  change  of  front. 

We  would  fain  draw  a  veil  over  the  history  of  this  regret- 
table period;  but  it  is  due  to  Mr.  Moulton  that  the  story  of 
his  gallant  stand  against  opposition  and  his  loyalty  to  the 
>.  Church  he  represented  should  be  made  clear.  The  storm 
burst  in  1885,  when  the  Prime  Minister  induced  the  king  to 
set  up  a  rival  Church  in  Ha'abai.  His  Majesty  had  left 
Vava'u  for  the  purpose  of  rebuilding  the  Wesleyan  church  at 
Lifuka.  This  had  been  a  hobby  with  him.  The  aged  king 
was  induced  to  inaugurate  the  first  step  of  the  secession, 
and  the  large  and  stately  building  erected  was  the  first 
sanctuary  of  the  newly-established  Free  Church.  Did  the 
king  so  decree,  it  was  within  his  right  to  carry  out  his  wishes 
in  his  own  land.  But  when  he  compelled  his  people  to  join 
this  Free  Church  under  threat  of  punishment  and  sundry 
disabilities,  it  passed  legitimate  bounds  amongst  a  people  to 
whom  he  had  granted  a  constitution.  It  was  not,  however, 
as  easy  as  he  anticipated.  The  people  had  a  foretaste  of 
spiritual  liberty.  Hitherto  the  king's  command  had  been 
law.  A  great  minority  had  the  courage  to  resist  such  attempts 
at  compulsion.  '  If  it  were  a  matter  of  giving  my  life  in 
battle  in  the  service  of  your  Majesty,  I  would  willingly  give 
it,  and  joyfully  die  for  you;  but  in  the  matter  of  religion, 
that  is  between  myself  and  my  God.'  Such  was  the  answer 
given  to  King  George  by  one  whom  he  greatly  respected. 

The  new  Church  was  a  State  Church.  It  was  termed 
'  Free  '  because  of  its  independency  of  support  from  the 
Church  in  New  South  Wales.  Its  funds  were  to  be  kept  in 
Tonga.  Why  should  sums  raised  by  the  people  be  sent  out 
of  the  country  ?     This  was  the  charge  against  the  old  regime. 


432        A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

It  was,  perhaps,  aggravated  by  the  large  amount  sent  to  the 
mission  office  in  Sydney.  Persecution  followed  the  refusal 
of  the  loyal-hearted,  and  stringent  measures  were  resorted 
to.  Higher  stipends,  Government  positions,  favour  and 
emoluments  were  effectively  offered,  and  the  Wesleyan  num- 
bers were  greatly  depleted.  Rigorous  and  unrighteous  laws 
to  hamper  the  disobedient  were  passed.  But  a  large  number 
remained  firm.  It  was  during  this  trying  period  that  Mr. 
Moulton  showed  at  his  best.  He  was  appointed  chairman, 
with  oversight  of  the  depleted  Church  committed  to  his  charge. 
The  printing-press  poured  forth  its  valuable  literature  for 
school  and  Church.  The  translation  of  the  Old  Testament 
was  carried  on  amid  other  absorbing  interests,  the  Sunday 
schools  were  catered  for,  while  from  north,  south,  east,  and 
west,  came  the  story  of  persecution.  Charges  were  laid 
against  Mr.  Moulton  personally,  but  he  cleared  himself. 
With  diminished  numbers  the  same  routine  work  throughout 
the  group  was  carried  on.  The  loyal  and  patient  service 
rendered  by  the  Rev.  E.  E.  Crosby,  B.A.,  at  this  dark  time 
was  invaluable. 

A  crisis  was  reached  in  1S87.  Escaped  prisoners  made 
a  regrettable  attack  upon  the  Prime  Minister's  life,  fortunately 
without  success.  This  ill-timed  attack  was  used  to  rouse  the 
long-buried  native  spirit  and  to  turn  it  against  the  Wesleyan 
Church,  at  whose  door  was  laid  a  charge  of  conspiracy.  After 
weeks  of  suffering — a  veritable  reign  of  terror,  during  which 
churches  and  college  were  closed — all  who  remained  faithful 
to  the  Wesleyan  Church  in  Tonga,  Ha'abai,  and  Vava'u  were 
exiled  to  Fiji.  Ninety  noble  souls,  who,  like  the  Pilgrim 
Fathers,  were  forcibly  driven  from  their  native  land,  found 
shelter  on  the  island  of  Koro  through  the  kindly  aid  of  the 
Governor  of  Fiji. 

Let  us  hurriedly  pass  over  the  inquiry  held  by  Sir  Charles 
Mitchell,  to  notice  his  report  to  the  home  authorities.  It 
was  due,  so  the  report  stated,  to  the  pacific  counsels  of  Mr. 
Moulton  that  the  Wesleyans  were  prevented  from  retaliation, 


TONGA  433 

which  would  have  brought  a  fierce  and  terrible  war.     The 
writer  can  testify  that  the  one  word  used  by  Mr.   Moulton 
more    than   any   other   was    kataki   (have    patience).     In   tlie 
report  of  Sir  Charles  the  term   '  banishment  '  is  repudiated 
because  of  '  the  action  initiated  by  Messrs.  Leefe  and  Moulton 
for  finding  an  asylum  for  the  small  remnant  in   Fiji.'     Sir 
Charles  considered  it  as  '  really  their  voluntary  withdrawal 
in  order  to  avoid  joining  the  Free  Church.'     It  should  be 
said,   however,   that  the  request  made  to  the  king  for  '  an 
asylum    in    Fiji  '  was   refused,    and   the   so-called   voluntary 
withdrawal  was  in  consequence  of  the  king's  refusal  to  permit 
the  Wesleyans  to  remain  in  Tonga.     Hence,  as  there  was  no 
option,    preparation    was    made  for   sojourn    in    the   barren, 
waterless   island   of   Pylstaart.     Tubou   College,    which   had 
been  closed  by  the  king's  command,  was  re-opened,  with  its 
numbers  limited  to  forty  students.     Wesleyan  services  were 
again  held,  though  the  disabilities  were  not  wholly  removed. 
The   General   Conference  of   1888  was  memorable.     After 
much  discussion  what  was  thought  to  be  a  solution  of  the 
difficulty  was  found.     The  initiative  came  from  Mr.  Moulton. 
Much  had  been  made  of  the  statement  that  Mr.  Moulton  was 
obnoxious  to  the  king,  and  that  there  could  be  no  satisfactory 
settlement  until  his  removal.    He  was  prepared  to  leave  Tonga 
if  Dr.  Brown  were  sent  in  his  place,  although  he  himself  was 
dubious  if  that  would  bring  a  peaceful  settlement.     To  those 
who  knew  Mr.  Moulton 's  devotion  to  the  people,  this  was  an 
act  of  great   self-denial.     It   relieved   the   tension,   and    Dr. 
Brown  w^as  sent,  the  Rev.  E.  E.  Crosby,  B.A.,  also  remain- 
ing until  Mr.   Baker  was  deported.     But  any  appointment, 
until  the  instigator  of  the  trouble  was  removed,  was  hopeless. 
Mr.  Crosby  was  succeeded  by  the  Revs.  C.  E.  James  and 
J.  A.  Bowring,  both  of  whom  remained  in  Tonga  a  short  time 
only.     Sir  John  Thurston,  acting  in  the  exercise  of  the  power 
vested  in  him  under  the  Western  Pacific  Order  in  Council, 
placed  Mr.  Baker  under  a  five  years'  ban  of  deportation.    The 
blow  was  unexpected,  and  the  reign  of  terror  and  of  arbitrary 

F  F 


434       A    CENTURY   IN    THE    PACIFIC 

rule  was  over.     Tuku'aho,  Tugi's  son,   educated  at  Tubou 
College,  was  appointed  Premier,  and  peace  was  secured. 

One  of  the  first  evidences  of  the  change  was  the  granting  of 
an  amnesty  to  all  political  prisoners.  Amongst  these  were  the 
exiles  for  conscience  sake.  The  Fijian  Government  chartered 
a  steamer,  and  they  were  soon  back  in  their  native  land. 
The  meeting  of  long-parted  friends  and  relatives  is  more 
easily  imagined  than  described.  The  king's  daughter, 
Princess  Charlotte,  was  among  the  party.  A  most  pleasing 
feature  of  1891  was  the  reconciliation  of  the  king  to  Mr. 
Moulton,  who  paid  a  hurried  visit  to  Tonga.  The  old 
friendly  feeling  was  revived.  Two  years  later  the  G.  O.  M. 
of  Tonga,  to  whom  this  island  kingdom  owed  so  ifiuch,  died. 
The  only  thing  that  can  be  said  against  his  character  during 
his  long  reign  is  that  he  stooped  to  persecution.  In  old 
age  an  ambitious  hand,  a  strong  personality,  and  a  plausible 
tongue  found  him  a  ready  prey.  There  was  much  done  in 
his  name  of  which  he  knew  little.  His  autocratic  tempera- 
ment was  fed  by  misrepresentation.  But,  in  spite  of  this,  he 
was  loved  and  respected  by  his  people.  And  his  passing  was 
a  loss  to  land  and  people.  The  torrential  rain  that  fell  at 
the  time  and  throughout  the  year  was  symbolic  of  the  lamen- 
tations of  a  people  so  greatly  bereaved.  His  tomb  may  be 
seen  at  Malae  Kula,  a  large  enclosure  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
from  the  beach  at  Nuku'alofa.  He  was  over  ninety  years  of 
age.     Taufa'ahau  II,  his  grandson,  reigned  in  his  stead. 

When  we  turn  to  the  last  twenty  years  of  mission  work  in 
Tonga,  we  look  upon  a  more  pleasing  picture.  The  two 
Churches  still  remain  distinct,  but  the  wide  gulf  that  separated 
them  is  growing  less.  In  1896  Dr.  Moulton  was  again 
appointed  chairman  of  the  Tongan  district.  The  numbers 
showed  great  depletion.  At  no  period  in  its  history  was  such 
effective  literary  and  educational  work  achieved  as  between 
1880  and  1890.  The  Church,  Sunday  schools,  and  college 
were  catered  for.  Preparatory  schools  in  connexion  with 
every  large  centre  were  established  as  feeders  to  Tubou  Col- 


TONGA  435 

lege,  from  which  a  continuous  supply  of  workers  was  passing 
out  to  meet  the  demands  of  the  Church.  Advanced  work 
for  old  collegians  w^as  inaugurated,  lest  they  lose  their  interest 
in  study ;  each  large  island  of  the  group  had  weekly  classes 
under  a  suitable  teacher ;  extension  lectures  were  delivered 
by  Dr.  Moulton  on  higher  subjects,  and  an  annual  examina- 
tion was  held,  which,  if  satisfactory,  entitled  the  examinee 
to  advancement.  The  class  was  called  the  Helohelo  class 
(Helohelo  being  a  diminutive  of  Helo,  an  adaptation  of  the 
Grecian  Hero).  This  class,  started  in  troublous  times,  was 
revived  with  added  interest  on  his  return.  The  ministerial 
staff,  with  few  exceptions,  are  graduates  of  Tubou  College; 
and  though  many  of  them  are  grey-haired,  they  yet  seize 
the  opportunity  of  doing  this  advanced  work.  In  conse- 
quence of  his  appointment  as  President  of  Newington  College, 
Dr.  Moulton,  though  chairman,  did  not  reside  in  Tonga, 
but  paid  annual  visits.  His  son,  the  Rev.  J.  Egan  Moulton, 
B.A.,  was  in  charge  of  both  church  and  college  during  his 
absence. 

It  was  during  this  period  that  the  great  work  which  Dr. 
Moulton  had  in  hand,  the  translation  of  the  Old  Testament, 
continued  with  brave  persistency.  On  Christmas  Eve,  1902, 
the  last  of  the  manuscript  was  forwarded  to  the  London  pub- 
lisher. The  task  had  occupied  twenty-five  and  a  half  years. 
It  is  a  noble  monument  of  patient  toil  and  idiomatic  Tongan. 
With  this  and  the  hymn-book